Mongol, established by Kublai Khan (visited by Marco Polo)
Cosmopolitan (multi-ethnic), brought in Arabs and Jews from Mongol Empire to help in administration
Increase in trade (with the West on the Silk Road), science, technology
Made Beijing the capital
Merchants were privileged, urbanization, bad for peasants
Collapsed because of decrease in population, plague, and power conflict with Mongol princes.
slowdown in technological advancements
influx of silver
expansionistic (forced tribute from Vietnam and Korea) , voyages of Zheng He (muslim eunuch, effective ambassador, brought back giraffes, huge ships, survey of Indian survey, personal project Emperor Yongle-built Forbidden City)
blue and white porcelain
Jesuit missionaries (Matteo Ricci) and Dutch East India Company were transmitters of European culture and technology.
Disease, migration, inflation, and invitation for the Manchus to put down civil unrest caused collapse
Manchus, from Manchuria
International, encouraged trade
Increase in population led to environmental degradation.
entered communist party in 1921, influenced by Stalin, wanted to redistribute land to peasants. Reliance on peasants was departure from Marx and Lenin.
Advocate of woman’s rights
Used guerilla warfare
1934 Long March, out of 100,000 only 4,000 made it to southern mountains to the North.
1937 Japan controls Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan, Beijing
Chinese resist Japanese under communists
During Rape of Nanking (genocidal massacre of Chinese by Japanese in the city of Nanking in1937), Chiang orders a “scorched earth policy” and hasYellow River dikes blasted and kills over 1,000 of his own people. Drafts 3 million but had only 1 million rifles, increased farmers taxes and increase in famine.
Communists defeat nationalists in 1949, established People’s Republic of China, main ally the Soviets.
First Five Year Plan made China an industrial power.
1958 Great Leap Forward, intensified collectivization of agriculture and led to crop failure, famine and killed roughly 15 million.
Communists destroyed traditional culture of family farms and Confucian values (hierarchy abolished). One child policy instituted to control population.
Dissenters and class enemies persecuted.
1966 Cultural Revolution made to rekindle revolutionary fervor in youth. Used censorship and indoctrination. The Little Red Book, a collection of Mao’s sayings, was one acceptable source of knowledge. Led to criticism and imprisonment of teachers, intellectuals and party leaders who were sent to forced labor camps where they would be “reeducated.”
Death in 1976, followed by economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping.
transformed economy to include free market capitalism and foreign investment
allowed for limited business and property ownership, reforms were very successful.
Fastest growing economy in the world
The government remains communist in a social and political sense.
1989 protests for democratic reforms in Tiananmen Square led to government massacre.