China Huang-He (Yellow) River: Initial river valley where Chinese civilization starts.
Yangtze River: Longest and most important iver. Used for hydro-electric power
Grand Canal: Dug between the Yellow and Yangtze river.
Hong Kong: Island off the coast of China that is an international trade center. Went from British to Chinese control in 1997.
Taiwan: Island off the coast of China where the nationalists went after they lost to Communists (one of 4 Tigers)
Tibet: Rooftop of the world locaed in the Himalayas in SW China. Has been a center of conflict between Buddhist Tibetans and Communist China.
Confucius: Confucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty, when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect and filial piety, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism.
Daoism (Laozi): The Chinese philosophy of Taoism (or Daoism) developed in the latter part of the Chou Dynasty, during a period of turmoil in which it was not clear that Chinese civilization would survive. It represents a naturalistic ideal of how one should live their life. People should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it.
Silk Road: Trade route from China to the Middle East. Called the Silk Road due to China’s most important export.
dynastic cycle : In China, a dynasty would remain in power only as long as it was providing good government. When a dynasty went into decline, and began to abuse its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven, or the favor of the gods. A strong leader would usually emerge to claim the Mandate, and establish a new dynasty. The dynastic cycle would then begin again.
Mandate of Heaven : Divine right of rule in China.
Great Wall of China: 5500 miles long. Took 1500 years to build. Ch’in dynasty built it to keep “barbarians” out. Finished by the Ming.
Han Dynasty (202 BCE-220 CE); 1st Golden Age of China. Invention of paper, steel & first civil service exams.
Sui, T’Ang, Sung Dyansties (581-1279)Invention of Gunpowder, printing press, rebuilding of silk road. Fall to Mongols.
Ghengis Khan (Temujin): Unites Mongol tribes and creates largest land empire in human history.
Mongols: Nomadic tribes. They adopt Chinese culture when they capture China (Yuan dynasty).
Pax Mongolia: Trade on Silk Road increases due to stability of Mongolian rule.
Kublai Khan : (1215-1294) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China. Allows Marco Polo to travel in China.
Marco Polo: (1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
Ming China (1368-1644): 2nd Golden Age of China. Developed great wall, trade, expanded territory and restarted civil service exams after overthrowing Mongol rulers. Ethnocentric and isolationist culture causes them to stop trading.
Zheng He: (1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
Manchu Dynasty (Qing Dynasty): Northern invaders set up the last dynasty of China. Lost control to foreign imperialists.
Opium War : In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
Boxer Rebellion : (1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination.
spheres of influence In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere. Form of Imperialism.
Open Door Policy : A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism:
Sun Yat-sen : (1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yixian.
Chinese Civil War: Fought between communists and anti-communist forces.
Long March 1934-35 : March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party.
Chinese Communist Revolution : A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Mao Zedong : (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Massacre (Rape) of Nanjing: During occupation of capital by Japanese Military, some 300,000 people are killed and some 80,000 women are raped.
Red Guard : Militaristic group of students in China who brutalized anyone who criticized Mao’s government
Great Leap Forward : The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry.
Cultural Revolution : (1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
Little Red Book : A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.
Deng Xiaoping : (1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997.
Four Modernizations : An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success.
Tiananmen Square Massacre : A political and social protest by university students in Beijing, China in 1989. The protest called for political and social reforms and resulted in the government using the military to end it, which caused hundreds of deaths, thousands of injured, and many more imprisoned.
Globalization & China: Low cost labor has allowed China to become a manufacturing giant.
One Child Policy: Passed during Modernizations (1976). Han Chinese in urban areas are only allowed to have 1 child.
Problems w/Tibet: China’s occupation is opposed by Dali Lama (Buddhist leader) and many people of Tibet.
Problems w/Taiwan: China’s official policy is that Taiwan is part of China. Has led to problems with
Aging Population: B/c of one child policy China’s population of elderly is large and increasing in size. Causes problems in medical & retirement costs.
Influence of China & Japan: Korea’s culture was shaped by invasion/cultural diffusion of China and Japan.
Korean War: A war between North Korean, which was supported by both the Soviet Union and communist China, and South Korea, which was supported by the United States and the United Nations. The war occurred between 1950 and 1953 and ended in an armistice and original borders
Kim Jung Il: Current Ruler of North Korea. Authoritarian government that does not allow human rights.