Chemistry in a Focus View Molecular Reasons



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Chemistry in a Focus View

Molecular Reasons
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which of these is the best definition of matter?

a.

The pull of gravity on an object.

b.

Anything that has weight and volume.

c.

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

d.

Anything that is directly proportional to weight.

e.

The measure of the amount of space an object occupies.

ANS: C
2. Which of these statements is correct?



a.

The amount of carbon on earth is essentially constant.

b.

The amount of carbon on earth fluctuates with the seasons.

c.

The amount of carbon on earth is increasing due to plant and animal growth.

d.

The amount of carbon on earth is decreasing due to consumption of carbon based fuels.

e.

Both B and C are correct.

ANS: A
3. The French chemist Antoine Lavoisier found that the weight of objects before burning and the weight of the products after burning were equal. He concluded that the total weight did not change during a process. Which of these best describes Lavoisier's conclusion?



a.

From observation, Lavoisier created a scientific law.

b.

From observation, Lavoisier created a scientific theory.

c.

From scientific law, Lavoisier created a scientific theory.

d.

From experimentation, Lavoisier created a scientific law.

e.

From observation, Lavoisier created a scientific conclusion.

ANS: A
4. When using the scientific method, before experiments are done a ___________ should be established.



a.

hypothesis

b.

law

c.

theory

d.

conclusion

ANS: A
5. A statement which summarizes the data obtained from a series of observations is known as a(n) ____.



a.

observation

b.

Law

c.

theory

d.

conclusion

e.

experiment

ANS: B
6. Which of these is not part of the scientific method?



a.

observation

b.

law

c.

theory

d.

conclusion

e.

experiment

ANS: D
7. Which of these is the best definition of a scientific theory?



a.

A prediction based on a limited number of observations.

b.

A method of explaining observations that appears contradictory.

c.

A broadly applicable generalization with virtually no exceptions.

d.

A method for approaching problems that is used by all scientists.

e.

A tentative model that describes the underlying cause of a physical behavior.

ANS: E
8. Which of these is the best definition of a scientific law?



a.

A prediction based on a limited number of observations.

b.

A method of explaining observations that appear contradictory.

c.

A broadly applicable generalization with virtually no exceptions.

d.

A method for approaching problems that is used by all scientists.

e.

A rule made by scientists to ensure consistency in their observations.

ANS: C
9. A(n) ____ is an explanation of a scientific observation.



a.

law

b.

theory

c.

conclusion

d.

prediction

e.

epiphany

ANS: B
10. Which of these is not a requirement of a scientifically acceptable theory?



a.

Good predictive power of the theory.

b.

Proven by additional experimentation.

c.

Sound reasoning for a particular observation.

d.

Easily revised to accommodate new observations

e.

Provides model of behavior consistent with other widely accepted theories.

ANS: B
11. Which of these statements about the scientific method is incorrect?



a.

It is not a group of absolute truths.

b.

It uses experiments that are reproducible

c.

It is used for testing claims about the natural world.

d.

It requires one to propose a theory and perform experiments to give results which confirm or disclaim the theory.

e.

All of these are correct statements.

ANS: E
12. To explain natural phenomena scientists must ______________.



a.

have an opinion.

b.

make observations.

c.

guess correctly most of the time.

d.

agree with existing theories.

ANS: B
13. Which scientist first theorized that matter was ultimately composed of small indivisible particles called atoms?



a.

Dalton

b.

Lavoisier

c.

Empedocles

d.

Plato

e.

Democritus

ANS: E
14. The historical predecessor to chemistry is known as ____.



a.

alchemy

b.

pre-chemistry

c.

biology

d.

biochemistry

e.

physical science

ANS: A
15. Which of these contributions did Alchemists of the Middle Ages make to modern science?



a.

sun centered universe and metallurgy

b.

metallurgy and development of scientific techniques

c.

scientific method and the Law of Conservation of Mass

d.

Law of Conservation of Matter and The First Atomic Theory

e.

Law of Conservation of Mass and the Law of Constant Composition

ANS: B
16. Thales believed that _________ is the principle element of all things.



a.

earth

b.

air

c.

fire

d.

water

e.

gold

ANS: D
17. Which scientist is incorrectly matched with his idea or theory?







scientist

theory

I.

Copernicus

a sun centered universe

II.

Dalton

Atomic Theory

III.

Galileo

a sun centered universe

IV.

Vesalius

Matter is composed of small indivisible particles.

V.

Boyle

The simplest form of a substance is an element.




a.

I

b.

II

c.

III

d.

IV

e.

V

ANS: D
18. Which two scientists are credited with the endorsement of a sun centered universe?



a.

Dalton and Plato

b.

Boyle and Copernicus

c.

Copernicus and Galileo

d.

Democritus and Vesalius

e.

Copernicus and Vesalius

ANS: C
19. The scientific revolution of the 1500s was marked by a move away from ____ and towards ____ as a method for explaining the natural world.



a.

law, theory

b.

alchemy, research

c.

reason, observation

d.

scientific theory, experimentation

e.

Both a and c are correct.

ANS: C
20. Identify the materials which will correctly complete the flow chart.








I.

II.

I.

pure substance

mixture

II.

element

atoms

III.

mixture

solutions

IV.

Mass

mixture

V.

mixture

atoms




a.

I

b.

II

c.

III

d.

IV

e.

V

ANS: A
21. Which of these substances are compounds?




I.

neon

II.

crude oil

III.

water

IV.

sodium chloride




a.

I

b.

I, and III

c.

II, III and IV

d.

III and IV

e.

II and IV

ANS: D
22. Which of these substances are heterogeneous mixtures?




I.

steam

II.

milk of magnesia

III.

crude oil

IV.

rubbing alcohol




a.

II and III

b.

I and IV

c.

II, III and IV

d.

I, III and IV

e.

I, II, and III

ANS: A
23. Which of these substances are mixtures?




I.

steam

II.

crude oil

III.

salt water

IV.

gun powder

V.

oxygen

VI.

mercury




a.

II and III

b.

I and III

c.

II, III and IV

d.

I, III and V

e.

II, III,IV, and VI

ANS: C
24. Which of these are pure substances?




I.

steam

II.

crude oil

III.

salt water

IV.

gun powder

V.

oxygen

VI.

mercury




a.

I, II and III

b.

I and III

c.

I, II, III and V

d.

I, III and V

e.

I, V, and VI

ANS: E
25. When ice melts to form liquid water. Which of the following is true?



a.

A physical change occurs.

b.

A chemical change occurs.

c.

Both physical and chemical changes occur.

d.

Neither a physical nor chemical change occurs.

ANS: A
26. Which of the following is an example of a chemical change?



a.

glass breaking

b.

water freezing

c.

wood burning

d.

getting a haircut

ANS: C
27. Which of these statements


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