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True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. The Third Estate proclaimed themselves a legislature called the National Assembly.

____ 2. The radical faction controlled the Legislative Assembly.

____ 3. The Third Estate included the bourgeoisie, the artisans and workers, and the peasants.

____ 4. The Reign of Terror decreased foreign opposition to the French Revolution.

____ 5. Only male citizens were executed during the Reign of Terror.

____ 6. The Catholic and Royal Army began a counterrevolution in western France.

____ 7. The Girondins were eager to try and execute the king to prevent a return of the monarchy and to defend the revolution from its enemies.

____ 8. About 17,000 people were executed over a ten-month period during France’s Reign of Terror.

____ 9. The Napoleonic Wars were fought against counterrevolutionaries in western France.

____ 10. Napoleon Bonaparte was a brilliant military leader who could be described as ruthlessly ambitious.

____ 11. Napoleon built a strong, centralized government in France.

____ 12. As First Consul in the Consulate, Napoleon was a dictator.

____ 13. During a period known as the Hundred Days, Napoleon’s troops met disaster during the winter in Russia.

____ 14. The Congress of Vienna restored some of the monarchies that Napoleon had eliminated.

____ 15. Prince Klemens von Metternich supported freedom of religion and of the press.

____ 16. The army Napoleon led into Russia was troubled from the start by disloyalty, problems with supplies, and misery caused by summer heat.

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 17. What event caused the Great Fear?



a.

the execution of Louis XVI

c.

the Tennis Court Oath

b.

the fall of the Bastille

d.

the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat

____ 18. Why did the Legislative Assembly declare war against Austria?



a.

The Austrians had attacked towns in southeast France.

b.

Austrians had issued a declaration warning against harming the French monarchs.

c.

Napoleon Bonaparte was hiding there.

d.

The country had offered asylum to King Louis XVI.

____ 19. Why did King Louis XVI call a meeting of the Estates General to be held in spring 1789?



a.

to press for reform in the legislative process

b.

to begin the process of writing a new constitution for France

c.

to get approval for new taxes on the Third Estate

d.

to get approval to rescind tax exemptions for the First Estate

____ 20. Which of the following revolutionary leaders came to oppose the violent excesses of the Revolution?



a.

Jean-Paul Marat

c.

George-Jacques Danton

b.

Olympe de Gouges

d.

Maximilien Robespierre

____ 21. Why was the Revolutionary Tribunal created?



a.

to eliminate people who threatened the Revolution from within

b.

to manage the country’s military defense against foreign forces

c.

to write a democratic constitution

d.

to write and approve laws

____ 22. Europeans outside of France reacted to the execution of Louis XVI with



a.

glee.

c.

horror.

b.

grief.

d.

relief.

____ 23. Which of the following legislative bodies ended the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic?



a.

the National Assembly

c.

the National Convention

b.

the Legislative Assembly

d.

the Directory

____ 24. Which of the following is the correct sequence of legislative bodies that governed France during the Revolution, from first to last?



a.

Legislative Assembly, National Assembly, National Convention, Directory

b.

National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, Directory

c.

National Convention, Legislative Assembly, National Assembly, Directory

d.

Directory, National Convention, Legislative Assembly, National Assembly

____ 25. Many peasants came to oppose the Revolution because



a.

they were staunch Jacobins.

b.

they opposed the Revolution’s anticlerical moves and the draft.

c.

they were pacifists.

d.

they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas.

____ 26. The French people welcomed Napoleon because



a.

they hoped he would help the collapsing French economy.

b.

he completely disavowed the ideals of the Revolution.

c.

he was the grandson of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.

d.

he promised order after the chaos of the Revolution.

____ 27. Why did Napoleon sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States?



a.

He needed money to fund the Napoleonic Wars.

b.

His failure to take back Saint Domingue led him to abandon his dream of empire in the Americas.

c.

He wanted to keep the territory out of the hands of the British.

d.

His expedition east of the Mississippi River had failed miserably to incite rebellion.

____ 28. What caused Napoleon to pull his troops from Spain?



a.

the guerrilla war raged by Spanish people

b.

the British navy’s support of the Spanish revolt

c.

the harsh winter of 1808

d.

Portugal’s neutrality

____ 29. Portugal refused to comply with the Continental System because



a.

it did not have enough young men to spare for the draft.

b.

it depended on its trade with Great Britain.

c.

its people resented having a foreign ruler.

d.

it depended on its trade with France.

____ 30. Throughout the Napoleonic Wars, France’s greatest enemy was



a.

Austria.

c.

the Kingdom of Tuscany.

b.

Portugal.

d.

Great Britain.

____ 31. After Napoleon’s exile, France became a(n)



a.

republic.

c.

monarchy.

b.

democracy.

d.

empire.

____ 32. Which of the following leaders most helped to defuse the liberal ideals of the French Revolution?



a.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

c.

Frederick William III

b.

Prince Klemens von Metternich

d.

Lord Castlereagh

____ 33. Which of the following did Great Britain receive as a result of their fight against France?



a.

territory in Eastern Europe

c.

portions of northern France

b.

overseas colonies

d.

the Kingdom of Sicily

____ 34. Part of the legacy of the French Revolution is that



a.

it has discouraged revolutions worldwide for 200 years.

b.

it has inspired people to fight for their rights in other parts of the world.

c.

citizens’ rights in Europe were never again restricted.

d.

all European monarchies became democracies.


Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
“The representatives of the French people, . . . believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man. . .

1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. . .

2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the. . . rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. . .

5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. . .

6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its formation. It must be the same for all. . .

7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. . .

9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty. . .

11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. . .

12. A common contribution [tax] is essential. . . This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.”

____ 35. Read the excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen considered which one of the following rights one of the most precious?



a.

freedom of speech

c.

the right to pursue happiness

b.

freedom of religion

d.

the right to own slaves

____ 36. Read the excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Which of the following provisions of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen would have particularly angered the Second Estate?



a.

1

c.

11

b.

9

d.

12

____ 37. Which of the following was one cause of the French Revolution?



a.

new taxes on the Second Estate

c.

strong leadership from Louis XVI

b.

the influence of Enlightenment ideas

d.

economic prosperity

____ 38. Which of the following was one of the first acts of the National Convention?



a.

a declaration of war against Austria

b.

convening of a Constitutional Convention

c.

a declaration of war against England

d.

the declaration that France was a republic

____ 39. Which political faction was the most radical?



a.

the Montagnards

c.

the Louisites

b.

the Girondins

d.

the Plain

____ 40. The Reign of Terror resulted in



a.

increased foreign opposition to the French Revolution.

b.

a strengthened National Assembly.

c.

peace throughout France.

d.

the election of Robespierre to the presidency.

____ 41. Which legislative body was in place when Napoleon seized power?



a.

the National Convention

c.

the Directory

b.

the National Assembly

d.

the Legislative Assembly

____ 42. The Continental System restricted



a.

trade with Great Britain.

c.

freedom of speech and of the press.

b.

trade with French possessions in Asia.

d.

the rights of women.

____ 43. Which European campaign was a disaster for Napoleon?



a.

the Russian Campaign

c.

the Peninsular War

b.

the Saint Domingue Expedition

d.

the Continental System

____ 44. The Congress of Vienna



a.

rewarded Napoleon’s supporters with large tracts of land.

b.

made France a colony of Great Britain.

c.

outlawed monarchies.

d.

strengthened nations surrounding France.


____ 45. Using the map titled “Napoleon’s Empire, 1812,” which states were opposed to Napoleon in 1812?



a.

All states were either controlled or allied with Napoleon.

b.

Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine, Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway

c.

Africa and the Ottoman Empire

d.

Portugal, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily, Montenegro, Russian Empire and Sweden

____ 46. The rights outlined in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen did not extend to



a.

the bourgeoisie.

c.

the First Estate.

b.

women.

d.

the workers.


Completion

Complete each statement.

47. The workers of the Third Estate were known as ____________________, meaning “without knee breeches.”

48. City-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals were known as the ____________________.

49. Of the three political factions that made up the National Convention, the ____________________ were the most radical.

50. The ____________________ was used for most executions during the Reign of Terror.

51. The swing voters in the National Convention, called the ____________________, eventually switched their support to the Mountain.

52. Napoleon took control of the French government in a(n) ____________________, a forced transfer of power.

53. Napoleon’s plan, called the _________________________, restricted trade with Great Britain.

54. ____________________ was the Russian ruler when Napoleon invaded in June 1812.

55. During the Battle of Waterloo, British troops were led by _________________________.

56. France was required to pay a large ____________________ to other countries to compensate them for damages.

57. Napoleon was sent in exile to ____________________, where he died six years later.

58. The goal of the _________________________ was to create a plan to restore order and stability to Europe after the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars.

59. The First Estate was made up of _________________________.

60. The Third Estate proclaimed itself a legislature called the ____________________.

61. The radical ____________________ Club adopted policies supported by the lower middle class and the poor.

62. A sense of patriotism and unity as a people is called ____________________.

63. The ____________________ eliminated many injustices in French law but also promoted order and authority over individual rights.

64. British and Prussian troops dealt a crushing defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of ____________________.

Matching

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Third Estate

h.

Waterloo

b.

Concordat

i.

First Estate

c.

Second Estate

j.

Jacobin Club

d.

Directory

k.

Vendée

e.

nationalism

l.

Horatio Nelson

f.

Elba

m.

plebiscite

g.

Old Order

____ 65. Led by King Louis XVI

____ 66. Destroyed most of the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile

____ 67. Vote that made France an empire in 1804

____ 68. Roman Catholic clergy

____ 69. Weak governing board that ended when Napoleon seized power

____ 70. Recognized the influence of the Roman Catholic Church in France

____ 71. Nobility

____ 72. Site of a crushing defeat for Napoleon

____ 73. Sense of patriotism and unity as a people

____ 74. Support came from lower middle class and the poor

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Great Britain

b.

guillotine

c.

King Louis XVI

d.

Prince Klemens von Metternich

e.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

f.

Hundred Days

g.

the storming of the Bastille

h.

coup d’état

i.

Jean-Paul Marat

j.

reactionaries

k.

the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

l.

plebiscite

m.

Duke of Wellington

____ 75. Guaranteed freedom of speech, the press, and religion

____ 76. A brief period when Napoleon regained control of France

____ 77. A symbolic event of the Revolution

____ 78. A forced transfer of power

____ 79. Advocated violence to protect the Revolution

____ 80. France’s greatest enemy during the Napoleonic Wars

____ 81. Used for executions

____ 82. His views dominated the Congress of Vienna

____ 83. The top of France’s Old Order

____ 84. People who wanted conditions to return to those of an earlier time

Short Answer

85. How did Enlightenment ideas play a role in the French Revolution?

86. How did economic problems contribute to the French Revolution?

87. What was the significance of the storming of the Bastille?

88. Why was Marie-Antoinette unpopular with the French people?

89. Do you think that King Louis XVI could have prevented the start of the French Revolution? Why or why not? Support your position with examples from the text.

90. Describe two ways in which revolutionaries tried to break all connections with old ways of life.

91. What was the goal of the Reign of Terror? Was the goal achieved? Why or why not?

92. Describe the role of Maximilien Robespierre in the French Revolution.

93. Using the map of “Napoleon’s Empire, 1812,” describe why Great Britain was concerned about Napoleon’s advances in Europe.

94. Using the map “Napoleon’s Empire, 1812,” identify two nations controlled by Napoleon in that year.

95. Using the map “Napoleon’s Empire, 1812,” determine where might Napoleon have felt vulnerable to attack.

96. Describe the economic reforms put in place by Napoleon in France.

97. What were the effects of the revision of French law undertaken under Napoleon’s leadership?

98. What caused some French leaders to plot to seize more power for Napoleon?

99. What was Napoleon’s lasting legacy?

100. What made the Russian Campaign a disaster for Napoleon?

101. Name two reasons why the Russian Campaign contributed to Napoleon’s surrender in March 1814.

102. Why did leaders of the Congress of Vienna redraw the borders of many European nations?

103. What were the goals of Prince Klemens von Metternich at the Congress of Vienna?

104. Imagine that you are a reactionary. What would you wish for twenty-first century American society?

105. How did the French people respond when Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France?

106. Name the three classes of French society before the Revolution and describe who made up each class.

107. Why did the National Convention attack the Catholic religion? How did they do so?

108. Why did the French people welcome Napoleon’s seizure of power?

109. Describe the personality of Napoleon Bonaparte.

110. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution.

chapter20

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.2

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

3. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

5. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

6. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

7. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

8. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

9. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

10. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.1

11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.3

12. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.1

13. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.1

14. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

15. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

16. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.1

MULTIPLE CHOICE

17. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.2

18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

19. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

20. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

21. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

23. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

24. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

26. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.1

27. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

28. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

30. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

31. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.1

32. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

33. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

34. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.4

35. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

36. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.3

37. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

39. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

40. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

41. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.1

42. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

43. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.1

44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

45. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

46. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.3

COMPLETION

47. ANS: sans culottes

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

48. ANS: bourgeoisie

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

49. ANS: Montagnards

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

50. ANS: guillotine

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.2

51. ANS: Plain

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

52. ANS: coup d’état

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.1

53. ANS: Continental System

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.2

54. ANS: Czar Alexander I

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.1

55. ANS: the Duke of Wellington

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.2

56. ANS: indemnity

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

57. ANS: Saint Helena

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.2

58. ANS: Congress of Vienna

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.3

59. ANS: Roman Catholic clergy

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.1

60. ANS: National Assembly

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.1.2

61. ANS: Jacobin

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

62. ANS: nationalism

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.3

63. ANS: Napoleonic Code

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.3.3

64. ANS: Waterloo

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.4.2

MATCHING

65. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.1

66. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.1

67. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.2

68. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.1

69. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.1

70. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.3

71. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.1

72. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.4.2

73. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.3

74. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.2.1

75. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.3

76. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.4.2

77. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.2

78. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.1

79. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.2.1

80. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.3.2

81. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.2.2

82. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.4.3

83. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.1.1

84. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 20.4.3

SHORT ANSWER

85. ANS:

Many educated members of the bourgeoisie knew about the writings of the great Enlightenment philosophers Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. They also knew how Great Britain’s government had limited the king’s power, and had seen how the American colonists, inspired by Enlightenment ideas, had successfully rebelled against their king.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.1

86. ANS:

First, France was deeply in debt. France had borrowed huge sums to pay for wars, yet the king and court continued to spend lavishly. By 1787, half the taxes collected in the country were needed just to pay the country’s debt. At the same time, a hailstorm and a drought ruined the harvest in 1787, while the following winter was the worst in 80 years. Hunger and cold made life wretched for many French citizens, making people angry.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.1

87. ANS:

The Bastille was an ancient prison. After Louis XVI began bringing troops to Paris and Versailles, many feared that the king would use violence to end the meetings of the National Assembly. On July 14, 1789, a mob went to the Bastille looking for weapons. The mob killed the commander and stuck his head on a long stick, parading it through the streets of Paris. Although the Bastille held only seven prisoners that day, the building was a powerful symbol of the people’s oppression.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.2

88. ANS:

Marie-Antoinette was unpopular because she was from Austria, France’s traditional enemy, and because she was frivolous and self-indulgent.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.1

89. ANS:

Student answers will vary. Sample answers for each position are below:

No, he could not have prevented the French Revolution. The inequalities in society were too severe and long-standing, the French debt was too profound, and Enlightenment ideas too widespread for Louis to have stopped the series of events that began the Revolution after the harsh winter and food and firewood shortages of 1788.

Yes, he could have prevented the French Revolution. He needed to be a strong leader and push through reforms, including new taxes on the First and Second Estates and making the legislative process more democratic by voluntarily reforming the voting process of the Estates General and thereafter accepting its decisions.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.1

90. ANS:

Students may answer any two of the following: in Paris, churches were closed, while Robespierre created the cult of the Supreme Being, where enthusiasm for the Revolution became the object of worship; a metric system replaced the old system of weights and measures; a new calendar was developed that renamed the months, and every month had three weeks of ten days.

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 20.2.1

91. ANS:

The Reign of Terror was meant to avoid a possible counterrevolution and preserve the gains of the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror did not achieve this goal, and in fact actually helped weaken the Revolution. Those who launched the Reign of Terror eventually became victims. When the Terror ended, France had to start over with a new government, which was weak and corrupt, eventually leading to the coup d’état that brought Napoleon to power.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.2.2

92. ANS:

Robespierre was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most blood-thirsty time. He created the cult of the Supreme Being. He eventually became a victim of the Reign of Terror himself.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.2.1

93. ANS:

Napoleon’s empire had grown and many European nations were either allied with or controlled by Napoleon. Most European nations near Great Britain were supportive of Napoleon.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.2

94. ANS:

Student answers will include two of the following nations. In addition to land in the French Empire, Napoleon controlled Spain, the Kingdoms of Italy and Naples, Switzerland, the Confederation of the Rhine, Holland, Kingdom of Westphalia, Tuscany, and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.2

95. ANS:

Napoleon may have felt vulnerable to attack from the states opposed to him that bordered his empire and had strong militaries. These nations would have included Great Britain and the Russian Empire.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.2

96. ANS:

Napoleon established the Bank of France to regulate the economy and set up a more efficient tax collection system so that the government would not face financial crises.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.3

97. ANS:

The Napoleonic Code made laws uniform across the nation and eliminated many injustices. However, it also promoted order and authority over individual rights.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.3

98. ANS:

The Directory had grown weak and ineffective. Some leaders feared that royalists would take advantage of this weakness and conspire to return the monarchy to power. Others feared the growing opposition of European nations against France.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.1

99. ANS:

Napoleon made some basic revolutionary ideas, including equality before the law and a representative system of government, part of the French government. In fact, the only elements of the Revolution that did survive were those he had approved and supported. Also, Napoleon’s actions fueled the spread of nationalism in Europe. The peoples that Napoleon conquered came to feel a new sense of patriotism and unity as a people.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.3

100. ANS:

In June 1812, Napoleon’s army invaded Russia. The heat and lack of supplies caused disease and desertion. Russian troops withdrew before his advance, and peasants scorched their fields, so there was nothing the French army could use. When the army finally got to Moscow, the city was deserted and in flames. Nothing in the city could support the troops, forcing the French to retreat. However, when winter set in, starvation and freezing temperatures killed most of Napoleon’s troops.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.1

101. ANS:

Napoleon’s defeat gave European nations new hope. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied themselves against France. Napoleon raised another army, but his troops were inexperienced. These factors led to Napoleon’s clear defeat in the Battle of Nations against the newly-allied European nations near the German city of Leipzig.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.1

102. ANS:

The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of many European nations in order to strengthen nations surrounding France. They wanted to lessen the chance that France would invade its neighbors again. They also rewarded countries that had fought against France with territory and took territory away from countries that had aided France.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.3

103. ANS:

Prince Klemens von Metternich wanted to restore a balance of power in Europe, make Europe peaceful again, restore old monarchies, and compensate the Allies for their losses.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.3

104. ANS:

Student answers will vary. Responses should include that people with reactionary ideals want conditions to return to those of an earlier time. Students should use examples of things in twenty-first century society they would like to change to more resemble an earlier time.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.3

105. ANS:

Many French people despised Napoleon for dragging France through years of bitter warfare. However, many other French citizens adored Napoleon for the reforms he had made and the glory he had won for France. In fact, troops sent to arrest Napoleon pledged their loyalty to him instead.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.2

106. ANS:

The First Estate was made up of the Roman Catholic clergy. The Second Estate was made up of the nobility. The Third Estate, most of the population, was made up of three groups: the bourgeoisie—the city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals; the artisans and workers of the cities; and the peasants.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.1.1

107. ANS:

The Catholic religion provided a connection to the old ways of life that the National Convention wanted to erase. Clergy lost their positions; in Paris, churches were closed; Robespierre created another religion, the cult of the Supreme Being, where enthusiasm for the Revolution became the object of worship. Anticlerical feelings emerged.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.2.1

108. ANS:

The French welcomed Napoleon because they were tired of the constant warfare and chaos of the Revolution, and Napoleon promised order. He also pledged to uphold some key revolutionary reforms.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.1

109. ANS:

Students may mention that Napoleon was a brilliant military leader, a risktaker, ambitious, and willing to use dishonest means to gain power.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.3.1

110. ANS:

The ideas it inspired influenced people around the world. A few years after Napoleon’s fall massive revolutions began from France to Romania. Enlightenment ideals crossed the Atlantic and inspired people in Latin America to throw off colonial rule. Eventually the same ideals would inspire political movements in Asia and Africa.



PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 20.4.4


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