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chapter17

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. The Turks of Anatolia were primarily Christian.

____ 2. Sultan is the name western Europeans gave to Turkish rulers.

____ 3. As their empire grew, the Ottomans enslaved Christian boys from conquered areas.

____ 4. In 1514 Safavid forces crushed the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Chaldiran.

____ 5. The Ottoman Empire consisted of many cultures who spoke many different languages and practiced many different religions. However, the Ottomans governed their diverse subjects with tolerance.

____ 6. As shah, Esma’il made Shiism the official Safavid religion even though most people in the empire were Sunnis.

____ 7. The rulers of the Delhi sultanate in India allowed the Indian people to practice their traditional customs and religions.

____ 8. Like his father and grandfather, Shah Jahan was a Muslim who believed in religious tolerance.

____ 9. Hongwu, founder of the Ming dynasty, worked to eliminate Mongol influences from China and to revive traditional Chinese values and practices, such as Confucian principles.

____ 10. In the 1500s the Ming heavily restricted foreign trade and travel in order to limit China’s contacts with the outside world.

____ 11. During the Ming dynasty, improved methods of irrigation and the addition of new crops from the Americas increased farm production, which led to substantial population growth.

____ 12. Under the Qing dynasty, China’s borders shrank.

____ 13. During the Qing dynasty, Chinese and Manchu women and men often married.

____ 14. The Chinese suspended trade restrictions on British goods as a result of a meeting with Lord George Macartney.

____ 15. In early feudal Japan, female samurai could train to fight, inherit property, and participate in business.

____ 16. During the Tokugawa period, the samurai became more powerful.

____ 17. Korea prospered under the Choson dynasty and produced many cultural achievements, including the creation of a Korean alphabet.



Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 18. Before the rise of the Ottoman Empire, Anatolia was a



a.

region consisting of a number of small, independent Turkish states.

b.

country ruled by a Mongolian king.

c.

part of the Christian Byzantine Empire.

d.

part of western Persia.

____ 19. The Ottoman Empire was founded by



a.

Orhan I.

c.

Timur.

b.

Osman I.

d.

Mehmed II.

____ 20. By the 1400s, the Ottomans controlled much of



a.

Hungary.

c.

the Balkan Peninsula.

b.

Algeria.

d.

the Arabian Peninsula.

____ 21. What areas did Suleyman I take for the Ottoman Empire?



a.

Greece, northern Syria, and northern Egypt

b.

Eastern Persia, Jerusalem, and Constantinople

c.

the eastern coast of Italy, southern Austria, and eastern France

d.

Hungary, the eastern Mediterranean, and the North African coast

____ 22. Following Islamic law, the Ottomans



a.

forced all their subjects to convert to Islam.

b.

killed all people who were not Muslim.

c.

allowed religious freedom.

d.

required all non-Muslims to join the military.

____ 23. One cause of the Ottoman Empire’s gradual decline was



a.

its large size, which led to difficulties in ruling effectively and efficiently.

b.

a series of weak sultans came to power who had no experience with governing.

c.

the constant threat of an uprising of Christian slaves.

d.

the Ottomans’ failure to keep up with military technological advances.

____ 24. During its golden age, which of the following helped establish the Safavid Empire as a major Muslim civilization?



a.

the manufacture and export of traditional products such as hand-woven Persian carpets

b.

a tourist economy spurred by the growing European middle-classes’s interest in architecture

c.

a strong naval military, which annexed the eastern coast of Arabia

d.

a religious revival in which all Muslims accepted the Sunni faith

____ 25. Which of the following statements best describes the rule of Shah Jahan?



a.

He continued the agricultural reform legacy of his father, increasing the amount of land farmers were allowed to hold.

b.

He imposed heavy taxes on the people of India to pay for costly monuments, palaces, and wars.

c.

His chief concern was to expand India’s borders, and the empire reached its greatest size during his reign.

d.

He renounced Islam and made Hinduism the official religion of India.

____ 26. Hongwu rebuilt China by



a.

building a large naval fleet and conquering nearby lands.

b.

raising taxes to support infrastructure and new government buildings.

c.

instituting a government-sponsored network of Buddhist temples.

d.

reducing taxes and passing reforms to improve agriculture and stimulate trade.

____ 27. The Ming dynasty declined because



a.

a combination of high taxes and crop failures led to rebellions.

b.

competition among heirs to the throne led to a divided dynasty.

c.

Zheng He depleted the government’s treasury and was unable to provide for the people.

d.

Europeans began to colonize China.

____ 28. During Qing rule, the emperor Kangxi



a.

raised taxes, isolated the empire from European influence, and threw out the Jesuits.

b.

granted equal citizenship to all Chinese, initiated communism, and conquered Taiwan.

c.

increased commerce with Europeans, restored the Great Wall, and built an opulent palace.

d.

reduced taxes, expanded the empire, and supported the arts and sciences.

____ 29. Which people accepted China’s terms and began a growing trade in Chinese goods with the Qing dynasty?



a.

the Dutch

c.

the French

b.

the Spanish

d.

the Germans


Chinese Vase

akg-images, London/National Palace Taipei

____ 30. Study the image titled “Chinese Vase.” The vase is an example of

a.

Manchu celadon.

c.

Ming porcelain.

b.

Qing pottery.

d.

Shang haiku.

____ 31. Which dynasty was known for producing the type of porcelain shown in the image titled “Chinese Vase”?



a.

the Qing

c.

the Ming

b.

the Ottoman

d.

the Mughal

____ 32. Which of the following statements best describes trade between Japan and Europe by 1650?



a.

Japanese trade was flourishing, particularly with Portugal, Holland, and Spain.

b.

Japan had ceased to trade with any European nations at all.

c.

Japan was trading only with the Dutch.

d.

Trade agreements with European nations had undermined Japan’s economy.

____ 33. Christian missionary activity in Japan resulted in



a.

few conversions and little interest from Japanese people or the government.

b.

the conversion of many Japanese and later government persecution of Christians and missionaries.

c.

the adoption of Christianity as the official state religion.

d.

a new era of religious tolerance.

____ 34. The Choson kings isolated Korea from most of the rest of the world because



a.

Christian missionaries had been active in the country.

b.

it had faced invasions and become a vassal state to the Qing dynasty in China.

c.

most Koreans were monks and spent their time in prayer and meditation.

d.

they preferred to remain neutral in international conflicts.

____ 35. What enabled the Ottomans to expand beyond Anatolia?



a.

Christianity’s decline in the Byzantine Empire

b.

a powerful military and gunpowder weapons

c.

the assistance of Serbs in the Balkans

d.

their tolerance of other cultures and religions

____ 36. Janissaries contributed to the success of the Ottoman Empire because they



a.

were part of a highly organized and effective bureaucracy that ran the empire.

b.

converted people to Islam, giving Ottomans a shared religious background.

c.

were elite soldiers loyal only to the sultan.

d.

spied on the Byzantine army and passed on important strategic information.

____ 37. Akbar created unity through much of India by



a.

forcing conquered people to convert to Islam.

b.

allowing local governors complete autonomy in governing diverse regions.

c.

stationing military units at strategic points throughout the empire.

d.

promoting religious tolerance and abolishing taxes on non-Muslims.

____ 38. Which of the following Mughal leaders came into conflict with the Sikhs?



a.

Jahangir

c.

Babur

b.

Akbar

d.

Shah Jahan

____ 39. Hongwu expanded his power as emperor by



a.

relaxing religious restrictions, creating rituals around his leadership, and moving the capital to Beijing.

b.

getting rid of high-level positions in the government, and killing his rivals.

c.

building the Forbidden City and adding high-level officials.

d.

destroying Beijing, the seat of Mongol power.

____ 40. Why did Ming emperors decide to isolate China?



a.

They thought European weapons might cause the peasants to rebel.

b.

They were disappointed with the tribute gained from Zheng He’s voyages.

c.

They did not want to divert people’s attention from building the Great Wall.

d.

They disliked the influence of the Europeans and sought to preserve China’s traditions.

____ 41. During the Tokugawa period the role of the samurai changed because



a.

feudalism disappeared.

c.

peace put the samurai out of work.

b.

the emperor gained power.

d.

Confucianism gained in popularity.

____ 42. The dynasty that ruled Korea from the late 14th century to the early 20th century was the



a.

Turtle.

c.

Tokugawa.

b.

Choson.

d.

Confucian.


Completion

Complete each statement.

43. Anatolia is also known as ____________________.

44. Elite soldiers who were loyal only to the sultan were called ____________________.

45. After conquering Constantinople, the Ottomans made it their capital city and renamed it ____________________.

46. The title for the Safavid Empire’s ruler, meaning “king,” was ____________________.

47. Zahir ud-Din, better known as ____________________, or “the tiger,” defeated the rulers of Delhi and established the Mughal Empire in India.

48. The Mughal leader Jahangir came into conflict with a religious group known as the ____________________, whose religion blended elements of Islam and Hinduism.

49. The Chinese word “ming” means ____________________.

50. The Ming restored China’s ____________________ to improve defense against a renewed Mongol threat to the north.

51. The Ming emperor Yonglo moved China’s capital to Beijing and built an imperial city within it that became known as the____________________.

52. The main Chinese export to Europe during the Qing dynasty was ____________________.

53. ____________________, which means “way of the warrior,” was a strict code of ethics in feudal Japan.

54. ____________________ Buddhism, a form of Buddhism adopted by many Japanese feudal warriors, stressed discipline and meditation as ways to focus the mind and gain wisdom.

55. Storms known as the ____________________, meaning “divine wind,” saved Japan from Mongol invasion in the 1200s.

56. In feudal Japan, local ____________________, powerful warlords who held large estates, gained control of their own territories and battled one another for power.

57. The greatest example of Mughal architecture was the ____________________, built in Agra.

58. In the 1600s, a new type of drama emerged in Japan called ____________________, in which actors sing and dance, pausing to interact with the audience.

59. Korea was known as the ____________________ Kingdom because of its isolation from the rest of the world.

60. Rulers of the Ottoman Empire were called ____________________.

61. The Ottoman Empire reached its height of power and cultural achievement under the leadership of ____________________.

62. ____________________ founded the Mughal Empire in 1526.

63. The ____________________, the greatest example of Mughal architecture, was built during the empire’s cultural golden age.

64. The Ming emperor ____________________ sponsored overseas voyages to extend China’s influence.

65. The supreme military leader of Japan, called the ____________________, ruled in the emperor’s name.



Matching

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Qianlong

j.

Matteo Ricci

b.

Zheng He

k.

Suleyman I

c.

Hagia Sophia

l.

Tokugawa

d.

‘Abbas

m.

Tamerlane

e.

Yi Song-gye

n.

blood tax

f.

Esma’il

o.

Delhi sultanate

g.

samurai

p.

ghazis

h.

Cao Zhan

q.

Minamoto Yoritomo

i.

Mehmed II

r.

Akbar

____ 66. “Warriors for the Islam faith”

____ 67. Central Asian conqueror Timur

____ 68. Rebuilt Constantinople into a Muslim city

____ 69. Known as “the Magnificent” and “the Lawgiver”

____ 70. Founder of the Safavid Empire

____ 71. The greatest Safavid leader

____ 72. Introduced European knowledge of mathematics and science to China

____ 73. Led seven voyages from China around the Indian Ocean in the early 1400s

____ 74. Made the emperor a figurehead and began the Kamakura Shogunate

____ 75. Shoguns that ruled Japan from 1603 to 1867

____ 76. Founded the Choson dynasty in Korea

____ 77. The greatest of all Mughal leaders

____ 78. Under his rule, China’s borders expanded, the population grew, and the economy thrived

____ 79. Qing author of Dream of the Red Chamber

____ 80. Trained professional warriors



Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Istanbul

h.

Ottomans

b.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

i.

shogunates

c.

Shah Jahan

j.

Hongwu

d.

Sikhism

k.

the Qing

e.

Janissaries

l.

Delhi sultanate

f.

Great Wall

m.

Bushido

g.

samurai

____ 81. Founder of the Ming Dynasty

____ 82. Elite soldiers who were loyal only to the sultan

____ 83. A professional warrior in feudal Japan

____ 84. First Muslim government established in northern India

____ 85. Protected northern China from Mongol threat

____ 86. Became shogun in 1603

____ 87. Religion that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism

____ 88. Descendents of Osman I

____ 89. Mughal ruler who built a new capital at Delhi

____ 90. Strict code of ethics for warriors

Short Answer

91. Describe the beginning of the Ottoman Empire.

92. Why were the Ottomans so successful in building an empire? Provide an example to support your answer.

93. Why did the Ottomans want to conquer Constantinople?

94. What were two domestic achievements of Suleyman I?

95. Describe the class system in Ottoman society.

96. Provide two examples of how Akbar worked to unify his diverse empire through religious tolerance.

97. What do Sikhs believe?

98. Was Aurangzeb responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire? Why or why not?

99. How did Hongwu, founder of the Ming dynasty, expand his power as emperor?

100. How did the Manchu win support for their dynasty in China?

101. How did a feudal system develop in Japan in the 1100s?

102. Describe the four classes under Tokugawa rule, and how the ruling class divided even further.

103. How did the status of women change during the Tokugawa period?

An old silent pond ...

A frog jumps into the pond,

splash! Silence again.”
Matsuo Basho
“An old silent pond” by Matsuo Basho, translated by Harry Behn from One Hundred Frogs: From Renga to Haiku to English by Hiroaki Sato. Copyright © 1983 by John Weatherhill, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Weatherhill, an imprint of Shambhala Publications, Inc.

104. Identify the form of literature by Matsuo Basho and describe its characteristics.

105. Describe the Ottoman Empire under Suleyman I.

106. What are the elements of the golden age in Safavid culture?

107. What contributed to the decline of the Mughal Empire?

108. Describe the agricultural innovations that took place in Ming China and how they changed society

109. Describe the feudal structure of Japan.

Chinese Vase

akg-images, London/National Palace Taipei

110. Use your knowledge of the chapter to identify the vase in the photograph and the role of porcelain in the country’s economy.

chapter17

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

3. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.2

5. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

6. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.2

7. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.1

8. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

9. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

10. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

12. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

13. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

14. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

15. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

16. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.2

17. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.3



MULTIPLE CHOICE

18. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

19. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

20. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

21. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

24. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.2

25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

26. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

27. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

28. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

29. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

30. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.3

31. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.3

32. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.2

33. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.2

34. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.3

35. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

37. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.2

38. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

39. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

40. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

41. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.2

42. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.3



COMPLETION

43. ANS: Asia Minor

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

44. ANS: Janissaries

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

45. ANS: Istanbul

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

46. ANS: shah

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.2

47. ANS: Babur

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.2

48. ANS: Sikhs

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

49. ANS: brilliant

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

50. ANS: Great Wall

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

51. ANS: Forbidden City

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

52. ANS: tea

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.2

53. ANS: Bushido

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

54. ANS: Zen

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

55. ANS: kamikaze

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

56. ANS: daimyo

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

57. ANS: Taj Mahal

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

58. ANS: kabuki

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.2

59. ANS: Hermit

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.3

60. ANS: sultans

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

61. ANS: Suleyman I

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.1.1

62. ANS: Babur

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.2

63. ANS: Taj Mahal

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.2.3

64. ANS: Yonglo

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.3.1

65. ANS: shogun

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 17.4.1

MATCHING

66. ANS: P PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

67. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

68. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

69. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

70. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.2

71. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.2

72. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.1

73. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.1

74. ANS: Q PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.1

75. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.2

76. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.3

77. ANS: R PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.2.2

78. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.2

79. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.3

80. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.1

81. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.1

82. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

83. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.1

84. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.2.1

85. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.3.1

86. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.2

87. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.2.3

88. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.1.1

89. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.2.3

90. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 17.4.1



SHORT ANSWER

91. ANS:

One of the Turkish Muslim ghazi leaders in the region of Anatolia, Osman I, built a strong state there by 1300. The power of his state grew quickly, and by the mid-1300s, the Ottomans controlled much of Anatolia.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

92. ANS:

The key to the Ottomans’ success was their military. Students may use either of the following examples in their answer: The Ottomans built up their military by enslaving Christian boys from conquered areas and training them as Janissaries, elite soldiers loyal only to the sultan. In addition, the Ottomans adopted gunpowder weapons, such as cannons. The force of these weapons made it possible to conquer cities defended by heavy walls.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

93. ANS:

Constantinople controlled the Bosporus Strait, a major trade route between Asia and Europe. The Ottomans wanted to control this vital waterway for its wealth as well as to unite the Ottoman Empire.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

94. ANS:

Any two of the following are acceptable: Suleyman I reformed the tax system, overhauled the government bureaucracy, improved the court system and legal code, and had new laws issued to reduce corruption.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

95. ANS:

There were two classes in Ottoman society. The sultan held all the power. The privileged ruling class consisted of a group of officials who advised the sultan. They were required to be completely loyal to the sultan and the empire, practice Islam and follow Ottoman customs. The second class consisted of everyone else in the empire. This group included people of many cultures who spoke many different languages and practiced many different religions.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

96. ANS:

Any two of the following are acceptable: Akbar abolished taxes that earlier rulers had placed on non-Muslims; he appointed Hindus to several influential positions in his government; and he encouraged discussions and debates among Muslims, Hindus, Christians, and members of other religions.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.2.2

97. ANS:

Like Muslims, Sikhs believe that there is only one God, that God created the world, and that he has no physical form. Unlike Muslims, who believe in an afterlife, Sikhs believe in the Hindu concept of reincarnation, and that the goal of existence is to be freed from the cycle of rebirth and to attain unity with God. Sikhism blends elements of Islam and Hinduism.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.2.3

98. ANS:

Aurangzeb was responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire. His harsh measures, including strict decrees about morality and personal behavior, the persecution of Hindus and Sikhs, and brutal repression of dissent led to frequent rebellions that weakened the Mughal Empire and left India vulnerable to invasions from the north.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.2.3

99. ANS:

Hongwu expanded his power by doing away with the positions of some high-level officials and taking over more control of government. He eliminated anyone whom he viewed as a challenge to his authority, and over time he had thousands of his rivals killed.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.3.1

100. ANS:

The Manchu won the support of the Chinese by showing respect for Chinese customs and maintaining Confucian traditions. They carried over much of the Ming government structure and continued the civil service examination system. In addition, government positions were distributed equally among Chinese and Manchu officials.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.3.2

101. ANS:

As Japan’s central government lost control of the empire, local clans began to fight each other for power and land. Law and order gave way to conflict and chaos. Bandits roamed the countryside. Large landowners hired trained professional warriors to protect their interests. The samurai were expected to obey their lords without hesitation in exchange for food or land. Gradually a feudal warrior society developed.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.4.1

102. ANS:

The ruling warrior class was at the top. The emperor, shogun, daimyo, and the samurai made up the ruling warrior class. Below the warrior class were three classes. There were the peasants, who enjoyed a relatively high status, then the artisans, and finally the merchants, who were at the bottom of society.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.4.2

103. ANS:

Women’s status gradually declined. Many women led restricted lives and had to obey the male head of the household absolutely. Women in the samurai class lost many rights and freedoms, such as the right to inherit property.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.4.2

104. ANS:

This is a form of poetry called haiku that developed in feudal Japan. A haiku consists of three lines with 17 syllables. Many haiku, such as this one, deal with themes of nature and harmony.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.4.2

105. ANS:

The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleyman. During his reign, from 1520 to 1566, Ottoman forces pushed through Hungary up to Vienna. Meanwhile, the navy gained control of the eastern Mediterranean and the North African coast. Suleyman’s domestic achievements included reforming the tax system, and the bureaucracy. He improved the court system and legal code, and issued new laws to address corruption. During his reign, architects built magnificent mosques and palaces, many of which showed a Byzantine influence. There were two classes in Ottoman society: a privileged ruling class, and a second class that consisted of everyone else. This group included people of diverse cultures and religions.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.1

106. ANS:

The Safavid culture blended Shia religion and Persian tradition. This gave the state a unique identity and laid the foundation for the national culture of present-day Iran. The greatest Safavid leader, ‘Abbas, brought in Chinese potters to improve the quality of glazed tiles and ceramic. Public spaces were created with graceful arches and lush gardens. Colorful tiles and domes appeared on mosques. During the 1600s, the capital, Esfahan, was one of the world’s most magnificent cities. Hand-woven Persian carpets became an important industry. Trade goods brought wealth to the Safavid Empire and helped establish it as a major Muslim civilization.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.1.2

107. ANS:

Shah Jahan forced the people of India to pay high taxes to cover the enormous expense of the monuments he built. Many faced hardship and famine as a result. Shah Jahan was also intolerant toward Christians and Hindus. His son Aurangzeb declared himself emperor after killing his brother, ending a power struggle between them. After expanding the empire’s borders, Aurangzeb issued and enforced strict decrees about morality and personal behavior. He persecuted Sikhs and Hindus, and had soldiers on elephants crush those who protested. These policies led many peasants to rebel. Invaders and rival claims to the throne led to disorder after Aurangzeb’s death. The Mughals held on to power for another 150 years. Then India became a colony of Britain.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.2.3

108. ANS:

Under the Ming, improved methods of irrigation increased farm production. Peasants produced huge crops of rice in the southern river valleys. New crops from the Americas, such as corn and sweet potatoes, further increased farm output. The increased food supply led to population growth. As the population grew, so did the cities. These new cities produced silk and porcelain goods that were traded to Europeans.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.3.1

109. ANS:

In the Japanese feudal system, noble landowners received the allegiance and military service of samurai. In exchange the nobles gave land or rice. Only the most powerful samurai received land. Samurai were highly skilled warriors and very respected. They followed a code of ethics called Bushido. Most samurai were men, but women could also be samurai. However, women did not often go into battle.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.4.1

110. ANS:

The vase is from the Ming period. Ming porcelain was blue and white. Its beauty made it a valuable trade item. Porcelain was one of the items that was part of Chinese trade to Europeans.



PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 17.3.3


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