Thorne, B.M., & Henley, T. B. (2005). Connections in the history and systems of psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin.
1. One of the reasons for taking a course in history is that “Those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it.” Who said this? [A] George Santayana [B] Thomas Kuhn [C] William James [D] E. G. Boring 2. In 1954, Hastorf and Cantril showed students from Dartmouth and Princeton film clips of the football game between the two schools. Their study showed that [A] the injury to the Princeton quarterback was accidental [B] students who viewed the film were objective in their assessments of it [C] Dartmouth players intentionally injured the Princeton quarterback [D] a person’s perspective may alter that person’s perceptions 3. The tendency to analyze the past in terms of the time in which we live is called [A] presentist bias [B] Zeitgeist bias [C] personalistic bias [D] contemporary bias 4. Historian of psychology E. G. Boring got his restricted view of Wilhelm Wundt from [A] E. B. Titchener [B] Wilhelm Wundt himself [C] Thomas Kuhn [D] George Santayana 5. The idea that discoveries and the people who make them are importantly influenced by the historical context is called the [A] Zeitgeist view of history [B] personalistic view of history [C] paradigm shift view of history [D] presentist view of history 6. The independent discovery of calculus at about the same time by Leibniz and Newton provides evidence for the [A] personalistic theory of history [B] paradigm shift theory of history [C] great person theory of history [D] Zeitgeist theory of history 7. The person who argued persuasively for the Zeitgeist theory of history was [A] E. B. Titchener [B] E. G. Boring [C] John B. Watson [D] Robert I. Watson 8. Charles Darwin was stimulated to publish his theory of evolution by a similar theory devised by [A] John Locke [B] Isaac Newton [C] Wilhelm Wundt [D] Alfred Wallace 9. According to Neisser’s research, we tend to remember information about ourselves in ways that [A] support our self-image [B] help us gain advantages over others [C] confirm our altruism [D] support the personalistic view of history 10. Several researchers have traced the term psychology to [A] Wilhelm Wundt [B] Descartes [C] Marcus Marulus [D] Melanchthon 11. The historian of psychology who implemented the first degree program in the history of psychology was [A] G. S. Hall [B] E. G. Boring [C] R. I. Watson [D] E. R. Hilgard 12. Psychology in America: A Historical Survey was written by [A] E. G. Boring [B] G. S. Hall [C] E. R. Hilgard [D] R. I. Watson 13. Cambridge ethologist Nicholas Humphrey believes that consciousness evolved for the capacity to [A] make tools [B] invent language [C] discover and use fire [D] do psychology 14. The famous line, “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history,” was written by [A] G. S. Hall [B] E. G. Boring [C] H. Ebbinghaus [D] W. Wundt 15. Psychology’s “short history” referred to its founding as a scientific discipline in the [A] latter part of the 18th century [B] first half of the 19th century [C] latter half of the 19th century [D] first decade of the 20th century 16. Materialism is a form of [A] dualism [B] double aspectism [C] epiphenomenalism [D] monism 17. The view that reality ultimately exists in the mind is called [A] immaterialism [B] materialism [C] interactionism [D] parallelism 18. The chief proponent of the idea that the physical world is irrelevant without a mind to perceive it was [A] Leibniz [B] Hobbes [C] Descartes [D] Berkeley 19. The view that mind and body are separate but each can influence the other is called [A] subjective idealism [B] interactionism [C] psychophysical parallelism [D] materialism 20. The analogy of two perfectly constructed clocks started simultaneously is the key to understanding the mind body position called [A] interactionism [B] immaterialism [C] psychophysical parallelism [D] epiphenomenalism 21. The mind body solution that holds that mind and body are like two sides of a coin is called [A] epiphenomenalism [B] immaterialism [C] double aspectism [D] parallelism 22. Double aspectism was originally proposed by [A] Hobbes [B] Spinoza [C] Leibniz [D] Descartes 23. The idea that the brain’s activity produces mind as a sort of by-product is called [A] immaterialism [B] double aspectism [C] parallelism [D] epiphenomenalism 24. The search for increasingly more basic explanations of psychological phenomena is called [A] materialism [B] reductionism [C] nurturism [D] nativism 25. Which of the following is generally classified as a nurturist? [A] William McDougall [B] Socrates [C] René Descartes [D] John Watson 26. A collection of ideas defining what is psychological and the methods that will be used to study the psychological is called a [A] system of psychology [B] complex of psychology [C] domain of psychology [D] school of psychology 27. Which of the following terms refers to the study of large groups in order to uncover differences between people? [A] synthetic [B] nomothetic [C] idiographic [D] historiographic 28. ____________ advocated a science based on observable facts and their logical relations to each other. [A] Positivism [B] Associationism [C] Subjectivism [D] Interactionism 29. The central tenet of _____________ is that psychologists should only study things they can define in terms of how they are measured. [A] scientism [B] interactionism [C] operationism [D] associationism 30. Predictions about a theory that risk overturning the theory are called [A] risky predictions [B] logical predictions [C] objective predictions [D] operational predictions 31. The philosopher of science who developed a principle of falsifiability concerning scientific theories was [A] Stevens [B] Kuhn [C] Popper [D] Bridgmann 32. Up until World War I, the New York Times’s commentary focused on the work of which of the following psychologists? [A] William James [B] Wilhelm Wundt [C] Hugo Münsterberg [D] E. B. Titchener 33. Clever Hans was [A] an idiot savant [B] a horse “genius” [C] a child musical prodigy [D] a cat with perfect musical pitch perception 34. Clever Hans’s apparent ability was considered important support for [A] Stumpf’s phenomenology of tones [B] Stumpf’s theory of space perception [C] the mental continuity stressed by Darwinian evolution [D] advocates of psychic ability 35. Clever Hans’s “secret” was discovered by [A] von Osten [B] Lotze [C] Pfungst [D] Stumpf 36. The key to Hans’s ability to answer questions was [A] slight movements by questioners [B] faint noises made by questioners [C] high intelligence [D] the scent of the questioner 37. Which of the following learning phenomena was not demonstrated in the study of Clever Hans? [A] reflex conditioning [B] instrumental conditioning [C] the effect of partial reinforcement [D] conditioning without awareness 38. Why should you study the history of psychology? List and defend as many reasons as you can think of. 39. What are some of the problems with autobiographical information? Why are we not always able to accept the writings of the people involved in psychology’s history at face value? 40. Define and contrast the Zeitgeist and the great person theories of history. Which of the approaches do you think there is more evidence to support? Provide some of this evidence. 41. Briefly discuss each of the following recurring issues in psychology: the mind-body problem, reductionism versus nonreductionism, the nature-nurture controversy. 42. Discuss as many of psychology’s intersections with science as you can. 43. What was the point of the Clever Hans story? Why was the horse’s apparent genius considered important at the time Hans was investigated? What learning principles did Pfungst’s investigation anticipate? CHAPTER TWO 44. The basic categories, questions, and foundations for much of Western thought were first articulated by the [A] Greeks [B] Romans [C] Egyptians [D] Phoenicians 45. Scholars in many disciplines recognize the pre-Socratic Greeks as the authors of [A] the first accurate treatment of the mathematics of statistics [B] the oldest body of ideas clearly related to philosophy and science [C] the Bible [D] the first identifiable textbook of psychology 46. Distinctions between categories such as living and dead, plant and animal, and real and imaginary [A] originated in the speculations of the pre-Socratic philosophers [B] were not made by the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers [C] were first made by the Romans [D] first appeared in the writings of the Greek naturalistic physicians 47. The first Greek philosopher is often considered to be [A] Pythagoras [B] Thales [C] Pericles [D] Aristotle 48. The Greek philosopher who proposed the first natural explanation for the universe was [A] Plato [B] Thales [C] Parmenides [D] Pythagoras 49. The so-called Golden Age of Greece is said to have begun with the birth of Pericles and to have ended with the death of the philosopher [A] Aristotle [B] Socrates [C] Zeno of Elea [D] Plato 50. The Greek philosopher who founded a society in which philosophy and particularly mathematics constituted a lifestyle aimed at salvation was [A] Pythagoras [B] Socrates [C] Thales [D] Plato 51. Which of the following philosophers was most influenced by the mystical figure of Pythagoras? [A] Plato [B] Democritus [C] Aristotle [D] Protagoras 52. The word “philosophy” may have been the creation of [A] Thales [B] Democritus [C] Pythagoras [D] Heraclitus 53. The philosopher who was known in antiquity as “the obscure” and “the riddler” because of his tendency to express himself indirectly was [A] Heraclitus [B] Leucippus [C] Zeno of Elea [D] Pythagoras 54. For Heraclitus, the essence of all things was [A] fire [B] air [C] earth [D] water 55. Which of the following Greek philosophers was so fascinated by change that he made the statement that is often paraphrased, “You can never step into the same river twice.” [A] Pythagoras [B] Parmenides [C] Socrates [D] Heraclitus 56. The theory holding that complex systems create unpredictability and that random events have an order of their own is [A] chaos theory [B] atomism [C] Pythagorean theory [D] the theory of nous 57. For Heraclitus, there was unity in [A] opposites [B] similarities [C] change [D] fire 58. For the Pythagoreans, to explain something meant to provide [A] a mechanical account of it [B] a divine account of it [C] a psychological account of it [D] a mathematical account of it 59. Using reason, Parmenides argued that [A] change does not exist [B] reality does not exist [C] there are only atoms and the void [D] all is changing 60. Zeno’s paradoxes were designed to support his mentor, [A] Parmenides [B] Democritus [C] Heraclitus [D] Plato 61. Because our senses deceive us, Zeno concluded it was more profitable to seek truth through [A] reason [B] prayer [C] observation [D] experimentation 62. The philosophy of atomism was created to refute [A] the idea that there is constant change [B] the idea that the senses can be trusted [C] the theory of the mathematical basis for everything [D] the theory of the unchanging, indivisible One 63. The theory of atomism was developed in greatest detail by [A] Parmenides [B] Leucippus [C] Democritus [D] Zeno 64. The idea that the universe is made of tiny, indivisible particles is called [A] determinism [B] primary and secondary qualities [C] atomism [D] Zeno’s paradox 65. Qualities of an object that depend for their existence on a perceiver are called [A] secondary qualities [B] atomic qualities [C] primary qualities [D] perceived qualities 66. Democritus believed that all sensations are reducible to [A] sight [B] hearing [C] smell [D] touch 67. Which of the following labels cannot be applied to Democritus? [A] nurturist [B] immaterialist [C] reductionist [D] determinist 68. Democritus believed that happiness comes from [A] sensual pleasure [B] religion [C] gaining knowledge [D] things 69. The philosophical position holding that absolute knowledge is impossible and inquiry must employ a process of doubting in order to attain even relative certainty is called [A] skepticism [B] relativism [C] atomism [D] materialism 70. In contrast to Parmenides, Protagoras believed that sensation is the [A] only way to achieve absolute moral convictions [B] primary route to an afterlife [C] avenue to truth [D] source of knowledge 71. One of the most famous of the Sophists was [A] Protagoras [B] Socrates [C] Parmenides [D] Democritus 72. The theory that conceptions of truth and moral values depend on their possessors is called [A] relativism [B] atomism [C] materialism [D] skepticism 73. Although he was one of the Sophists’ most constant critics, many of his contemporaries considered [A] Plato a Sophist [B] Socrates a Sophist [C] Aristotle a Sophist [D] Pericles a Sophist 74. We know about Socrates mostly from the writings of [A] Protagoras [B] Plato [C] Aristophanes [D] Xenophon 75. The belief that there are universal Ideas underlying what we know through our senses is the [A] theory of Atoms [B] theory of Forms [C] theory of Reason [D] theory of Sophistry 76. To uncover the truth of an issue, Socrates employed [A] dialectic [B] sophistry [C] observation [D] his daimon 77. When Socrates said that “knowledge is virtue,” he was referring to [A] knowledge of beauty [B] knowledge of mathematics [C] knowledge of morality [D] knowledge of self 78. For Socrates, a beautiful flower is an example of [A] sophistry [B] dialectic [C] the universal [D] the particular 79. Plato’s school was called the [A] Academy [B] Peripaté [C] Lyceum [D] Organon 80. Plato’s famous parable of men chained in a cave is designed to show that [A] all knowledge is innate [B] the world of Opinion is just as valid as the world of Knowledge [C] the particulars are to the universals as the shadows of objects are to the objects that cast them [D] experimentation is a good way to learn about the Forms 81. Plato’s tripartite soul consisted of [A] reason, instincts, and appetite [B] reason, intelligence, and appetite [C] reason, spirit, and intelligence [D] reason, spirit, and appetite 82. The Greek forerunner of the many rationalists who have argued for innate knowledge was [A] Plato [B] Democritus [C] Leucippus [D] Aristotle 83. The Greek philosopher who served as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great was [A] Plato [B] Aristotle [C] Socrates [D] Protagoras 84. The syllogism was developed by [A] Plato [B] Democritus [C] Socrates [D] Aristotle 85. Aristotle’s four basic causes were [A] material, formal, efficient, and final [B] material, formal, efficient, and creative [C] inductive, formal, efficient, and creative [D] deductive, formal, efficient, and final 86. The idea that everything is directed toward a definite end and a final purpose is called [A] teleology [B] anaima [C] scala naturae [D] entelechy 87. The built-in goal or function of something is its [A] entelechy [B] anaima [C] daimon [D] teleology 88. Aristotle located psyche in the [A] liver [B] brain [C] bladder [D] heart 89. Aristotle’s three different grades of psyche were [A] nutritive, rational, and instinctual [B] sensitive, rational, and instinctual [C] nutritive, sensitive, and rational [D] vegetative, sensitive, and instinctual 90. In describing recall, Aristotle identified three principles of association, which were [A] similarity, accommodation, and contiguity [B] contrast, accommodation, and contiguity [C] similarity, contrast, and accommodation [D] similarity, contrast, and contiguity 91. Mary watches a sad play and afterward feels purged of her negative emotions. According to Aristotle, she has experienced the phenomenon of [A] psychodrama [B] psychological purgation [C] catharsis [D] entelechy 92. Greek medicine was largely tied to religion at the time of [A] Galen [B] Pyrrho [C] Asclepius [D] Alcmaeon 93. One of the most important Hippocratic works is On the Sacred Disease, which is a treatise on [A] postpartum depression [B] phobias [C] hysteria [D] epilepsy 94. Hippocrates’ four humors were [A] black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm [B] black bile, yellow bile, green bile, and phlegm [C] yellow bile, red bile, water, and blood [D] phlegm, black bile, yellow bile, and red bile 95. Hippocrates believed that epilepsy is caused by [A] the mind being stolen by the gods [B] excessive fever [C] a wandering uterus [D] a humoral imbalance 96. Anastasia has a paralyzed left arm, but her physician, Hippocrates, can find no organic basis for her symptom. Although he may not tell her, he believes her illness is caused by [A] brain damage [B] a wandering uterus [C] an unwanted pregnancy [D] an imbalance in the humors 97. Galen believed that the brain’s ventricles contain [A] mineral spirits [B] water [C] vegetable spirits [D] animal spirits 98. Galen connected Hippocrates’ four humors with temperaments to form a primitive theory of [A] mental illness [B] personality [C] social psychology [D] motivation 99. How did the ideas of Parmenides influence Plato? What did Zeno of Elea use to defend the ideas of Parmenides? Give an example and tell how it can be refuted. 100. Who were the Sophists and why was Socrates sometimes considered a Sophist? 101. What was the method Socrates used to try to uncover the truth of an issue? Give an example of how you might apply the Socratic method with one of your friends to enable him or her to identify the true meaning of psychology. 102. Compare and contrast Plato and Aristotle. Whose approach to learning about things would fit in better with the world today? 103. In what way can it be argued that Aristotle had a negative influence on the development of science? On the development of comparative psychology (the study of animal behavior)? 104. Discuss rational medicine during Greece’s Golden Age and in the time of Galen.