|Chapter: Chapter02: Population
1. Replacement rate, the number of births needed to keep a population at a stable level without immigration, requires a total fertility of
2. The number of European countries at or above replacement level is:
3. Countries with aging populations attempt to stimulate economic growth to lessen the effect of rising medical and retirement costs by
a) cutting social security.
b) encouraging increased birth rate.
c) promoting immigration.
d) promoting emigration of the elderly.
4. Not all countries with aging populations resort to immigration to offset economic problems. An example is:
c) the United States.
5. The arithmetic density of population for a country is determined by dividing the total
a) population by the number of farmers.
b) area of square miles by 5.
c) area of the country by the population.
d) population by the total area.
6. The problem with using arithmetic population density to investigate the population pattern of a country is that such a density figure does not take into consideration
a) annual population increases.
b) internal clustering of people within the country.
c) annexation of new territory.
d) possible loss of territory.
7. It has been estimated that 98 percent of Egypt’s population occupies only ___ percent of the country’s total area.
8. The number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land is the
a) average density.
b) total density.
c) physiologic density.
d) agricultural density.
9. Switzerland’s physiologic density is ____ as/than its arithmetic density.
a) the same
c) 10 times greater
d) 1.7 times greater
10. The world’s three largest population concentrations are all found on the same landmass, which is:
a) North America.
b) South America.
11. Associated with the East Asian population cluster are ribbon-like extensions of dense population penetrating the interior. These extensions represent
a) volcanic areas of good soil.
b) narrow regions of favorable climate.
c) basins and lowlands of China’s major rivers.
d) areas where the Chinese Government has forced people to settle.
12. About ___ percent of the world’s population is concentrated in China.
13. In India the greatest concentration of population is found on the
a) plain of the Ganges River.
b) central Deccan Plateau.
c) west coast.
d) foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.
14. Over large parts of Bangladesh the rural population density is between _____ people per square mile.
a) 1000 and 2000
b) 2000 and 3000
c) 3000 and 5000
d) 5000 and 8000
15. Terrain and environment appear to have a different association with the population cluster of Europe that extends from the British Isles into Russia than in Asia. This means that in Europe, terrain and environment play a
a) greater role than in Asia.
b) role that varies form country to country.
c) lesser role than in Asia.
d) greater role now than in the past.
16. The European population axis is directly related to the
a) orientation of Europe’s coalfields.
b) orientation to Europe’s rivers.
c) early location of Roman settlement.
d) effect of two world wars.
17. In comparison to Asia, the percentage of the population living in urban places in Germany and the United Kingdom is
a) less than in Asia.
b) about the same as in Asia.
c) greater than Asia.
18. After the three Eurasian population clusters, the next-ranking cluster comprises the east-central United States and southeastern Canada. This cluster is not nearly as large as the smallest of the Eurasian clusters. It is, in fact only ___ the size.
19. The major focus of North America’s population is
c) the Megalopolis region.
d) the South.
20. In 1789, a British economist named Thomas Malthus published an essay in which he claimed that while population increased at what he called a geometric rate, the means of subsistence grew only at
a) an arithmetic (linear) rate.
b) a rate depending on the particular culture involved.
c) a declining rate.
d) an unpredictable rate.
21. Food production, contrary to the predictions of Malthus, has grown exponentially because of a number of factors. Which one of the following is not one of these factors?
a) expanded agricultural acreage
b) improved strains of seeds
c) fertilizer application
d) an increase in the number of farmers in Britain
22. Births and _______ add to the population growth of a particular country.
a) rise in the death rate
d) increased agricultural output
23. Today, world population doubling time is
a) 300 years
b) increasing (i.e. taking longer to double)
d) ten years
24. At the present rate of births and deaths in the world, we are adding about _____ million inhabitants every year.
25. In 2002, the world population grew at a rate of just over ___ percent.
26. The growth rate of population of the Southern Cone region of South America (i.e., Chile, Uruguay, Argentina) is ______ the world average of 1.4 percent.
a) less than
b) the same as
c) greater than
27. Most of the countries with low population growth rates are also among the wealthiest. An exception to this would be
28. In the 1970’s, the government of India used this method to reduce the population growth rates in certain areas of the country.
a) tax incentives
b) forced sterilization of males
c) free housing for small families
d) cash awards
29. The statistics that report the number of deaths per thousand people in a given year is called:
a) the adjusted mortality rate.
b) the crude death or mortality rate.
c) the adjusted population level.
d) the actual growth rate.
30. Demographically, Great Britain experienced a ___________________ in the period from the late 1800s through WWII.
a) population decline
b) rising death rate
c) population explosion
d) rapid birth rate decline
31. Low population growth resulting from high CBR and very high CDR is characteristic of stage ____ of the demographic transition.
32. Before 1750 death rates in Europe probably averaged 35 per 1000, but by 1850 the death rate was about 16 per 1000. This meant that in 1750 the doubling time was on the order of 150 years but by 1850 it was only ______ years.
33. The population of a country, city or other region is a function of three variables. Which is not one of the variables?
d) ethnic background
34. In Europe the marked decline of the birth rate was the result of
a) rapid emigration.
b) stabilization of food supplies.
c) World Wars I and II.
d) the effects of Industrialization, urbanization, and general modernization.
35. A population pyramid with a wide base and narrow top is indicative of
a) developed countries.
b) countries in Stage IV of the demographic transition.
c) developing countries.
d) low infant mortality.
36. A developed country that has reached a stage where the population is most stable will develop a population pyramid that is __________.
a) bell shaped
b) pear shaped
c) rectangular shaped
d) cone shaped
37. Highest rates of infant mortality are found in this region.
a) South America
b) Central Africa
c) East Asia
d) Eastern Europe
38. The lowest infant mortality rate among countries with large populations is in
a) the United States.
39. Sub-Saharan Africa’s high mortality rate is strongly influenced by
d) traffic accidents.
40. Population policies which favor the promotion of birth control among certain groups in the population (ethnic, religious, or socio-economic groups) are referred to as
a) population planning.
d) public health.
1. In the 1980s, Kenya experienced one of the highest total fertility rates of 8.1 children born to women in childbearing years.
2. The majority of Egypt’s 70 million inhabitants are distributed evenly around the country.
3. Census records are not accurate for all countries.
4. More than half of the world’s entire population is concentrated in East Asia.
5. In all demographic cases, the higher the birth rate, the shorter the doubling time.
6. Some countries have declining populations, which is negative population growth rates.
7. A population with both a high fertility and a high mortality rate have a broad-based population pyramid.
8. During the demographic transition, the drop in birth and death rates is equal.
9. Women tend to outlive men and in Russia their life expectancy may be 14 years longer than the male population.
10. Low life expectancy in Africa can be partly attributed to the ravages of AIDS.
1. Compare the characteristics of the population distribution patterns of Europe with those of Asia. (Describe the characteristics in terms of density, dispersion and pattern, and look for positive and negative correlations between population and other geographic phenomena). What are the differences? What are the similarities?
2. What does the arithmetic density of the population of a country tell us? What does it not tell us? Use India or China as examples to explain this problem.
3. List the four stages of the demographic transition. What population pyramid shape would be characteristic of each stage? Why do stages two and three describe the actual process of change within a population?
4. Malthus, along with neo-Malthusians of the 1960s (Ehrlich), predicted the imminent collapse of population due to famine. What assumptions made by Malthus proved to mistaken? Why did Britain’s population “explode” in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries without either increased famine or drop in standard of living?
5. Describe the impact of AIDS on the sub-Saharan African population. In particular, describe the socio-economic impact of early mortality upon the regions countries.