Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome Section 1: The Roman Republic

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Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome

Section 1: The Roman Republic

Essential Question/ How did Rome become a powerful empire

understand geography fetchers that helped Rome build a civilization

  • Rome begins with the over throw of a king in 509b.c.

  • They like to start in 753b.c with the legend of Romulus.

  • The story continues with to twins who found Rome but it cannot be proven.

  • Romulus/legendary hero who founded Rome

  • Legend/popular story from the early times that cannot be proven.

  • Aeneas/hero of the Trojan War who settled in Italy after troy was destroyed.

Analyze what life was like in early Rome society?

  • Rome overthrew Etruscans and became an empire.

  • Rome’s first settlers were the Latin’s and they built Rome on seven hills to protect against attack and it also gave an advantage because the hills were not far from the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Rome was located on the Italy peninsula and this allowed them quick and easy access to the sea.

  • The Romans were farmers and usually had small farms with little comforts and lived with extended families, they grew wheat beans and grape and raised pigs and goats.

  • Remus/twin of Romulus

  • Republic/government in witch citizens elects a represented.

  • Peninsula/body of water nearly surrounded by water.

Describe how Rome’s republican government was organized.

  • As Rome grew it split into two class and these governed what laws you have to follow.

  • In Rome they passed a constitute called the twelve tables to allow lower class people to participate in government.

  • The roman government had three branches of government the legislative, judicial, and executive.

  • The branches ran the government and in times of crisis they elected a leader to help them.

  • Patricians/wealthy land owners who held high offices in Rome

  • Plebeians/commoners who were allowed to vote but could not hold office.

  • Senate powerful body of 300 members that advises roman leaders.

Analyze the cause and effect of roman expansion.

  • Rome had the whole Italy peninsula under control.

  • Rome was fighting the Punic wars and evenly won by capturing Carthage the central point of command.

  • The Romans sold all of the people into slavery.

  • This made Rome wealthy but it also made some large farms run small ones out of business and this caused tension between the two classes.

  • Consul/official who lead educative branch.

Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome

Section 2: Rome Becomes an Empire
Essential Question: How Did Rome Become a Powerful Empire?

Trace the events that led to the overthrow of the Roman Republic.

  • Wealthy Romans ignored their civic duties.

  • This increased the gap between the rich and poor.

  • Reforms wanted to help by giving land to the poor.

  • The senate felt threatened, and civil war broke out.

  • Marius- general that fought for the Plebeians

  • Sulla- general who fought for the Patricians

  • Civil war- armed conflict between groups within the same country.

Describe the influence (role) of Augustus on the transition from republic to empire.

  • After Caesar’s death, many Roman leaders struggled to gain power.

  • One of these leaders was Caesar’s nephew and adopted son, Octavian (Augustus).

  • The struggle led to another civil war.

  • Augustus’ rein began a long period of peace and stability known as the Pax Romana, which lasted for about 200 years.

  • Pax Romana- “Roman Peace”

  • Civil service- group of officials appointed by the government

  • Augustus- first Roman emperor.

Describe the influence (role) of Julius Caesar on the transition from republic to empire.

  • After Sulla died, other generals rose to power.

  • One of them was Julius Caesar.

  • He first saw action in Asia Minor, but proved himself to be a great general in Gaul, which is now known as France.

  • Caesar had a brilliant military campaign and defeated the Gauls.

  • Julius Caesar- Roman general, politician, and dictator.

  • Campaign- series of military operations that form part of a war.

  • Cicero- Roman council, speaker, and opponent of Caesar.

Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome

Section 3: The Daily Life of Romans
Essential Question: How did Rome become a Powerful Empire?

Understand how Roman families and society were organized.

  • The head of the family was the father.

  • Roman society disapproved of a father punishing his family without good cause.

  • The father’s power was limited.

  • The father owned all the properties.

  • Cause is motive of reason for acting.

  • Private school is school that charges students for admission.

Trace the influences of other cultures on Roman religious beliefs.

  • The roman worshiped spirits and thought that they lived all around them.

  • They thought there was a household god.

  • Like today in they set up shrines.

  • The reason they set up shrines to worship the gods.

  • Shrines places where sacred religious objects are kept.

  • Emperor person who rules an empire.

Describe what life was like in Roman cities.

  • There were a lot of Roman people on the streets that the streets were loud, and dirty.

  • The Roman when they wanted to get rid of their trash they thought the trash out the window.

  • For a house they had a small room and no water, and no bathroom that was just the poor the rich had homemade houses.

  • Most the people in Roman were poor or unemployed.

  • Empire is a group of territories and peoples brought together under one supreme ruler.

  • Aqueducts are artificial channels that carry water, something over arched bridges.

  • Coliseum is Roman stadium where Romans watched gladiators fight.

  • Gladiators are trained Romans warriors.

Chapter 9: The Rise of Rome

Section 4: The Development of Christianity
Essential Question: How did Rome become a powerful empire?

Explain the connection between Christianity and Judaism.

  • Christians were attacked by wild beasts by foreign rule.

  • Writings promised a Messiah which people believed that they were and earthly ruler sent from god.

  • Christianity was an illegal religion because it questioned Roman rule.

  • JESUS- Jewish teacher whose life and teaching became the basis of Christianity.

Summarize the key points in the life and teachings of Jesus.

  • Jesus was a traveling teacher and cured the sick and lame, and he preached justice, compassion, and the coming of God’s kingdom.

  • Jesus’ followers were called his disciples and there were 12.

  • People claimed that Jesus was a Messiah which was a threat to Roman rule.

  • Jesus angered some people because he forgave people who sinned.

  • Gospels: four written accounts of the life of Jesus after his death

  • Disciples: Jesus’ closest followers

  • Parables: stories with morals, often told by Jesus

  • Morals: lessons taught by a story

Analyze the activities of the disciples and their efforts to spread the Christian faith after the death of Jesus.

  • The Roman ruler, Pontius Pilate ordered Jesus to be executed.

  • The first members of Christian churches were Jewish converts.

  • The conversion of Gentiles, or non-Jewish people sparked a debate.

  • Roman leaders tried to ignore Jesus, but he was very popular.

  • Gentiles: non-Jewish people

Describe the early church.

  • Jews had been treated badly; they went to church to be comforted.

  • Some Jewish sacred writings promised a Messiah.

  • Many people believed that this would be an earthy ruler sent by god

  • Some people believed this ruler would descend from Kind David.

Summarize Paul’s role in spreading Christianity.

  • Paul traveled places spreading Christianity.

  • Paul and other Christian leaders struggle trying to help people.

  • Paul started new churches and kept in touch with letters.

  • Paul was the most influential of the early apostles, or messengers of Jesus, because of his many journeys and letters.

  • Epistles: letters that became part of the New Testament

  • Missionary: person sent to do religious work in another place

  • Paul: apostle and leader of the Christian church

Chapter 10: Rome’s Decline and Legacy

Section 1: Rome and Christianity
Essential Question: Why did the Roman Empire fall and what is its legacy?

Objective I: Analyze the relationship between Rome and the early Christian church.

  • The religion embraced all people men and women, enslaved persons the poor and nobles’

  • Christians established hospitals, schools and the social studies services and as a result of their faith attracted even more followers.

  • Christianity’s teachings promised eternal life after death.

  • The Christians joined the movement by converting to Christianity but the Romans felt threatened.

  • Gentiles: were people who are non-Jewish people that joined together.

  • Martyrs: means a person who voluntarily suffers death as the plenty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a religion.

  • Catacomb: During roman persecution martyrs were buried in underground cemeteries.


  • Church’s where differently designed inside

  • World book Q-R #16

  • Catholics performed 7 sacraments with 2 most important acts being baptism and confirmation

Objective II: Describe the conversion of Constantine and his impact on the Christian church.

  • Constantine became the emperor of Rome.

  • He ordered his soldiers to put the symbol of the cross on their shield and there battle flags.

  • He built churches and made Sunday a holy day.

  • Theodosius closed non-Christian temples and said everyone should practice one religion.

  • Constantine: Roman emperor who made Christianity one of the empire’s legal religions.

  • Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group

Objective III: Trace the early development of the Roman Catholic church.

  • Roman Catholic Church is a Christian church based in Rome and catholic means universal.

  • The church developed religious rites based on events in the life of Jesus.

  • People could not receive God’s grace unless they belonged to the church.

  • Pope: Bishop of Rome and the most important bishop in the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Trinity: union of three divine beings- father, son, (Jesus) and Holy Spirit in one God.

  • Bishops: local church leaders within the Roman Catholic Church, also one below the Pope.

Chapter 10: Rome’s Decline and Legacy

Section 2: The Decline and Fall of the Empire
Essential Question: Why did the Roman Empire fall and what is its legacy?

Summarize the weaknesses that emerged in the Roman Empire during the A.D. 200’s.

  • The government raised taxes so there was a decline in agriculture.

  • Constant warfare and overuse had destroyed farmland.

  • The empire was constantly at war with nomadic people in the north and northeast and along the eastern borders

  • The Roman empire was too big to defend its borders well

  • There were revolts from too many taxes

  • Nomadic- term describing people who make a living by herding animals and moving from place to place as the seasons change

  • Mercenary- soldier for hire

Describe Diocletian’s attempt to strengthen the empire by dividing it.

  • Diocletian ruled the eastern empire himself

  • He made Maximilian the ruler of the western empire

  • Both men ruled for twenty years

  • Diocletian tried to divide the empire into eastern and western regions

  • He established the “tetrarchy”, or division of power among four rulers

  • Diocletian- Roman emperor who restored order to the empire and divided it into eastern and western parts

Analyze Constantine’s ongoing efforts at reform in the Roman Empire.

  • Constantine was a military leader who gained control and became emperor

  • Constantine renamed the city Constantinople

  • More power rose to the east instead of the west

  • Constantine made it lawful to be a Christian

  • He moved the empire’s capital from Rome to Byzantium

  • Barbarian- according to the ancient Romans, someone who was primitive and uncivilized

  • Plunder- to loot, or to take things by force

  • Clovis- founder of a Frankish kingdom in the former Roman province of Gaul

Chapter 10: Rome’s decline and legacy

Section 3: the Byzantine Empire

Essential Question: why did the Roman Empire fall and what is its legacy?

Summarize the history of the Byzantine Empire?

  • The Western Roman Empire fell, but the Byzantine Empire continued for about 1000 years.

  • The emperor of the Byzantine Empire was an absolute ruler; he had total power over the empire.

  • Much byzantine land was lost; they struggled to keep genome people.

  • Justinian ruled from 527 to 565.

  • Justinian-emperor who expanded the Byzantine Empire.

  • Absolute ruler – leader who has total power over a certain land.

  • Justinian code – uniform code of law based on Roman law.

Describe how the Byzantine Empire preserved Roman culture.

  • After the church superseded the pope clamed both of them.

  • 1054, the church split in 2, the western church was the roman catholic church, in the east was the eastern orthodox church.

  • Even after the pope clamed power over both churches, the emperor still had power over the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church, who was a patriarch.

  • Delegates-people chosen to speak and act for others.

  • Roman Catholic church-Christian church based in Rome.

  • Eastern Orthodox church-branch of Christianity that developed in the eastern Roman Empire.

Describe the division of the Christian church into the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

  • After Justinian’s death in 565, the Byzantine Empire suffered many setbacks.

  • The streets were riots, religious quarrels, battlers over the crown, and disease. In addition, the empire faced constant threats from foreign enemies.

  • Attacks came from all sides, Slavic peoples made frequent raids on the Northern borders

  • 395-627 Persians invaded the Byzantine Empire--- Atlas

  • 395-1025 Slavic tribes invaded the Byzantine Empire--- Atlas

Chapter 10: Rome’s decline and legacy

Section 4: the legacy of Rome

Essential Question: why did the Roman Empire fall and what is its legacy?

  1. Analyze the artistic and cultural legacy of Rome

  • Romans were the creators of mosaics.

  • Romans got ideas of art from the Greeks but the Romans did not believe in showing the perfect human.

  • The Romans also created realistic portraits in Bas-Relief.

  • The Romans had adopted the form of an epic from the Greeks

  • Virgil modeled his epics of the epics Iliad and Odyssey

  • Cicero provided a picture of roman life toad to our knowledge of roman history.

  • Romans wrote about philosophy.

  • The meditations were a work expressing the ideas of stoicism.

  • Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote the meditations.

  • Latin was the language of Rome.

  • Latin evolved into the romance language.

  • the romance language came from Rome

  • Epic: a long poem about hero’s adventures

  • Oratory: the art of public speaking

  • Stoicism: a Greek philosophy that stressed the importance of virtue, duty, and endurance in life.

  • Mosaic: a picture made by placing small colored pieces of stone, tile, or glass on a surface.

  • Bas- Relief: a sculpture in which slightly raised fingers stand out against a flat background.

  1. Analyze the technological and architectural legacy of Rome

  • Greek architecture influenced Roman builders

  • Roman builders were excellent engineers

  • They created arches vaults and domes

  • The Romans developed a light and strong concrete

  • Romans built aqueducts to transport water to their cities

  • The longest aqueduct was about 57 miles long

  • Romans built the first of many roads

  • The roads war built for soldiers to travel fast

  • The roads also made it easier for invading enemies

  • Vault: arches that form a ceiling or roof

  • Aqueduct: system of channels pipes and bridges that carry water to Roman towns

III. analyze the legal and religious legacy of Rome

  • The roman empire played an important role of the spread of Christianity

  • Christianity prospered even when the roman empire fell

  • Roman laws promoted equal treatment

  • Rome began as a republic

  • Roman established a senate

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