|Chapter 9 Study Guide
1. Machiavelli’s view influenced political activity because he believed that a ruler should be better feared than loved. The ends justify the means. Politics should not be influenced by moral principles.
2. Using movable type for printing in Europe led to increased knowledge, books, language, sharing of cultures/religion, literacy rates increased.
3. Petrarch was responsible for the spread was instrumental in locating scholarly works in Latin.
4. Leonardo da Vinci was a good example of Renaissance Italy's social ideal because he was very well skilled in many different areas of specialties. Sculptor, artist, philosophy, anatomy, math, sciences, inventors.
5. As a result of Petrarch’s finding and using classical Latin manuscripts humanist ideas spread through scholarly works.
6. The human-focused style of Renaissance artists resulted in art that was more detailed; it used perspective to represent a 3-dimensional look.
7. Venice was secretly ruled by powerful merchants. Which of the following people should rule a republic? Elected officials.
8. The development of printing using movable type enabled people to increase their literacy and better allow them to read.
9. States were able to function independently because of a lack of a strong central government.
10. Brunelleschi’s design of the church of San Lorenzo reflects a human-centered worldview in its openness and its non-confinement
11. Art developed by Northern European artists during the Renaissance differed from art of Italian master artists because artists in the North had smaller wall-spaces. They used smaller portraits and resorted to book illustrations.
12. Which group made up the majority of the European population? Peasants.
13. The main way in which the works of Northern European Renaissance artists differed from those of Italian artists was in the scale of their work.
14. In Renaissance Italy, most people lived in urban areas; suburbs.
15. The Italian states played a crucial role in politics because of the Italian states. The states had a good economy.
16. Venice became an important state because it was on the trade routes of Asia and Europe.
17. The war between France and Spain for control of Italy reached a turning point when Spanish mercenary destroyed Rome. They “sacked” it.
18. In “The Prince”, Machiavelli argues that the ends justify the means.
19. The humanists’ purpose for educating people was to create a well-rounded person.
20. Petrarch is considered the father of Italian Renaissance humanism because he founded the forgotten works in Latin of the Greeks and Romans and translated them in Vernacular language.
21. Why did Leonardo da Vinci dissect human bodies? He studied anatomy and allow his painting skill to increase, more human, accurate.
22. The artistic movement of the Renaissance influenced the artists of northern Europe to paint detailed book illustrations.
23. Renaissance painters wanted to imitate nature so that people who viewed their works would consider the subject to be real.
24. The main goal of a humanistic education was to create a well-rounded person, which in turn would create well-rounded citizens, and then a well-rounded community.
25. Christine de Pizan wrote that women could do anything just as well as a man. Women can learn just like a man.
26. The growth of large monarchial states in the rest of Europe led to problems for Italy because they had armies and money.
27. What is the purpose of teaching the liberal arts in today’s schools compared with the purpose during the Italian Renaissance? To create a well-rounded person. Same reasons, there is no change.
28. The worldview of the Renaissance artists resulted in art that was realistic.
29. Francesco Sforza hired a group of mercenaries, or armies, to fight and conquer the city of Milan.
30. Why did Dante write his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy, in vernacular? So that more people could understand it; was done for the ordinary people.
31. Monarchies states ruled by hereditary leader
32. Burghers members of the middle class who lived in a city or town
33. Mercenaries soldiers who fight primarily for money
34. Kings, nobility, leader’s aristocrats
35. Republics a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
36. Humanism intellectual movement based on the study of the classics
37. Vernacular local spoken language
38. Perspective artistic techniques that give the effect of three-dimensional depth
39. Humanities; the humanities history, moral philosophy, rhetoric, grammar and logic, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music
40. Secular less focused on religion
41. Florence state that was the cultural center of Italy
42. Vernacular local spoken language
43. Humanism intellectual movement based on the study of the literature of ancient Greece and Rome
44. Gutenberg German printer who developed movable type
45. Fresco painting done on fresh wet plaster with water-based paints
46. Machiavelli author of an influential treatise on political power
47. Burghers a member of the middle class
48. Republic a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote
Short Answer: Answer in 1 to 2 paragraphs.
49. Describe the political philosophy set forth in Machiavelli’s The Prince.
Machiavelli’s central thesis in The Prince concerns how to acquire—and keep—political power. In the Middle Ages, many writers on political power had stressed the ethical side of a prince’s activity—how a ruler ought to behave based on Christian principles. Machiavelli rejected this approach. From his point of view, a prince’s attitude toward power must be based on an understanding of human nature, which he believed was basically self-centered. Political activity, therefore, should not be restricted by moral principles. A prince acts on behalf of the state, and for the sake of the state, he must be willing to let his conscience sleep. Machiavelli was among the first to abandon morality as the basis for analyzing political activity. His views on politics have had a profound influence on political leaders who followed.
50. Describe the treatment of women at the humanist schools.
Women were largely absent from the humanist schools. The few female students who did attend studied the classics and were encouraged to know some history, as well as how to ride, dance, sing, play the lute, and appreciate poetry. They were told not to learn mathematics or rhetoric. It was thought that religion and morals should be foremost in the education of “Christian ladies,” so that they could become good mothers and wives.
51. Describe how the humanist movement took a new direction in Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century.
In Florence, the humanist movement took a new direction at the beginning of the fifteenth century. Fourteenth-century humanists such as Petrarch had described the intellectual life as one of solitude. They rejected family and a life of action in the community. In contrast, humanists in the early 1400s took a new interest in civic life. They believed that it was the duty of an intellectual to live an active life for one’s state, and that their study of the humanities should be put to the service of the state.
52. Describe the Renaissance style of painting and its two major developments.
The Renaissance style of painting employed the laws of perspective, enabling artists to create the illusion of three dimensions. This realistic style of painting was pioneered by Masaccio, and was used and modified by other Florentine painters in the fifteenth century. Especially important were two major developments. One stressed the technical side of painting—understanding the laws of perspective and the organization of outdoor space and light through geometry. The second development was the investigation of movement and human anatomy. The realistic portrayal of the individual person, especially the human nude, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art.