|Chapter 9 – Ancient India
India is one of the four cradles of civilization. Its early civilization is located on the I_______________ River. India is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent, it is called a S_______________. A Subcontinent is sharply separated from the rest of a continent by geographic features. In Northern India the H_________________ Mountains separate India from the rest of Asia. India is also separated by the bodies of water that surround it; the A______________ S________________ to the West, the B_____________ of B_____________ to the East and the I______________ Ocean to the South. Climate also plays a big part in India. M_____________ are strong winds that cause wet and dry seasons in India. There two major rivers in India the G____________ River is sacred to the Hindu. And the I____________ River.
Two ancient Indian civilizations were H_________________ and M_____________ D__________. Both civilizations developed along the I______________ River. Their cities were well planned with indoor plumbing. A_________ were nomads that invaded India from the North. Aryans spoke S______________ which became the major Language of India.
Aryan society were divided into 4 main social classes called V________________. B_____________ were the highest class and were made up of priest. K__________________ were rulers or warriors. V________________ were commoners and included farmers. S_________________________ were labors and servants. These social classes developed into the C________________ system, a division of Indian society based on a person’s birth, rank, wealth or occupation. If a person is born in a caste they are required to stay in the caste their whole life. U______________ were not members of any caste. To move up in the caste system a person had to obey the r_________ of the caste.
B__________________ was the religion of the Aryans and was the most important part of Ancient Indian life. Brahmanism was based on four writings of sacred Hymns and poems called the V______________. The R_________ V____________ is the oldest. Today H________________ is India’s largest religion. Hindus believe in many Gods. Three main Gods in the Hindu religion are B________________ the creator, V________________ the preserver and S_______________ the destroyer. All Gods are part of the Universal spirit called B_________________. Hindu’s believe everyone has a soul or an A_____________. The Hindu’s believe that the world we live in is an I____________________. They believe that a person’s atman longs to be one with Brahmin. To achieve this one’s souls must go through many rebirths through many lifetimes, this is called r________________________. How you are reborn is based on how you lived in the caste System. Your good or bad actions are your K______________. Good actions make ones soul move up in the caste, and bad Karma makes one’s soul move down. A person could even come back as an A__________________. The goal is to become one with B_________________.
J__________________ was another religion that developed in India. It is based on nonviolence or A____________.
Buddhism developed in India too. S_________________ G__________________ was a young prince that founded Buddhism. He was troubled by all the pain and suffering he saw in the world. He said that pain and suffering were caused by S_______________ D_______________________: wanting what we don’t h__________, wanting to k_______ what we have and not wanting what we have but d_______________. He was called B__________ which means enlightened one. He developed the F_______ N________ T____________. Suffering is part of life, suffering comes from selfish desires, people can overcome their d_____________, and people can follow an e________ fold path. The goal of Buddhism was to reach N__________ a state of spiritual peace.
Ancient India had two great Empire/dynasties, the Mauryan Empire and the Gupta Empire. C__________________ M________________ seized control of the entire Northern part of India. He latter became a Jainist Monk and gave up his Throne to his son. A__________ was the strongest ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty. He latter converted to B_____________ and vowed to live a life of nonviolence. He improved the lives of his people. Eventually the Empire fell.
The Gupta Empire united India after the fall of the Mauryan Empire. Under the Gupta Empire the religion of H_____________ was revived. The Guptas supported the C_________ System. Women had few rights and their marriages were a_______________ by their families. Eventually the Empire fell too and India once again became a number of small states.
India had a number of significant achievements. They achieved much in m_____________ the science of working with metals, the h____________ a____________ n______________ system we use today in was first developed by Indian mathematicians. They also created the concept of Z__________. In science they developed the technique of I____________, injecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help them build up a defense against diseases.