Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Ethnic cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Multi-ethnic state State that contains more than one ethnicity.
Multinational state State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nationality Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Race Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Racism Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Self-determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.