Chapter 7: Ethnicity Learning Objectives



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Chapter 7: Ethnicity
Learning Objectives- After studying this chapter you should be able to:

  1. Identify the regional and urban distribution of ethnic minorities in the United States.

  2. Identify the distribution of African Americans and the factors influencing its development.

  3. Distinguish between race and ethnicity and identify the factors influencing spatial segregation of races in the US.

  4. Contrast nationality with ethnicity and note factors that provided for the rise of the Nation State in Europe.

  5. Explain the concept of the multinational state and detail how the former Soviet Union and Russia are good examples of this concept.

  6. Provide details of how South Asia, Kashmir and Punjab, and Sri Lanka are examples of areas where divided ethnicities are problematic.

  7. Identify the major ethic groups in Iraq and describe the history of ethnic tensions in Southwest Asia.

  8. Define ethnic cleansing and provide detailed examples ethnic conflicts in Africa and the former Yugoslavia


Terms- You should understand these terms and be ready to identify them:

Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.

Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.

Ethnic cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.

Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Multi-ethnic state State that contains more than one ethnicity.

Multinational state State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coex­ist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Nationality Identity with a group of people that share legal at­tachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occu­pied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Race Identity with a group of people descended from a com­mon ancestor.

Racism Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an in­herent superiority of a particular race.

Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.

Self-determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.

Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Triangular slave trade A practice, primarily during the eigh­teenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.


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