Chapter 7 – Assistive Technology for Reading Introduction 1 Using the sett process 7 Decision Making Guide 8 sett process 9 Reading Continuum 14 Reading Continuum



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Assessment


As the team completes the SETT process, questions may arise about the student’s ability to perform certain reading tasks. Standardized reading assessments or teacher observations may answer those questions; however, adapted, specialized or alternative assessments are occasionally in order.
Adapted Phonemic Assessment

Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words. It is an auditory skill and does not involve words in print or sound symbol relationships. However, it is one of the building blocks of beginning reading skills because it involves the isolation and manipulation of sounds. Because it is auditory and oral in nature, phonemic awareness is difficult to assess in students with complex communication needs. Standard phonemic assessments such as The Phonological Awareness Test can be adapted using Boardmaker picture communication symbols. Students are presented with symbols (with no text label) representing words/phonemes that demonstrate a student’s phonemic awareness of segmentation, isolation, deletion, substitution and blending. Students could select the symbol using a preferred selection method (e.g., pointing, picture exchange, eye gaze) instead of vocalizing the sound or word.


Commercial Alternative Assessments

Some skills are more accurately assessed using a commercial product designed for a specific population of students. Stages is a seven-level developmental framework that assesses a student’s cognitive and language abilities. Stages 4, 5 and 7 assess early reading and reading/writing skills. Additionally the program has built in access features such as single switch accessibility. A promising program still under development is the ABC-Link. It asserts that it will be a reliable and valid reading assessment tool for use with students who have complex communication needs (CCN). Students will have to be able to respond yes-no, select from a field of four, and have access to the alphabet. In its final form, ABC-Link will yield individualized instructional plans. The goal is to guide instructional decision-making for students who experience CCN. Standard, percentile, and other types of scores will not be generated as a result of completing the assessment because ABC-Link is intended for use as a guide to good instruction rather than as a tool for accountability, program placement, and/or eligibility. Other reading based programs such as Simon S.I.O.™ and WordMaker® track student progress and identify areas for further work.


Response to Intervention (RtI)

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a general and special education initiative that combines best practices in both fields. As staff work together to analyze those students who continue to struggle to develop reading skills despite skilled differentiated instruction, we should see Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and AT mesh together so that all staff and students use multiple means of expression and representation. That may mean that a school district has a text reader installed on all school computers so that any student can hear digital text read back to them by the computer. It may mean that teachers regularly represent textual facts, characters, timelines, etc. using a graphic organizer and encourage their students to do the same. It may mean that all staff and students know how to manipulate digital text to increase readability by increasing font size, word, line and margin spacing or change background and text color. Talking and standard handheld dictionaries might be available in all classes and media centers. There will still be those students who need more intense and individualized intervention and resources including very specific assistive technology, but our hope is that those distinct lines between students who are using AT and those who are not will start to blur.

References
Adler, C. R. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. In The National Institute for Literacy: Publications. Retrieved October 27, 2006 from http://www.nifl.gov/
Bigge, K., Best, S., Heller, K.W. (2001). Teaching individuals with physical, health and multiple disabilities, 4th edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

Boyle, E.A., Rosenberg, M.S., Connelly, V.J., Gallin Washburn, S., Brinckerhoff, L.C., & Banerjee, M. (2003). Effects of audio texts on the acquisition of secondary-level content by students with mild disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 203-214.

Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D. P. & Sigmon, C.M. (1999). The teacher’s guide to the Four Blocks ®. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa.


Don Johnston, Incorporated. (2005). The scientific-based research underlying Read:OutLoud™ & Solo™. Retrieved March 3, 2007, from http://www.donjohnston.com/research/readoutloud_index.html

Edyburn, D. (2003, March/April). Learning from text. Special Education Technology

Practice, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 16-27.
Elkind, K. & Elkind, J. (2007). Text-to-speech software for reading. International

Dyslexia Association newsletter, Perspectives, Summer 2007, vol. 33, no. 3, pages 11-16.
Erickson, K. (2003, June 24). Reading comprehension in AAC. The ASHA Leader , Vol.

8, No. 12, pp. 6-9.


Erickson, K. (2007). Student Success: Progress After All These Years” In Route 66

Literacy success for adolescent and adult beginning readers. Retrieved March 3, 2007, from http://www.route66literacy.org/about/student_profile.shtml
Erickson, K.A. & Koppenhaver, D.A. (2007). Children with disabilities: reading and

writing the Four-Blocks ® way. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa.


Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to

enhance understanding. Portland, MN: Stenhouse Publishers.


Heller, K. W., Frederick, L. D., & Diggs, C. A. (1999). Teaching reading to students with

severe speech and physical impairments using the nonverbal reading approach. Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, 18 (1), 3-34.

Katims, D. S. (2001). Literacy assessment of students with mental retardation: An

exploratory investigation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 36 (4), 363-372.

Lange, A.A., McPhillips, M., Mulhern, G., & Wylie, J. (2006). Assistive software tools

for secondary-level students with reading difficulties. Journal of Special Education Technology, 21 (3), 13-22.


Light, J. (n.d.) Maximizing literacy skills of individuals who require AAC. Webcast from AAC-RERC. Retrieved December 17, 2008 from http://aac-rerc.psu.edu/index-10925.php.html.
Marfilius, S. (2008, December). Text Story: Accessible Instructional Materials 101. What Wisconsin Teachers, Local Education Agencies and Families Need to Know about NIMAS “to infinity and beyond”. Presentation at the Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative Leadership Institute, Stevens Point, WI.
Maurer, S. A., Dimmitt, S., Hodapp, J., Judas, C., Munn, C., & Rachow, C. (2006). Summary report of the Iowa text reader study 2005-2006. Iowa Department of Education Statistics. Retrieved May 16, 2007 from http://www.iowa.gov/educate/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_view/gid,3409/
Maurer, S.A., Hodapp, J., Rachow, C., Judas, C., Munn, C., & Dimmit, S. (2008). Summary report of Iowa text reader studies 2006-2007 Overview. Iowa Department of Education, Bureau of Children, Family, and Community Services. Retrieved March 4, 2008 from http://www.kurzweiledu.com/files/Iowa_Text_Reader_Study.pdf
McGee, L., & Richgels, D. (2000). Literacy’s beginnings: Supporting young readers

and writers (3rd Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

NIMAS at CAST: About NIMAS. (July 10, 2006). The need for flexible alternatives to print. Retrieved March 3, 2007, from http://nimas.cast.org/about/index.html

Orr, A. & Parks, L. (August 1, 2007). Assisted reading software- teachers tell it like it is. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from http://www.techlearning.com/showArticle.php?articleID=196604599


Silver-Pascuilla, H., Ruedel, K. & Mistrett, S. (2004). A review of technology

based approaches for reading instruction: Tools for researchers and vendors. In National Center for Technology Integration: Reading Matrix. Retrieved March 30, 2007 from http://www.nationaltechcenter.org/matrix/default.asp


Stanford Taylor, C. (2007, December). Guidance for the implementation of National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS). Information update bulletin 07.03. Retrieved June 2, 2008 from http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/bul07-03.html.
Sousa, D. (2004). How the brain learns to read. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Universal Design for Learning Pilot Project (UDL-P) (n.d.). Evaluating the benefit of

using Read:OutLoud. Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Public Schools. Retrieved May 16, 2007 from



www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_success/Read_OutLoud.pdf
Wolfe, P., & Nevills, P. (2004). Building the reading brain, PreK-3. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Corwin Press.



Products Mentioned in Chapter 5


Product

Vendor

AbleReader

NextUp Technologies, LLC.

Amazon Kindle

Amazon.com®

AspireREADER 4.0 ™

CAST

AT&T Natural Voices™

AT&T

Boardmaker®

Mayer-Johnson

BookWorm

AbleNet, Inc.

BuildAbility

Don Johnston Incorporated

CAST UDL Book Builder

CAST

ClassMate Reader

Humanware

Clicker

Crick Software

Crayola® Erasable Markers

Crayola

Cybook

Bookeen

CueLine® ED

Onion Mountain Technology

EZC Readers ®

Available online

EZDaisy Talking Book Player

Telex

FineReader Pro

ABBYY

Firefox®

Mozilla

Flip

AbleNet, Inc.

FP™3 Player

Fisher-Price

Franklin Talking Dictionaries

Franklin Electronic Publishers

Hefty Tabs

Lee Products Company

Highlighting Tape

Lee Products Company

HyperStudio ®

Sunburst Technology

IntelliTalk®

Cambium Learning

IntelliTools Classroom Suite

Cambium Learning

IntelliTools Reading: Balanced Literacy

Cambium Learning

iPod

Apple

IRIS Pen series

I.R.I.S. Inc.

iTunes

Apple

JAWS®

Freedom Scientific

Key to Access©

Premier Assistive Technology

Kid Pix®

The Learning Company

Kidspiration ®

Inspiration Software, Inc.

Kurzweil 3000™

Cambium Learning

Language Master

2000 Drake Educational Associates Ltd

LeapFrog®

LeapFrog Enterprises

Literacy Support Pictures™

Slater Software

Little Step-by-Step Communicator

AbleNet, Inc.

MEville to WEville

AbleNet, Inc.

Microsoft Word®

Microsoft®

Monkey Business at the Market

Slater Software

My Own Bookshelf

SoftTouch

Product

Vendor

News-2-You®

News-2-You.com

OmniPage Pro

Nuance

PDF Equalizer

Premier Assistive Technology

PictureIt

Slater Software

Planet Wobble

Crick Software

Playaway® audio books

Follett Library Resources

Post-it Notes

Office supply stores

PowerPoint®

Microsoft®

QuickLink Pen ® Elite

WizCom Technologies LTD

Reading Pens

WizCom Technologies LTD

Read & Write for Mac

TextHelp

Read & Write GOLD

TextHelp

Read&Write GOLD MOBILE

TextHelp

ReadPlease®

ReadPlease Corporation

Scan 'n Read

Switch in Time

Scan N Talk

Colligo Corporation

Scholar Digital Talking Book Player

Telex

Simon S.I.O.

Don Johnston Incorporated

Sign Smith™

Vcom3D

Stages

Assistive Technology, Incorporated

Start to Finish Books ®

Don Johnston Incorporated

SwitchIt Maker 2

Inclusive TLC

Talking Word Processor©

Premier Assistive Technology

TestTalker

Freedom Scientific

TextAloud

NextUp Technologies, LLC

TextAssist®

Mindmaker

TextBridge

Nuance

The Phonological Awareness Test

Lingui Systems

Thinking Reader

Tom Snyder Productions

TouchBook™

Somatic Digital Technology

Transparent Post It Notes

Available locally

UKanDu Little Books ®

Don Johnston Incorporated

Velcro

Available locally

VictorReader® Stream

Humanware

Visual Thesaurus®

Thinkmap, Inc.

WiggleWorks®

Scholastic

WordMaker ®

Don Johnston Incorporated

Write:OutLoud ®

Don Johnston Incorporated

Writing with Symbols 2000

Mayer-Johnson

WYNN™

Freedom Scientific

Internet Reading Resources (based on the Reading Continuum)



Standard Text

Reading A-Z

An excellent source of literacy materials that can be printed or adapted. A free 30 day trial is available. Colored online reading materials from RAZ-Kids.



http://www.readinga-z.com

http://www.raz-kids.com/
Starfall Learn to Read

A free website featuring a multitude of stories appropriate for Early Childhood through second grade.



http://www.starfall.com/
Seussville Story Maker

Users can create a three-scene story selecting from "Dr. Seuss" backgrounds, characters, and music. You add your own text. When the story is played, the text appears in "conversation bubbles" but is not spoken.



http://www.seussville.com/games/storymaker/story_maker.html
Tumblebooks

An online collection of books for young readers up to middle and high school aged. Picture books have been adapted with sound, music, narration and animation. Those for older students have adjustable text, highlighting options and audio narration. They include chapter books, high interest, classics and English and American literature. Free trials available.



http://www.tumblebooks.com/
Books Adapted for Access
Accessible Book Collection Wiki

This Wiki has templates from Clicker 5 and IntelliTools Classroom suite that are designed to meet the needs of as many students as possible. Download the templates and books that others have created and share books that you have done. http://accessiblebookcollection.wikispaces.com/


Books2burn

A Macintosh program. You copy and paste text to makes audio books with chapters and everything! Can be transferred to MP3 files, etc.



http://books2burn.sourceforge.net/
Tar Heel Reader

Tar Heel Reader is a collection of free, easy-to-read, and accessible books on a wide range of topics. Each book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces (i.e. switches, alternative keyboards, touch screens, and dedicated AAC devices). The books may be downloaded as slide shows in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. You may also write your own books using their tools.



http://tarheelreader.org/
Handheld Device for Reading
Children’s Illustrated e Tales

Handheld application of children’s books



http://handheld.softpedia.com/get/Documents-E-Books/Childrens-Illustrated-eTales-21102.shtml
iPod eBook creator

Convert text files to iPod Notes, download existing eBooks from the eBook library. Conversion of web pages and copy & pasted texts is available. Conversion of RSS feeds to iPod Notes is available for registered users.



http://ebookhood.com/ipod-ebook-creator
Many Books

Free eBooks for your PDA, iPhone, or eBook reader.



http://manybooks.net/
Memoware

Free ebook titles for Palm



http://www.memoware.com
Palm ebook Studio

Creates eBooks that can be read by the eReader and eReader Pro software on Palm OS ® or PocketPC handhelds.



http://www.ereader.com/ereader/software/product/15001_eBookstudio_win.htm
University of Virginia eText Library

Free ebook library for the Microsoft ® Reader and Palm.



http://etext.virginia.edu/ebooks/
Use of Pictures/Symbols with Text
Boardmaker ® Books

A list of many books that have Boardmaker symbols already made for them from the Baltimore City Public School System.

http://www.bcps.k12.md.us/boardmaker/Results.asp

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