Chapter 6 the duel for North America 1608-1763 France Finds a Foothold in Canada
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Chapter 6 the duel for North America 1608-1763
France Finds a Foothold in Canada
Like England and Holland, France was a late comer in the colony race. It was convulsed in the 1500s by foreign wars and domestic strife.
In 1518 the Edict of Nantes was issued. It allowed limited toleration to the French Huguenots.
When King Louis XIV became king he started having interest in over sea colonies.
1608- France established Quebec, overlooking St. Lawrence.
Samuel de Champlain, soldier and explorer is the “Father of New France”
He had friendly relations with neighboring Huron Indians and helped defeat Iroquois.
The Iroquois hampered French efforts.
Unlike English colonist, French didn’t come by hordes, peasants were too poor and Huguenots weren’t allowed to leave.
New France Fans Out
New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver.
Beaver hunters: Coureurs de Bois and gave lots of names to land.
Ex: Baton Rouge and Des Moines
French voyageurs recruited Indians to hunt beaver. They succumbed to disease and alcohol. The Beaver was heavily extinguished.
French missionaries tried to convert Indians. French tried to thwart English from expanding which lead to the finding of Detroit
Louisiana was founded in 1682 by Robert de la Salle to stop Spanish expansion. They came back three years later, landed in Texas and was killed by his crew.
Illinois was very fertile, lots of ports and trading posts established.
The Clash of Empires
King Williams war and Queen Anne’s war
English colonists fought the French coureurs de bois and Indians.
Neither side considered America important enough to end real troops
French inspired Indians to ravage New England cities
Britain failed to capture Quebec and Montreal. Peace treaty in Utrecht in 1713 gave Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Hudson Bay New England and limited rights with Spanish America.
The war of Jenkins Ear
England captain Jenkins: ear was cut off. War continued to Caribbean Sea and Georgia, merged with war of Austria succession called King George’s war.
France allied with Spain, English troops captured fort.
Peace terms gave fort back which outraged colonists. (Louisburg Fort)
George Washington Inaugurates War with France
1. The Ohio valley became a battleground among the Spanish, British and French
Lush, fertile and very good land.
1754 governor of Virginia sent 21 year old George Washington to the Ohio country as a lieutenant colonel in command of about one hundred and fifty minute men.
Encountering some French in the foment forty miles from Fort Buguense troops fired and killed French leader.
Later French returned and surrounded Washington’s crude Fort necessity and fought “Indian Style” ten hours and made him surrender.
He was permitted to march away with full war honors.
Global war and colonial disunity
The fourth of these wars between Empires started in America unlike the first three.
The French and Indian war (a.k.a. seven years’ war) began with Washington’s battle with the French.
It was England and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria and Russia.
In Germany (Prussia) Fredrick the Great won his title of “Great” by repelling French, Austrian and Russian armies even though he was badly outnumbered three to one.
Many Americans sought for the American colonies to unite, for strength lay in numbers.
In 1754 seven of the thirteen colonies met for an inter-colonial congress held in Albany, New York
A month before congress, Ben Franklin published famous “Join or die” cartoon, featuring a snake in pieces representing the colonists.
Franklin helped unite the colonists in Albany, but failed because states and England didn’t like it.
It was a step toward unity.
Braddock’s: Blundering and its Aftermath
In the beginning, the British sent haughty sixty year old General Edward Braddock to lead a bunch of inexperienced soldiers with slow, heavy artillery. In a battle with the French, the British were ambushed routed by French using “Indian tactics”.
In this battle, Washington reportedly had two horsed shot under him and four bullets through his coat but never through him.
Afterwards, the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina felt the Indian wrath, as scalping occurred everywhere.
As the British tried to attack a bunch of strategic wilderness posts, defeat after defeat piled up.
Pitt’s Palms of Victory
In this hour of British trouble; William Pitt, the “Great Commoner”, took the lead.
1757- he became the foremost leader in the London government and later earned the title “Organizer of Victory”.
Changes Pitt made-
He pedaled assaults on the French West Indies, from place that snapped British strength and concentrated on Quebec- Montreal.
He also replaced old, cautious officers with younger, daring ones.
1758- Louisbourg fell supplies dwindled. Thirty two year old James Wolfe, dashing and attractive to detail, commanded an army that boldly stalled chief wales of a part protecting Quebec.
French troops near the plains of Abraham and in a battle where, he and the French commander Marquis de Montrealm both died, the French were defeated and Quebec surrendered
1759 Battle of Quebec ranks as one of the most significant engagements in British and American history. 1760 is the last last time French flags flew on American soil.
Ended by The peace treaty of Paris in 1763.
France was totally kicked out of North America meant British can go to Canada and land to Mississippi R.
French allowed to keep small valuable sugar islands and fishing stations
France Final blow gave Louisiana to Spain to compensate for Spain’s losses in the war.
Great Britain took its place as leading naval power in the world and a great power in North America.
The colonists having experienced was 1 st hand and come out victors, were very confident.
The myth of British invincibility had been shattered.
Ominously, friction developed between the British officers and the colonial “boors”
I.e., the British refused to recognize any American officers above captain rank.
The hardworking Americans believed that they were equal to the red coats which caused trouble.
Brits were concerned with American secret trade with enemy during war. British forbid export of all supplies from New England and middle colonies.
Many Americans refused to fight French until Pitt offered to reimburse them.
During French and Indian war, even though Americans were from different colonies, they found they had a lot in common and the barriers began to break between them.
War’s Fateful Aftermath
Now that the French had been beaten, the colonists could now roam freely, and were less dependent upon Great Britain.
The French consoled themselves with the idea that maybe the Brits would lose their empire too. Spain- eliminated from Fl. Indians had to deal with only Great Britain.
1763- Ottawa Chief Pontiac, went to men and French men to kill Brits in Ohio Valley, killed 2000.
Whites gave Indians blankets with smallpox
Whites put troops on frontier borders
Now, land hungry Americans would now settle west of Appalachians, but in 1763 Parliament issued its Proclamation of 1763, which prohibits settlement beyond Appalachians.
Document supposed to work out Indians’ problems to draw bound but colonists saw it as more oppression from far away country.
“Didn’t we just fight a war to win that land?”
* 1765- an estimated 1000 wagons rolled through the town of Salisbury North Carolina. On their way up west in defiance of Proclamation .
British- Proud and haughty didn’t want to accept blatant disobedience from lowly Americans. Revolutionary war stage was set.
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