Chapter 6 section 3 alexander the great



Download 7.27 Kb.
Date conversion19.05.2016
Size7.27 Kb.

CHAPTER 6 SECTION 3

ALEXANDER THE GREAT



Philip II of Macedon


  • Athens declines in power after the golden age

    • Rivalries develop between city-states decreasing Greek unity

    • Persia helps undermine unity also

    • In 338 B.C. peace is restored in Greece

  • Macedon—region to the north of Greece

    • Hardy warlike people

    • Lived in villages—led by a noble

    • Kings ruled only w/support of the nobles

  • In 359 B.C. Philip II becomes king

    • Had been held hostage in Thebes as a youth

    • Came to admire Greek ways—also saw organization of Thebe’s army

    • Philip recruited and organized a well equipped an disciplined army

      • Organized army into phalanxes—rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder with 18 foot long pikes—effective against cavalry charges

    • First goal was to restore order in Macedon—then won control of several Athenian colonies in northern Greece

    • Some Greeks saw him as a savior who could unite Greece again—others felt he threatened their freedom

    • Demosthenes spoke against Philip in a series of speeches—wanted to lead Greece against Philip

  • Philip defeats Athens and Thebes in 338 B.C. at Battle of Chaeronea—All of Greece under his rule

Alexander the Great


  • Philip had given Alexander the best training and education possible

    • Received military training in Macedonian army

    • Classically educated by Aristotle

    • Became a better military tactician than his father

    • His strength, bravery and courage in battle won the loyalty of his troops

  • Alexander crushed the rebellions that broke out in Greece after Philips death

  • By 331 B.C. he had destroyed Persia conquering Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia along the way

  • Beyond Persia lay India—marched for 4 years towards the Indus River—here his men refused to go on and he was forced to turn back to Persia in 326 B.C.

    • Divides his army at Indian Ocean and sends them west by sea to explore the Persian Gulf and the meet him at Susa

    • Leads the rest through the desert where many die from exposure and lack of food and water—finally reached Susa in 324 B.C.

  • By 332 B.C. problems spread throughout empire

  • In Babylon Alexander becomes ill and dies in June of 323 B.C. at the age of 33

Beginnings of Hellenistic World


  • In 13 years Alexander had rarely lost a battle and conquered much of the known world

  • Alexander purposely spread the Greek culture wherever his armies marched

    • He founded many cities—many named Alexandria—Greeks and Macedonians settled in these cities

    • The Persians, Macedonians and Greeks all helped govern themselves making it easier on Alexander to keep power

    • To ensure Persian cooperation Alexander married two Persian princesses and had his general marry Persian women of the royal family and 10,000 of his troops married Persian women

  • His reign spread Hellenistic—Greek—culture – or the combination of Mediterranean and Asian ideas and values

  • 301 B.C. 3 generals divided empire into three kingdoms—Macedon, Egypt, Syria and several smaller ones

    • These kingdoms often fought each other and in 200 B.C. Rome invades Macedon and conquers most of Hellenistic empire


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page