Public Opinion, Voting, and Elections
Public opinion lies beneath all voting patterns. That opinion rests upon family and community attitudes, together with mass media exposure, personal experience and religious ethnic background. In measuring public opinion we talk about such factors as intensity, latency, and salience. Our ability to measure public opinion (polling) has grown over the past forty years to be a highly sophisticated, accurate science. To an amazing degree, pollsters can now tell us what the American people think and feel before any election or at any specific point between elections. But, as all Americans know, no election is the final word. Not only do we argue over the true meaning of any specific election, we also believe that existing public opinion and voting patterns are subject to shifts in the public mood. No public opinion is set in concrete. No vote is the final answer, forever locked in place.
The ballot box lies at the very heart of the democratic political process. It is here that public opinion, interest groups, political parties, and movement culminate in decision making. But voting itself remains something of a mystery, although we now know more about it, thanks to recent research. Why do a thin majority of Americans cast ballots on election day? Why do nearly half of potential voters stay home? How do voters reach their political decisions? What, if any, long range patterns of voting will occur in the new century?
Elections are a crucial part of democracy. Over half a million persons hold state and local elected offices in addition to federal positions. Members of Congress are elected directly by voters, first in primaries and then in general elections. Incumbents in the House of Representatives are overwhelmingly assured of reelection regardless of their party (In 2002, 98% of incumbents running in the general election were victorious). There are generally fewer “safe” Senate seats, although incumbents retain an advantage in the upper house as well.
All congressional races are financed by the candidates. Currently much of this funding comes from PACs, which may leave the congressional recipients indebted to these contributors.
In the 1996/2000 presidential elections and 1998/2002 midterm elections, campaign finance was an important issue. Both parties spent considerable amounts of soft money. Passage of campaign finance reform legislation in 2002 was intended to ban soft money at the federal level and generally eliminate the undue influence of special interests on the electoral process (2002 was the last election that allowed federal "soft money."). Finally, the 2002 election was especially historic, given the fact that a strong GOP effort helped the party to a net gain of 2 Senate seats and 6 seats in the House. Usually, a president's party loses seats in midterm elections.
1. Introduction/Public Opinion
a. What is public opinion?
b. What is meant by intensity, latency and salience as applied to public opinion?
c. How was the “canvas process” used in the 2000 election?
d. What is the meaning of polarization?
e. Why is proper sampling based upon randomness? Also, how do the poll
questions—wording, type, etc.—influence poll results?
f. How did the Republican STOMP program mobilize voters in 2002?
g. What is meant by political socialization?
h. How influential is your family in shaping your political attitudes?
i. What institution ranks next to the family?
j. What happens if a young person has a conflict between parents and friends?
k. Why is the mass media (especially TV) important?
l. Why are religion and ethnic background important?
m. Why do adults sometimes shift their childhood attitudes?
n. Name an issue about which there is general consensus.
o. How do the attentive public and part-time citizens differ?
2. Participation: Translating Opinions into Action
a. How can a citizen participate in government other than voting?
b. Why is politics mostly a private activity for most Americans?
c. In which election is voter turnout the greatest and the lowest?
d. How can voting laws affect voting rates?
e. How have eligibility standards for voting been expanded by legislation and constitutional amendments?
f. Why and how is registration important to political participation?
g. How does one explain the surge in 2000 voting by African Americans?
3. Voting Choices
a. How does partisanship identification differ from party registration?
b. Who are the independents? How do they differ from partisans?
c. What are the positive aspects of candidate appeal? Give examples of candidates with positive appeal, negative appeal. Use the Gore-Bush 2000 race.
d. How important are issues in determining how a person votes?
e. How does the U.S. compare to other countries in the categories of registration and voting?
4. Elections: The Rules of the Game
a. Who determines the rules for U.S. elections?
b. When are elections held in the United States?
c. Explain: fixed term; staggered term and term limitation.
d. What effect does the winner take all rule have on our elections?
e. What is the Electoral College? How important is it?
5. Running for Congress
a. Why do campaigns for Congress vary so widely?
b. What are some similarities between campaigns for the House and the Senate?
c. How is the election process distorted today?
d. How does an emphasis on personality and negative campaigning detract from the true issues?
What is the recent success rate of Representatives who run for reelection?
Why do critics say we are electing “representatives for life”?
f. Why must most Representatives build a personal rather than a party organization.
g. What advantages do incumbents have in running for reelection?
h. Does a big budget assure election to the House?
i. Why are Senate races more difficult to win?
j. Why are Senate races of the future less apt to favor incumbents?
k. Does negative campaigning seem to be effective?
l. What strategies did the GOP follow in the 2002 election?
3. Running for the President
a. How are most delegates to the national convention selected?
b. Why do Iowa and New Hampshire loom so large in the delegate selection
c. How have recent conventions been decided in advance?
d. Of what value is the party platform?
e. How is the candidate for vice president selected?
f. Why do parties continue to have conventions?
g. How do you run for president of the United States without political party
h. What factors are considered by candidates in planning their fall campaigns?
i. How do campaigns resemble marathons?
j. What is the impact of Presidential Debates?
4. Money in U.S. Elections/2002 Campaign Finance Reform Legislation
a. Cite the major scandals involving campaign money.
b. Why do the costs of campaigns continue to rise?
c. Why is PAC money so controversial?
d. How do we now finance presidential campaigns?
e Why was so much soft money spent in the 2002 election?
f. What is issue advocacy advertising? Why were these ads popular in 2002,
especially among senior groups? How did the 2002 reforms constrain the ads?
g. Why have restrictions on campaign spending not been extended to Congressional races?
h. What were some criticisms of the FECA?
i. What was accomplished by federal finance reform legislation?
j. Why is bipartisan campaign finance reform so difficult to achieve?
5. Improving Elections
a. What advantages are claimed for the party primary system?
b. What are the alleged disadvantages?
c. Why might a national primary be better?
d. Might national caucuses be better?
e. Should direct election of the president be substituted for the electoral college?
f. Is reform of the electoral college likely?
g. How can the voting process be reformed? What is "e-voting"?
Part II — Glossary
PARTY IDENTIFICATION - An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
PUBLIC OPINION - A cluster of views and attitudes held by a public on a significant issue. Since any complex society has many groups, it is more precise to talk about publics, sub-publics, and public opinions than about a single public opinion.
ATTENTIVE PUBLIC - The informed and knowledgeable segment of the population.
POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION - Process by which we develop our political attitudes and values.
AUSTRALIAN BALLOT - A secret ballot printed by the state.
TURNOUT - The proportion of the voting-age public that votes.
VOTER REGISTRATION - A system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
CANDIDATE APPEAL - How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality,
Leadership ability, and other personal qualities.
WINNER-TAKE-ALL - An election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
SINGLE-MEMBER DISTRICT - An electoral district in which voters choose one official.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION - An election system in which each party receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
CAUCUS - A meeting of party members.
INTERESTED MONEY - Contributions by individuals or groups in hopes of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy.
SOFT MONEY - Money contributed to a state or local party for party-building purposes that does not have to be disclosed under federal law.
ISSUE ADVERTISING - Commercial advertising on radio and TV advocating a particular position on an issue, paid for by interest groups and designed to influence voter’s choices.
INDEPENDENT EXPENDITURES - Money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office.
ELECTORAL COLLEGE - A group of presidential electors from each state chosen by the people to elect a President and Vice President. Each state is allotted as many electors as it has senators and representatives in Congress.
NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTION – A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Part III — Pretest
1. Public opinion is best thought of as
a. the will of the people.
b. a diversity of opinion within a particular population.
c. media reflection of public attitudes.
d. voter attitudes.
2. An institutional barrier that blocks people from voting is
a. distant voting booths. c. unattractive candidates.
b. registration. d. lack of party competition.
3. The most homogeneous of all groups in molding political opinion is
a. school. c. church membership.
b. work. d. family.
4. Which of the following was most apt to vote Democratic in recent elections?
a. Jews c. White Protestants
b. Blacks d. Catholics
5. The major force in the early socialization of children is
a. television. c. school.
b. family. d. playmates.
6. The most influential factor in forming the attitudes of children is
a. intelligence. c. class and race.
b. psychological and genetic traits. d. family and school.
7. Which group tends to be more liberal on both economic/non-economic issues?
a. Catholic c. atheist
b. Jewish d. Protestant
8. In 2002, both parties were launching major efforts to register/mobilize
voters for 2004 from which rapidly-growing ethnic or racial group?
a. Asian Americans c. Hispanics
b. African Americans d. Arab-Americans
9. The most important factor in winning a congressional race is
a. personal contact. c. press coverage.
b. TV time. d. money.
10. Recent presidential conventions have been noteworthy because
a. the winner was known in advance.
b. major rivals made a down to the wire finish.
c. excitement ran high.
d. philosophical differences were deep.
11. The political strength of congressional incumbents has made modern elections
a. highly competitive. c. uncompetitive.
b. political party contests. d. strictly rational contests.
12. The campaign reform law of 1974 was chiefly concerned with
a. campaign finance. c. nomination procedures.
b. media coverage. d. delegate selection.
13. To attain the presidency, a candidate must achieve two goals. These are
a. have the largest number of delegates prior to coming to the national convention, and then obtain a majority of the popular vote.
b. be nominated at the party convention, and obtain a majority of the electoral votes.
c. be nominated at the party convention, and obtain both a majority of the popular vote and the electoral vote.
d. be nominated at the party convention, and win a majority of the popular vote.
14. A recent movement for change in the electoral system has pushed for
a. fixed terms. c. term limitations.
b. staggered terms. d. uniform terms.
15. In the event that no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral vote, the president is chosen by
a. Congress. c. House of Representatives.
b. Supreme Court. d. Senate.
16. The 2002 legislation raised the individual contribution limit to a candidate in the two year
campaign cycle to __________ dollars.
a. 4000 c. 2000
b. 3000 d. 1000
17. The largest item in recent congressional campaigns has been for
a. TV radio advertising. c. polls.
b. consultants. d. printing and mailing.
Part IV — Programmed Review
Knowledge Objective: To consider the complexity of public opinion
1. The people speak with many voices. There is no one set _____ _____.
2. The characteristic of public opinion that measures how strongly people feel on an issue is called _____.
3. _____ attitudes are dormant but may be evoked into action.
4. Opinions which are closely associated with the lives of the individuals are called _____.
5. When a large majority of voters agree on an issue, we have reached _____.
6. When strong opinions are nearly equally divided on an issue, the result is _____.
Knowledge Objective: To examine how we acquire our political attitudes
7. The _____ unit instills the basic attitudes that shape future opinions.
8. The process by which we develop our political attitudes is called political _____.
9. The attitudes of children are shaped by their family _____.
10. After 9/11, many Americans turned their attention to ______ fundamentalism.
11. One should avoid _______ when talking about racial or religious voting.
Knowledge Objective: To examine the practice of “taking the pulse of the people”
12. An accurate poll must be based on a _____ sample of the total universe.
13. Plus or minus 3 percentage points refers to a poll’s margin of _______.
Knowledge Objective: To identify those who vote and those who do not
14. The type of political activity most Americans engage in is _____.
15. A subset of the public that has a high level of political interest and awareness is the _____ public
16. In recent presidential elections, about (half, three quarters) _____ of potential voters cast ballots.
17. Compared to other nations, voting participation by Americans is (low, high) _____.
18. The key factor that determines the degree of voting participation is _____.
19. Highly educated people are (more, less) _____ apt to vote.
20. In an effort to attract young voters, Congress passed the _____ ______law.
Knowledge Objective: To determine the patterns of American voting
21. The _____ has the greatest influence in determining a person's voting patterns and party allegiance.
22. The best indicator of how a person will vote is _____ identification.
23. More than a third of the voters can be called _____.
24. Recent elections marked a focus from parties to _____.
25. Low income voters tend to judge a candidate (more/less) on the basis of their own personal financial condition.
26. A person's subjective sense of political identification is called _____.
27. Outranking issues or political ideology is _____ identification.
28. Most presidential candidates (do, do not) _____ clearly define their attitudes on issues.
Knowledge objective: To review the rules for elections
29. Most electoral rules are still matters of _____ law.
30. Federal general elections are the first Tuesday after the first _____ in November of _____ numbered years.
31. Politicians can plan for the next election because we have _____ terms.
32. A recent movement wants to _____ terms of office.
33. Politicians who announce they will not run again are called _____ _____.
34. With our winner-take-all system a winner does not necessarily need to have a _____ of the vote.
35. Proportional representation rewards _____ parties.
36. To win the presidency, the candidate must have a majority vote of the _____ _____.
37. Under the electoral college system, a candidate either wins _____ or _____ of a state's electoral votes.
38. Most states provide for the selection of electors on a (state, district) _____ basis.
39. If no presidential candidate secures a majority of the electoral votes the _____ _____ _____ decides.
Knowledge Objective: To examine the process of running for Congress
40. Competitiveness in congressional elections (has, has not) _____ increased slightly over the past twenty years.
41. Senate elections are likely to be (more, less) _____ competitive than House elections.
42. Congressional candidates whose vote is increased by a strong presidential candidate are said to benefit from the _____ influence.
43. New campaign technology tends to emphasize _____ over issues.
44. Keeping a House seat is (easier, harder) _____ than gaining one.
45. In midterm elections support for the party in power almost always _____.
46. Candidates for Congress secure most of their campaign funds from (the party, personal contributions) _____.
47. Focusing on an opponent's failings is _____ campaigning.
Knowledge Objective: To trace the steps in nominating and electing a president
48. Presidential candidates are now selected by their parties chiefly through the use of _____.
49. When voters in a presidential primary indicate their preference from a list of candidates, the election is commonly referred to as a _____ contest.
50. National conventions normally select a party candidate for president and vice president and write a _____.
51. The party platform is (binding, non binding) _____ on the candidate.
52. Nominating conventions provide a time to build party _____.
53. Mistakes made during a presidential debate may damage the candidate's _____.
Knowledge Objective: To study proposed reforms of the electoral college and presidential primaries
54. In caucus states, candidates are less dependent on the _____ and more dependent on their abilities to reach _____ activists.
55. Reform of presidential primaries concentrates on _____ or a _____ primary.
56. The main argument for presidential primaries is that they open up the nomination process to _____ voters.
57. Critics contend the primaries test the candidate for the ability to play the _____ _____.
58. The most common electoral college reform is ____ ____ _____ of the president.
Knowledge Objective: To analyze the sources/uses of money in national campaigns
59. All congressional candidates (are, are not) _____ required to report their campaign contributions and expenditures.
60. FECA election regulations are being undermined by _____ money.
61. The key to congressional campaigns are _____.
62. Organizations and individuals (do, do not) _____ have limitations placed on the amount they may spend independently of a campaign organization.
63. Congressional candidates (do, do not) _____ receive federal campaign funds.
64. The 2002 campaign finance reform law does not constrain ______ expenditures by groups/individuals separately from political candidates.
65. The 1974 campaign reform law achieved a breakthrough by providing for public _____ of presidential campaigns.
66. The 2002 reforms ______ (did, did not) address incumbent fund-raising advantages.
67. The 2002 campaign finance reform law bans broadcast ads that show the _______ or _______ of a candidate and occurs in _______ days before a general election.
Part V — Post-test
1. The Bush presidential quality that mattered most to voters in 2000 was
a. strong leadership. c. honesty.
b. caring about people, d. understanding issues.
2. One of the following is not a reason why low income people vote in fewer numbers.
a. They have less sense of involvement and confidence.
b. They feel at a disadvantage in social contacts.
c. Their social norms tend to deemphasize politics.
d. They can't afford registration fees.
3. All of the following are true about voter statistics except
a. men out vote women by a large majority.
b. middle aged people are more likely to vote than younger people.
c. college educated persons vote more than high school graduates.
d. persons who are active in organized groups are more likely to vote.
4. An off year election is one in which
a. the president is running for reelection.
b. governors are selected.
c. senators are selected.
d. local officials are selected.
5. Candidates with positive appeal include all but
a. Eisenhower. c. Carter.
b. Kennedy. d. Reagan.
6. Voters tend to vote against an incumbent if
a. the budget is out of balance.
b. there is an issue conflict.
c. their personal fortunes are declining.
d. they have not implemented their campaign promises.
7. In 2002, one-in-four voters declared that their vote was based on which issue(s)?
a. the war in Afghanistan c. ethics in government
b. terrorism and civil liberties d. jobs and the economy
8. Voter registration procedures have been eased by connecting registration to
a. college registration. c. a driver's license.
b. Email. d. W 4 forms.
9. A good public opinion poll does not require
a. qualified interviewers.
b. carefully phrased questions.
c. a 25% sample of the universe.
d. a representative sample of the universe.
10. One famous presidential election that the Gallup Poll got wrong was in the year
a. 1948 c. 1984.
b. 1960. d. none of these.
11. The bias of the electoral college favors
a. one party states. c. populous urban states.
b. rural areas. d. modified one party states.
12. A state's electoral vote is determined by
b. previous voting patterns in presidential elections.
c. a complicated formula devised by Congress.
d. the number of its representatives and senators.
13. To be elected president, a candidate must receive
a. a plurality of electoral votes.
b. a majority of electoral votes.
c. a majority of states as well as electoral votes.
d. a majority of the popular vote.
14. Most delegates to the national nominating convention are chosen by
a. popular votes. c. state conventions.
b. primary elections. d. state committees.
15. New candidates for the House of Representatives are normally concerned with
a. timing. c. recognition
b. financial support. d. all of the above
16. A “permanent Congress” is a result of
a. advantages held by incumbents. c. redistricting.
b. direct mail. d. direct primaries.
Part VI — Political Dialogue:
The Clash of Issues and Ideas
1. “The Democratic Party is no longer the majority party in presidential elections but then neither is the Republican Party.” Discuss.
2. Suppose we were to enact a law on compulsory voting and fined every voter $25 if he failed to cast a ballot. Would such a system strengthen or weaken democracy? Who does not vote at the present time? Are there any ways of expanding the percentage of voters without using penalties? Is there a case for nonvoting? Should we expand the electorate to the point where over 90 percent of all eligible voters vote on election day?
3. In the 1980 Presidential election, all TV networks announced the winner before polling places had closed on the West Coast. Allegedly, some potential West Coast voters reacted to this news by staying home, thereby causing the defeat of many Democratic candidates. Should TV networks be prohibited from making such announcements in future elections? If a ban is imposed, is freedom of speech being restricted? In addition, discuss the impact of the networks in the 2000 presidential election, especially their early call of Florida for Gore, then subsequently for Bush, then claiming the state was “too close to call.”
4. Present several controversial issues raised in this chapter in a debate format:
a. Resolved: Public opinion polls should be eliminated or at least restrained because they tend to abort discussion on public issues and public candidates and because they tend to induce in public officials an attitude of fellowship rather than leadership.
b. Resolved: That government should establish a national public opinion research center which will survey the public on all significant issues relating to national policy.
5. As an innocent bystander you become involved in a discussion centered around the topic, “better brains for better politics.” A speaker in the group complains that the average person votes his prejudices, his private interests, his ignorance. “Look at the absurdity of the present situation,” he says, “You spend four years in college and your vote is not worth any more than that of the butcher, the baker, the candlestick maker.” To correct this, the speaker proposes a system of weighted voting which would reward the diligent and the informed citizen. His plan calls for a program of multi voting in which:
a. Every qualified citizen would have one vote.
b. Every qualified citizen would receive an additional vote for higher education; one vote for each of the following degrees: associate of arts (junior college); bachelor's degree; master's degree; doctor's degree.
c. Every qualified citizen would receive an additional vote for distinguished citations—starred scientist; Pulitzer prize winner; Nobel prize winner; Who's Who listing, etc.
d. Every qualified citizen would receive an additional vote for each creative achievement such as writing a significant book or making an important invention. A national board would determine whether the achievement could be classified as “creative.”
How would you respond to the speaker's proposal?
What fallacies or errors do you see in his assumptions?
6. Evaluate each of the following proposals as to their impact on the presidential election process:
a. Restrict state primaries to a time framework (5-10 months) before the
b. A single national primary four months before the final election.
c. A mini convention 2 months before the November election dedicated only to writing party platforms.
d. A general election in November with the winner being determined by the national popular vote.
e. A general election in November with a winner in each Congressional district receiving one vote (plus two votes for carrying the state).
7. Describe the strategies you would use to win a congressional seat.
8. Debate whether the debates staged between presidential contenders have been useful to voters.
9. Explain why Congress has refused to provide federal financing for congressional elections.
10. Analyze criticisms of the electoral college system and the alleged advantages and disadvantages of various reform proposals.
11. When is an issue ad an election ad?
12. Review the methods of campaign financing in Britain and Canada.
Part VII — Political Science Today
1. As the chapter suggests, the role of the family is quite important to the overall political socialization process. Try to think about your own childhood and the kind of political environment to which you were exposed. Did your parents talk about politics often around the dinner table or on numerous family occasions? Or were political events and personalities hardly mentioned? Did your parents disagree about politics? Were they members of different political parties? Do you currently identify with the party of your parents (assuming they both belonged to one party)? Finally, what specific political values and/or assumptions do you think were learned from your family? It might prove interesting to talk with other classmates about their early political socialization experiences.
2. Do you consider yourself a political liberal or conservative? Assuming that you are in your first or second year of college, do you think your political views will change by the time you graduate? Why/why not? Talk with seniors at your college to determine whether their political views have changed during their college experience. Why/why not? Note your findings in a one-page summary.
3. As a corollary to item 3, do you think citizens should be fined for refusing to vote on election day? Would fines increase participation across the nation or would they be counterproductive? (See the chapter table on “Registration and Voting in the World’s Democracies”.) Is the choice to not vote a form of voting? Again, debate the question.
4. Toward which political issues of the day do you feel the public would have high levels of salience and intensity? If you contrasted your age bracket with the age category of your parents or even grandparents, how would the list of issues change (or would they)? As an experiment, compile a list relevant to you and your classmates, then ask your parents and/or grandparents which issues would be viewed as important by them. You may find that age differences are frequently linked to different sets of opinions or even what issues are worth thinking about.
5. Admittedly, money plays an important role in modern political campaigning. But does the campaigner who always spends the most money necessarily win? Try to find examples of campaigns from recent political history, preferably at the congressional or senatorial level, where the candidate who was actually outspent emerged victorious anyway. In those races where this phenomena occurred, analyze why money, by itself, was not enough to insure victory.
6. Note that with the current structure and operation of the Electoral College, it would be possible for a presidential candidate to receive a majority of the national popular vote but not a majority of the electoral vote. Consequently, should the Electoral College be changed or even abolished in order to prevent this outcome? Why not merely abolish the Electoral College and simply elect the man or woman who receives the most popular votes—period? A provision could be inserted that no candidate could be elected (assume a third party candidate was running) unless he or she received at least forty percent of the popular vote. If this did not happen, then there would be a national runoff between the top two vote getters.
Would you favor or oppose this plan? Try to cite your reasons for your viewpoint. Reviewing appropriate text sections will help you.
7. What political, economic, and social factors influenced the outcome of the 2002 election? Find one or two articles written in November of 2002 that attempted to explain the GOP gains in Congress. Similarly, what factors influenced the 2000 presidential election? Research newspaper or magazine articles published in November/December of 2000.
Part VIII — Data Analysis
1. The motor voter bill enacted in 1993 was designed to encourage voter registration. However, registration does not automatically translate into participation. Turnout has not increased due to the law. Check national news sources for data and commentary about the November 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002 election voter turnouts. Was the impact of the motor voter bill discussed? If so, what observations were presented?
Review previous Gallup polls. In which presidential elections between 1944-2000 were the pollsters most or least accurate in predicting the presidential winner? What campaign and voting factors do you think caused the greatest accuracy problems for polling organizations?
3. Review the disputed results of the 2000 presidential election, especially in Florida.
4. Utilize national publications which reported on voting data for the 2000 Presidential election. Based on the information, what types of observations were made in post-election commentaries? Do the same for the 2002 election.
5. Review the data from Figure 9-1, “Seats Lost by the President's Party in National Midterm Elections for the House/Senate, 1938-2002.” How many seats did the Democratic Party lose in the 1994 but gain in the 1998 Congressional election? What factors were responsible? Similarly, what were the seat gains for the GOP in 2002?
Part IX — Test Answers
1. b 10. a
2. b 11. c
3. d 12. a
4. b 13. b
5. b 14. c
6. d 15. c
7. d 16. a
8. c 17. a
1. public opinion 34. majority
2. intensity 35. minority
3. Latent 36. electoral college
4. salient 37. all; none
5. consensus 38. state
polarization 39. House of Representatives
family 40. has not
socialization 41. more
environment 42. coattail
Islamic 43. personality
11. stereotype 44. easier
12. random 45. declines
13. error 46. personal contributions
14. voting 47. negative
15. attentive 48. primaries
16. half 49. beauty
17. low 50. platform
18. education 51. non-binding
19. more 52. unity
20. Motor voter 53. credibility
21. family 54. media; political
22. party 55. national; regional
23. independent 56. more
24. candidates 57. media game
25. more 58. direct popular election
26. partisanship 59. are
27. partisan 60. soft
28. do not 61. PACs
29. state 62. do not
30. Monday; even 63. do not
31. fixed 64. independent
32. limit 65. financing
33. lame duck 66. did not
67. image; likeness; 60
1. c 10. a
2. d 11. c
3. a 12. d
4. d 13. b
5. c 14. b
6. c 15. d
7. d 16. a
Analysis will depend upon student's research.