Chapter 6■ Life in the Cotton Kingdom, 1793-1861



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Chapter 6■ Life in the Cotton Kingdom, 1793-1861 ■ Chapter 6

Name _____________________________________________ Date_____________________

Chapter 6 Reviewing Main Ideas, text p. 213

21. How did the domestic slave trade and the exploitation of black women affect slave families?


22. Were black slaveholders significant in the history of slavery?


23. How did urban and industrial slavery differ from plantation slavery in the Old South?


24. What impact did housing, nutrition, and disease have on the lives of slaves between 1820 and

1860?

Name _____________________________________________ Date_____________________

Chapter 6 Reviewing Main Ideas, text p. 213


25. How did black Christianity differ from white Christianity in the Old South?


26. How did black Christianity in the South differ from black Christianity in the North?


Name _____________________________________________ Date_____________________

Chapter 6 Writing Activity
How did blacks resist the oppression of the slave system? What steps did whites take to

eliminate resistance?

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CHAPTER SIX:

LIFE IN THE COTTON KINGDOM
CHAPTER SUMMARY
As cotton grew as a cash crop across the South, slavery also expanded through the domestic slave trade, with Eastern slaves shipped South and West. Most slaves during the period of 1820 to 1860 remained agricultural workers, tending cotton, tobacco, or rice. Life varied according to the type of plantation, with rice cultivation generally allowing slaves some levels of autonomy, sugar offering the most demanding labor, and cotton being the most common. About one-quarter of all slaves avoided the fields and worked as house servants or in the skilled trades. Although house or skilled work was less physically demanding, these slaves faced the constant oversight of the master and his family. Slaves also worked in urban areas, sometimes hiring themselves out and gaining freedom from their work. Others worked in Southern factories, producing textiles, chewing tobacco, iron, or lumber. Although treatment of slaves varied by the owner’s personality, the system of slavery rested entirely upon a threat of force, should assigned tasks not be carried out. Few slaves lived without whippings or some form of physical punishment. Despite difficulties, slaves formed and tried to maintain family life. Children faced short childhoods, pushed into adult labor before their teenage years. Slave women faced the danger of childbirth and high infant mortality rates, and also the constant threat of sexual exploitation. Other elements of slave life were comparatively better. Although lacking today’s standards, slave diets and general health were actually far better than slaves in other regions and generally comparable to whites. Slaves learned multiple coping skills as they moved through life, including the use of deception and adopting certain aspects of Christianity to help them cope with difficult situations.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Understand the various types of, and the variations between, agricultural work performed by slaves.


Understand the differences and similarities between the duties, difficulties, and advantages of house slaves, skilled slaves, urban slaves, and agricultural slaves.
Understand the role of punishment in slavery, as well as the difficulties of the slave trade within the American states.
Understand the characteristics of slave families in the South, including variations by age and, gender.
Understand the differences between health and diet of American slaves versus other slaves.
Understand the importance of slave culture, including folktales, the use of deception, and religion.
TOPICS FOR LECTURES/LONG ESSAYS OR PAPERS/CLASS DISCUSSIONS
Discuss the various elements of historiography for slavery from Reconstruction through the 1890s, including Phillips, Genovese and Elkins. Why do these historians, supposedly looking at the same issue, come up with such different interpretations of slaves and slavery? What does this tell us about history? How does the time period in which historians write influence their work?

Discuss the variations among urban, agricultural, house servant, and skilled work among slaves. Which was the “best” type of work? Why? Which was the “worst”?

Discuss African-American slave ownership. What does this tell us about blacks in America? How were black slave owners different from or similar to white slave owners?

How did slave life vary by gender? By age? What difficulties did these differences present for the slave family?



Discuss the development of Christianity among slaves. What were the differences between the messages sent by masters and the messages received or used by slaves?
CHAPTER OUTLINE
I. Introduction
II. The Expansion of Slavery

A. Slave Population Growth

B. Ownership of Slaves in the Old South

1. Number owning slaves

2. Number of slaves owned

3. African-American slave ownership
III. Slave Labor in Agriculture

A. Tobacco

1. Labor

2. Punishments

B. Rice

1. Labor/Size

2. Punishments

C. Sugar

1. Labor

2. Conditions

D. Cotton

1. Importance

2. Culture

3. Varieties

4. Effects on slavery

5. Labor

E. Other Crops

1. Wheat

2. Hemp
IV. House Servants and Skilled Slaves

A. House Servants

1. Work

2. Advantages/Disadvantages

B. Skilled Slaves

1. Work

2. Advantages/Disadvantages
V. Urban and Industrial Slavery

A. Urban Slavery

1. Population

2. Independence

3. Work

B. Industrial Slavery

1. Types

2. Advantages
VI. Punishment

A. Justifications

B. Resistance
VII. The Domestic Slave Trade

A. Resistance

B. Numbers

C. Path Taken

D. Horrors/Difficulties
VIII. Slave Families

A. Reasons for Development of Families

B. Role in Slave Community

C. Wedding Ceremonies

D. Married Life

E. Children

1. Role of extended family

2. Infant mortality rates

3. Care of children

4. Growing up
F. Sexual Exploitation

1. Rape

2. Justifications

G. Diet

1. Deficiencies

2. Compared with others

3. African-American cuisine

H. Clothing

1. Materials/Allotment

2. Individual Clothes

I. Health

1. Common Diseases

2. Difference from Europeans

3. Compared with others

4. Remedies
IX. The Socialization of Slaves

A. Folktales

B. Importance of Deception
X. Religion

A. Biracial Congregations

B. Christianity’s Message to Slaves
XI. The Character of Slavery and Slaves

A. Ulrich B. Phillips

B. Post 1950s Historians

C. Stanley Elkins
XII. Conclusion

TEST MATERIALS



IDENTIFICATIONS (Factual and Conceptual)

(For each of the following, identify by answering the questions – who? what? when? where? and And describe the significance by answering the questions – why Why is this important? Why do we study this?)
Eli Whitney

cotton gin

The Trail of Tears

Old South

William Johnson

Margaret Mitchell Harris

Betsy Somayrac

Black Belt

hire their time”



April Ellison

term slavery”

peculiar institution”

Cotton Kingdom

slave prisons

slave pens

coffles

taking up”



jumping the broom”

Robert Newsom and Celia

shirts

shifts

lactose intolerance

pica

kaolin

Br’er Rabbit

Ulrich B. Phillips

Eugene D. Genovese

Stanley Elkins

Sambo
OBJECTIVE/ANALYTICAL QUESTIONS
The Expansion of Slavery
1. What was the effect of the expansion of cotton culture on slave populations? On Native American populations?
(Answer, page 136) [Conceptual]
2. What do the experiences of Solomon Northrup tell us about the institution of slavery?

(Answer, page 137) [Conceptual]
3. Which state had the largest slave population during the period 1820-1860?

a. Alabama

b. Mississippi

c. Louisiana

d. Virginia
(Answer: d; page 138) [Factual]
4. Which state experienced the highest growth rate in slaves between 1820 and 1860?

a. Alabama

b. Mississippi

c. Louisiana

d. Virginia
(Answer: c; page 138) [Factual]
5. Examine Map 6-1. Describe the geographic growth of cotton production between 1820 and-1860.
(Answer, page 138) [Conceptual]
6. Which of the following is true about slave ownership in the Old South?

a. About half of the white population in the South owned slaves.

b. Most slaveholders owned more than twenty slaves.

c. Slave holding was practiced by more people in 1860 than in 1830.

d. A small percentage of African Americans owned slaves.
(Answer: d; page 139) [Factual]
7. How was slave ownership distributed?
(Answer, page 139) [Factual]
8. Why did some African Americans own slaves?
(Answer, page 139) [Factual]
9. What do Margaret Mitchell Harris and Betsy Somayrac tell us about slave ownership?
(Answer, page 139) [Conceptual]
10. Which of the following is not true about African- American slave ownership?.

a. It was always for the purpose of freeing the slaves they bought.

b. Some women owned slaves.

c. Blacks sometimes owned slaves for economic purposes, rather than purchasing the members of their family.

d. All of the above are false.
(Answer: a; page 139) [Factual]

Slave Labor iIn Agriculture



11. What crop did most agricultural slaves tend?

a. Cotton

b. Potatoes

c. Hemp

d. Rice
(Answer: a; page 139) [Factual]
12. Examine Map 6-2. How do slave population counts correspond to the use of cotton as a crop?
(Answer, page 140) [Conceptual]
13. Where was tobacco cultivation important?

a. Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

b. Virginia, and small areas of Pennsylvania.

c. Kentucky and Alabama.

d. All of the above.
(Answer: a; page 140) [Factual]
14. What punishments did slaves who worked tobacco fields face if their work was not up to standards?

a. Being whipped.

b. Having to eat worms left on tobacco leaves.

c. Having to inhale tobacco smoke.

d. All of the above.
(Answer: d; pages 140-141) [Factual]
15. Where was rice cultivation important?

a. In the swampy regions of Georgia and Florida.

b. Along the banks of the Mississippi River.

c. In certain areas of South Carolina and Georgia.

d. In Virginia and Maryland.
(Answer: c; page 141) [Factual]
16. Which crop employed the largest number of slaves on a single plantation?

a. Cotton

b. Rice

c. Indigo

d. Silk
(Answer: b; page 141) [Factual]
17. Which very profitable crop pushed owners to work their slaves very hard, under very difficult time and weather conditions?

a. Sugarcane

b. Cotton

c. Rice

d. Silk
(Answer: a; page 141) [Factual]
18. Which slave-dependent crop was by far the most important to the country as a whole?

a. Sugarcane

b. Rice

c. Cotton

d. Tobacco
(Answer: c; page 141) [Factual]
19. Examine Map 6-3. What differences do you begin to see in the North and the South by 1850 regarding economic systems?
(Answer, page 142) [Factual]
20. Why did cotton farmers use slaves?

a. Cotton farming involved very intensive, laborious care and cultivation over the entire season.

b. Cotton planting and culture was spread over a very extensive area.

c. Cotton farmers generally were in Alabama and Mississippi, where racism was strongest.

d. All of the above.
(Answer: b; page 142) [Conceptual]
21. Which new states led the production of cotton, in what was called the “Black Belt”?

a. Virginia and North Carolina

b. Georgia and Tennessee

c. Tennessee and Kentucky

d. Alabama and Mississippi
(Answer: d; page 142) [Factual]
22. What is true about women’s labor in agricultural work in the South?

a. They were not allowed to work outside the house, although their labor was very difficult.

b. They often did the same, physically demanding, backbreaking work as the men.

c. Black women were actually valued far more than men for their work.

d. Black women were sometimes allowed to learn to read and write, so they could teach the white children.
(Answer: b; pages 142-143) [Factual]
23. Which crop replaced tobacco as the main cash crop of Virginia and Maryland?

a. Cotton

b. Sugarcane

c. Potatoes

d. Wheat
(Answer: d; page 143) [Factual]
24. Kentucky raised a significant quantity of hemp, a plant related to marijuana. What was hemp used for?

a. Medicine and painkillers.

b. Helping to start fires for iron production.

c. Feeding cows.

d. Rope and bagging for cotton bales.
(Answer: d; page 143) [Factual]
25. List several differences and similarities between rice, tobacco, sugar and cotton cultivation by slaves. Include a discussion of geography, labor, and punishments.
(Answer, pages 140-143) [Conceptual]
26. Why and how was cotton such an important crop?
(Answer, pages 141-143) [Conceptual]

House Servants and Skilled Slaves


27. What percentage of slaves did not have to work primarily as field hands?

a. 5%

b. 25%

c. 80%

d. No statistics have been found regarding slaves’ work.
(Answer: b; page 143) [Factual]
28. Which slave group had the highest status on the plantation?

a. House servants.

b. Skilled slaves.

c. The fastest worker in the field.

d. The women, who bore children.
(Answer: b; page 144) [Factual]
29. What was a primary advantage of being a skilled slave?

a. They had authority and power over the other slaves, and could limit punishment.

b. They were often looked at by other slaves as a religious leader.

c. It was possible for them to get a taste of freedom and independence through their skills.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: c; page 144) [Conceptual]
30. What were some of the advantages/disadvantages of being a house servant?
(Answer, page 144) [Conceptual]

Urban and Industrial Slavery


31. How was life different for slaves in the city than on the plantation?

a. They could live on their own if they contracted with their masters.

b. They could perform jobs that immigrants were doing in Northern cities.

c. They frequently relied on the free black communities to help them escape.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: d; pages 144-146) [Conceptual]
32. Examine Map 6-4. Where are the most free African Americans in 1850 in the South? Why in this area?
(Answer, page 146) [Conceptual]
33. Why did slaves prefer even dirty, menial industrial labor to plantation work?
(Answer, page 146) [Conceptual]
34. What types of industries were present in the South at this time and employing slave labor?
(Answer, pages 145-146) [Factual]
35. What does April Ellison’s story tell us about slavery?
(Answer, page 147) [Conceptual]
36. Discuss several differences between slavery in cities and slavery on plantations.
(Answer, pages 140-146) [Conceptual]

Punishment


37. Which of the following statements is true about punishment for slaves?

a. Punishment was really overstated – most slaves were never physically punished in any way.

b. Southern whites thought that blacks would not work unless they had the threat of physical punishment.

c. Generally, women and children were exempt from the more vicious forms of physical punishment.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: b; page 146) [Factual]

The Domestic Slave Trade


38. As cotton expanded as a cash crop, the slave trade

a. Became more humane, as owners wanted to keep slaves alive for work.

b. Brought in more slaves from Africa to help meet the increased demand.

c. Grew tremendously within the United States, with owners selling slaves to the newly opened up cotton areas.

d. None of the above.
(Answer: bc; pages 147-149) [Factual]
39. How did the slave trade change with the growth of cotton as a cash crop?
(Answer, pages 147-148) [Conceptual]
40. What percentage of slaves from the upper South moved into the Southwest as the cotton trade opened up?

a. Very few, since slaves generally reproduced well in the Southwest, few imports were needed.

b. Almost all of them, as slavery began to die in the Upper South.

c. People kept no statistics on the movements of slaves at this time.

d. 50% between 1820 and 1860.
(Answer: d; page 149) [Factual]
41. Most victims of the slave trade moved by foot, usually chained or roped together, in groups called _______________.
(Answer: coffles; page 149) [Factual]
42. What city served as a major slave market for slaves moving through the Southwest?

a. New York

b. St. Louis

c. New Orleans

d. Atlanta
(Answer: c; page 149) [Factual]
43. Most Southerners saw slavery as a benign institution. What evidence about slavery does the slave trade tell us?
(Answer, pages 146-147, 149) [Conceptual]

Slave Families


44. “Jumping the broom” was

a. A European wedding custom, practiced by slaves at times.

b. An ancient African custom which informally joined a couple.

c. A method of punishing slaves.

d. A method of determining whom one’s mate would be.
(Answer: a; page 150) [Factual]
45. Which of the following is not true about slave marriages?

a. Women and men were more equal as husband and wife than white couples.

b. Many masters allowed slaves to have legal, formal wedding ceremonies.

c. Couples sometimes did not live on the same plantation, and could only visit each other when the master allowed it.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: b; page 150) [Factual]
46. Why would masters encourage families among slaves?
(Answer, pages 149-150) [Conceptual]
47. How did the relationship of black husbands and wives differ from whites’ relationships?
(Answer, page 150) [Conceptual]
48. Why was the extended family important to slaves?
(Answer, page 150) [Conceptual]
49. What is true about slave childhood?

a. Slave children, since they were highly valued by the master, were well taken care of. Fewer slave children died than white children.

b. Slave children rarely played with white children, since the master would not allow it.

c. Slave children grew up much faster than white children, and were usually doing adult work between the ages of 8 and -12.

d. None of the above areis true..
(Answer: c; page 151) [Factual]
50. Why was infant mortality higher for slave women?
(Answer, page 151) [Factual]
51. How did black children face slave life? How wereas their lives and work and lives different on a small plantation versus a large one?
(Answer, page 151) [Conceptual]
52. What skills did slave children have to learn quickly?
(Answer, page 151) [Conceptual]
53. How did white southerners justify the sexual exploitation of black women?

a. It helped white women stay pure.

b. The black women were inherently promiscuous.

c. Black women were responsible, since they seduced the white men.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: d; page 152) [Conceptual]
54. What does the example of Celia and Robert Newsom in 1855 tell us about sexual exploitation of black women?

a. The court refused to accept that Celia had a right to defend herself from rape.

b. White men could be held accountable for the murder of their slaves, especially female slaves.

c. Sexual exploitation rarely happened, since generally the slave women instigated the matter.

d. None of the above are true..
(Answer: a; page 152) [Conceptual]
55. Discuss the relationship between Robert Newsom and Celia. What does that example tell us about slavery?
(Answer, page 152) [Conceptual]
56. What was the effect of the sexual exploitation of black women on the slave family?
(Answer, page 152) [Conceptual]
57. A slaves’ diet in the period between 1820 and 1860

a. Was equal to whites’ diet, and not far from today’s standards, since they got a lot of fresh vegetables.

b. Was poor by today’s standards, but not by the standards of the rest of the world.

c. Generally was very European in style, since the master refused to let them cook anything else.

d. All of the above.
(Answer: b; page 152) [Factual]
58. How did the slave diet compare with slaves and free people in the rest of the world?
(Answer, page 152) [Factual]
59. Slave clothing was generally

a. Very beautiful, as the slave women wove their own cloth for their families and made all of their own clothes.

b. Plentiful, but often not very warm in colder regions of the South.

c. Pretty sparsse, as they only got clothing from the master twice a year.

d. The same for all ages and genders of slaves.
(Answer: c; page 153) [Factual]
60. How did slaves personalize clothes?
(Answer, page 153) [Factual]
61. How did slave clothing change as a slave aged?
(Answer, page 153) [Factual]
62. What health problem did Europeans have to worry about, but African -Americans were generally immune to?

a. Food poisoning

b. Lactose intolerance

c. Dysentery

d. Malaria
(Answer: d; page 153) [Factual]
63. How did slave’s’ general health compare with the slave populations in the rest of the world?

a. American slaves’ health was much worse, since masters gave them inadequate diet and medical knowledge was so poor.

b. American slaves’ death rates were generally much worse than both white Southerners’ and other slaves’ death rates or than other slaves.

c. American slaves’ health was generally better – they were the only group to grow through natural reproduction.

d. Generally about the same as other slave groups, since they all practiced the same folk remedies for illness.
(Answer: c; pages 153-154) [Conceptual]
64. What health problems did slaves have? How were they different from or similar to Europeans’ health? To white Southerners? To the rest of the world’s slave population?
(Answer, pages 153-154) [Conceptual]
65. What methods did slaves use to treat sicknesses?
(Answer, page 154) [Factual]

The Socialization of Slaves


66. Who was the most famous of the animal tricksters found in African-American folktales?

_________________.
(Answer: Br’’er Rabbit; page 154) [Factual]
67. What was the importance of the animal trickster folktales?

a. They helped show slaves that sometimes the weaker, but cleverer, character wins.

b. They demonstrate the continuation of African culture.

c. They helped children learn lessons of survival and wits.

d. All of the above.
(Answer: d; page 154) [Conceptual]
68. Why was deception so important to slaves?
(Answer, page 154) [Conceptual]

Religion


69. How did masters manipulate the message of Christianity for slaves? What messages did slaves themselves take from Christianity?
(Answer, pages 154-155) [Conceptual]
70. What elements of Christianity did white masters choose to present to their slaves?

a. That they must obey their masters, just like they were supposed to obey God.

b. White masters refused to allow their slaves any access to Christianity.

c. White masters emphasized Jesus’s love for all mankind.

d. They generally allowed the slaves to practice Christianity in any way they pleased.
(Answer: a; pages 154-155) [Factual]
71. What elements of Christianity did slaves emphasize in their religion?

a. Slaves incorporated indigenous African beliefs into some elements of Christianity.

b. Slaves generally stuck closely to Bible theology, as their leaders were often literate slaves.

c. Moses and the lesson of deliverance from bondage.

d. All of the above are true.
(Answer: d; page 155) [Factual]

The Character of Slavery and Slaves


72. Which of the following historians felt that slavery was a generally beneficial institution where slaveholders cared for happy slaves?

a. Kenneth Stampp

b. Stanley Elkins

c. Ulrich B. Phillips

d. Eugene Genovese
(Answer: c; page 155) [Factual]
73. What do historians have to say about the conditions of slaves in slavery? Why do they have these differences?
(Answer, pages 155-156) [Conceptual]
TOPICS FOR LECTURES/LONG ESSAYS OR PAPERS/CLASS DISCUSSIONS
Discuss the various elements of historiography for slavery from Reconstruction through the 1980s, including Phillips, Genovese and Elkins. Why do these historians, supposedly looking at the same issue, come up with such different interpretations of slaves and slavery? What does this tell us about history? How does the time period in which historians write influence their work?
Discuss the variations among urban, agricultural, house servant and skilled work among slaves.? Which was the “best” type of work? Why? Which was the “worst”?
Discuss African-American slave ownership. What does this tell us about blacks in America? How were black slave owners different from or similar to white slave owners?
How did slave life vary by gender? By age? What difficulties did these differences present for the slave family?
Discuss the development of Christianity among slaves. What were the differences between the messages sent by masters and the messages received or used by slaves?





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