Chapter 5 Lesson 4 "The New Kingdom" p. 172- 177 main ideas

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Name____________________________________________ Period ___________ Date _______________

Chapter 5 - Lesson 4 "The New Kingdom" p. 172- 177


• Economics – Queen Hatshepsut ruled as pharaoh and expanded trade during the

New Kingdom

• Belief systems - Akhenaton tried to change Egyptian religion by replacing the old gods with

one god called Aton.

• Government – Ramses II ruled Egypt for decades and created a stable empire



Picture / other representation


Target #



Ramses II


(172 / 173)

A Woman Pharaoh (p. 173 – 174)

A Woman Pharaoh

A Woman Pharaoh (continued)

1. The New Kingdom included some of Egypt's most _______________________ rulers.

The capital city had been _______________________, but the pharaohs of the New

Kingdom changed the capital city to _________________________ which was about

450 miles south of Memphis.

2. The first woman to rule as pharaoh was ___________________ . She

became pharaoh because her ________________ died. He died soon

after he took power. For a while Queen Hatshepsut ruled the New Kingdom

with ________________ who was her step son.

3. Once Queen Hatshepsut declared herself the only ruler, she wore a ______

which is saved and only to be worn by pharaohs----all of whom had been

male. Was this a bold move for her? Explain your thoughts.

4. Hatshepsut expanded Egypt through waging war and trade. Describe how

Hatshepsut expanded trade for Egypt.

5. Items traders brought back from trading expeditions included:

6. What kind of monument did Hatshepsut have built to show her greatness?

7. How long did Hatshepsut rule? Why is Hatshepsut's death a mystery?

A Reforming Pharaoh (p. 174 - 175)

A Reforming Pharaoh

8. The next leader in the New Kingdom is _________________________________.
9. When Akhenaton became pharaoh he chose a _____________ to be the "top" god

or the god with the "highest" status. He closed _______________ of the other gods

as a way to "promote" the worship of ONE god, Aton. This is the first time in

history that we believe Egyptians worshiped only ONE god. Akhenaton's new

religion did ______________ last long.
10. Describe Akhenaton’s influence in religion. Include what happened to the

religion Akhenaton started.

11. Describe Akhenaton’s influence in the world of art

12. After Akhenaton died, who took over?

A Powerful Pharaoh (p. 175 – 177)

A Reforming Pharaoh

13. Forty-four years after King Tut died, who took over as pharaoh?

14. Ramses II was also called Ramses-the – Great. He wanted to make Egypt

powerful through ________. Under his rule he extended Egypt's territory south

into the African kingdom of ___________________ . It stretched to the ______________

rim of the ____________________________________ Sea. It was at this point that Egypt

now bordered the empire of the _____________________________.

15. Describe the battle Ramses II led the Egyptians in against the Hittites. Who

won? What was a result of this battle?

16. After the battle with the Hittites, what did Ramses negotiate? Why was this a

big deal in history?

17. Ramses II ruled for nearly 66 years. What did he do to honor himself / show

his "greatness?"

18. After Ramses II died, Egypt declined because the central ______________________

weakened and foreign powers entered Egypt. One of the foreign rulers who

conquered Egypt was the King of Macedonia, also known as ___________________ .

19. After Alexander the Great died, Macedonians continued to rule Egypt. The

last Macedonian ruler was the famous queen _______________________________.

Eventually the powerful ______________________ Empire conquered Egypt.

Lesson Summary (p. 177)

• Hatshepsut was the first woman to rule as pharaoh. She expanded Egypt’s trade with other


• Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion to a belief in one god, but his religion did not last

after his death.

• Ramses II built an extensive empire and ruled for 66 years. His reign was a time of peace and

Why it matters now (p. 177)

The ancient Egyptians rejected Akhenaton’s idea of one supreme god, but that idea later became widespread. Today many people believe in religions based on a single god.

Hatshepsut: Woman Pharaoh

Hatshepsut was an Egyptian queen who became a pharaoh—the ruler of Egypt. She ruled during the 18th dynasty—the first dynasty of the New Kingdom. Hatshepsut was the daughter of Pharaoh

Thutmose I and his queen Ahmose. When Thutmose I died, his son, Thutmose II, became pharaoh. Thutmose II then married his father’s oldest daughter, according to the custom in Egyptian royal families. His bride was Hatshepsut, his half-sister.

Much of what is known about Hatshepsut has been learned from official documents and monuments that tell of her achievements. As a result, history knows more about Hatshepsut the pharaoh than about Hatshepsut the private woman. It appears, however, that she came from a close-knit family and was especially fond of her father and daughter. Her appearance is also somewhat of a mystery. Sculptures and paintings of pharaohs traditionally portrayed them with “perfect” features, no matter how they really looked. When Hatshepsut’s husband died, his heir

was Thutmose III, his son by another woman. Hatshepsut was his stepmother. Because Thutmose III was too young to rule at the time of his father’s death, Hatshepsut stepped in as regent—someone who rules with, or in place of, a child. She and Thutmose III were co-rulers until 1472 B.C., when Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh.

A Female Pharaoh More than 3,500 years ago, the rulers of the world were almost exclusively men. Hatshepsut, however, was in a better position than most women to establish a position of power. First of all, she lived in Egypt, where women enjoyed more rights than in most other societies. Egyptian women had the right to own and inherit property and to hold public office. They also were entitled to defend their rights in courts of law. Egyptians were more inclined to view women as being capable outside the home.
Second, Hatshepsut had served as regent for about six years. This gave her time to establish herself as a capable and legitimate ruler. Once she was pharaoh, Hatshepsut chose to be portrayed as a man more often than as a woman. Like the pharaohs who had preceded her, Hatshepsut wore a false beard.
Role of the Pharaoh The Egyptian pharaoh performed the traditional functions of a head of state. The pharaoh was responsible for keeping the country running efficiently. He (or she) maintained law and order, collected taxes, and saw that food was stored in case of famine. The pharaoh also conducted public building programs, including the digging of canals for irrigation.
A pharaoh, however, was also considered a god. Egyptians believed that the pharaoh communicated directly with the gods. It was the pharaoh’s responsibility to honor the gods so that they would provide the people with prosperity. The lack of a pharaoh meant that they were out of favor with the gods. After six years of regency, the Egyptian were probably ready to welcome even a woman pharaoh.
Journey to Punt Hatshepsut’s reign lasted 15 years. While in power, she launched an extensive building program and restored monuments previously destroyed by invaders. She devoted herself to worshiping the gods. Successful trading missions added to the stability of her reign.
Hatshepsut sent a trading expedition to Punt, a region located at the southeastern region of the Red Sea. This mission, recorded on the walls of her temple, was a great success. Hatshepsut described the returning ships as “laden with the costly products of the Land of Punt and with its many valuable woods, with very much sweet-smelling resin and frankincense, with quantities of ebony and ivory. . . . ” The expedition is illustrated in great detail, and shows trees and plants, a

house on stilts, and a very overweight queen of Punt. Some types of fish were so accurately

drawn that their species can be easily identified.
Monument and Disappearance Like pharaohs before her, Hatshepsut had a temple built as a monument to herself and her achievements in Thebes. Hatshepsut’s temple is considered one of the world’s most beautiful buildings. Here Hatshepsut had herself portrayed as the child of her mother and the sun god Amon-Re.
Historians do not know how Hatshepsut died. But around 1457 B.C., she was replaced as pharaoh by Thutmose III. Late in his 33-year reign, a serious attempt was made to erase Hatshepsut from history. Many of her statues were destroyed, and her images were chipped away from stone walls. Some think that Thutmose III was responsible because he hated his stepmother. Another theory suggests that Thutmose III did not want women of future generations to think that they could become pharaoh. Fortunately, the attempt to erase Hatshepsut from history was not successful. The “woman who was king” maintains her place in history.

1. How was Hatshepsut different from most other Egyptian pharaohs?

2. How did being a regent help Hatshepsut become pharaoh?

3. Why did she have a temple built for herself in Thebes?

4. How did Hatshepsut establish a stable reign as pharaoh?

5. Why did Hatshepsut have herself portrayed as a man and as the child of a god?

6. Why might Thutmose III have hated Hatshepsut?

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