Chapter 4 Mesopotamia Lesson 4.1 The Sumarians The first civilizations in Mesopotamia
The first civilizations developed in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China. The need for _________________ greatly influenced where people settled.
The Two Rivers
Meopotamia means “_______________________________________________” in Greek. The civilization began between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, which run parallel to one another from the mountains in South East Asia to the Persian Gulf
Mesopotamia is located inside what is known as the ______________________, which includes parts of the modern countries of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Isreal, and Jordan.
Early Valley Dwellers
Historians believe the first people settled in Mesopotamia around 7000 B.C., and were hunters and herders.
By 4000 B.C. some of these settlers moved to the plains of Tigris-Euphrates valley and built ____________________________________________ along the two rivers.
Taming the Rivers
Farmers in Mesopotamia depended on water from the rivers for their crops
In the summer when there was _________________________ and the rivers became very low. Because of this, farmers did not have enough water for their crops in the fall.
In the spring, rain and melting snow from the ____________________Mountains caused these rivers to overflow. At times, violent ___________ swept away crops, and homes
These floods could also be helpful. Floodwaters left behind ________________, or small particles of soil, which were good for farming.
People in Mesopotamia learned to build dams and dig canals to allow the water source into their fields. This method of water crops is called _______________________________.
Irrigation allowed farmers to grow a _____________________________ of food.
Surplus of food meant not all men were needed to work at farming, allowing them to pick up other trades and crafts.
As artisans made more goods, people’s lives changed. People began to live together in areas that favored ___________________ and several cities developed in Sumer, a region of Southern Mesopotamia.
Built one of the worlds first __________________________________
Farming and trade were both very important
Brought in wood and metal from war away to supply their empire with building materials
The Chaldean Empire
In about 650 B.C., fighting broke out to determine who would be the next Assyrian ruler.
While Assyria was in turmoil, the Chaldean’s took power
A New Empire
About _________B.C., the Chaldeans moved to __________________________________ and were immediately conquered by the Assyrians. The Chaldeans hated their new rulers and never fully submitted to the Assyrian empire
Around 627 B.C. another group who wanted to break free from Assyrian rule, the Medes, joined the Chaldeans
In 612 B.C., together they burned the Assyrian capital. The Assyrian empire quickly _______________________________________
Most of the Chaldeans were ________________________________ of the Babylonians
The city of Babylon was chosen to serve as their capital, and because of this, the Chaldean empire is sometimes called the New Babylonian Empire
The Greatness of Babylon
King Nebuchadnezzar of the Chaldeans rebuilt Babylon making it the largest and richest city in the world
Grand Palaces and ________________________,
A 300-foot ziggurat with a gleaming gold roof
Gardens built like huge steps made up the _______________________________, considered one of the seven wonders of the world