Chapter 38—The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968 short answer



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MULTIPLE RESPONSE
115. The consequences of the Cuban missile crisis included

a.

a nuclear test-ban treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

b.

a Vienna summit meeting between President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev.

c.

the installation of a Moscow-Washington hot line for crisis communication.

d.

a massive military arms-building program in the Soviet Union.

e.

the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.

ANS: A, C, D REF: p. 895


116. Barry Goldwater, the Republican party's 1964 presidential candidate, opposed

a.

the Tennessee Valley Authority.

b.

the Social Security system.

c.

civil rights legislation.

d.

the nuclear test-ban treaty.

e.

the federal income tax.

ANS: A, B, C, D, E REF: p. 900-901


117. President Johnson's legislative program after his election in 1964 included

a.

Medicare health insurance for the elderly.

b.

massive federal aid for education.

c.

a voting-rights act to re-enfranchise black voters.

d.

the creation of the Department of Energy.

e.

clean air and clean water laws.

ANS: A, B, C REF: p. 902


118. Substantial opposition to America's commitment to Vietnam between 1965 and 1968 came from

a.

America's European allies.

b.

Congress.

c.

the American public.

d.

many draft registrants.

e.

Senators Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy.

ANS: A, B, C, D, E REF: p. 907-908

119. The 1968 Tet offensive resulted in

a.

the Viet Cong's takeover of most of South Vietnam's major cities.

b.

a request from American generals to send an additional 200,000 American troops to Vietnam.

c.

a tactical defeat for the Viet Cong.

d.

a political defeat for the United States.

e.

a negotiated settlement of the war.

ANS: B, C, D REF: p. 908


ESSAY
120. Do you think that President Kennedy promised more as a candidate than he delivered as president? Focus on his domestic reform proposals and be specific. What did he promise, and what did he accomplish?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

121. What accounts for the public's fascination with John F. Kennedy both while he was president and since his assassination? Do you think that the Kennedy presidency has become more myth than reality in our collective memory? Why or why not?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



122. Why were the Peace Corps and the promise to "land a man on the moon by the end of this decade" both identified as key initiatives of the Kennedy administration? Were these two efforts more symbol than substance, or did they reflect important efforts to "get America moving again," as Kennedy had promised?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

123. Explain how America's involvement in Vietnam "presented a grisly demonstration" of how "the doctrine of 'flexible response' ... contained lethal logic."

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



124. Was Kennedy's confrontation with Khrushchev in the Cuban missile crisis a brilliant demonstration of firmness without aggressiveness or a dangerous strategy that could easily have resulted in nuclear war?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

125. Explain why the civil rights movement became more radical and violent as the 1960s progressed. What changes occurred in the motives, assumptions, and leadership of the movement?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



126. Assess America's role in Vietnam in the 1960s. Consider, for example, Diem's assassination, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the policy of gradual escalation, and the bombing campaign.

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

127. Evaluate President Johnson's Great Society program. Do you think that its goals were realistic? admirable? Why did it receive such heavy support in Congress?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



128. Compare and contrast John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as presidential leaders. In what ways were they similar, and in what ways were they different? Which do you consider the better president? Why? Should either of them be ranked among America's ten best presidents? Why or why not?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

129. Why did the doctrines of flexible response and guerrilla warfare against communist enemies seem so appealing in the early 1960s? How were those ideas implemented in Vietnam? Where were their most serious flaws?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



130. Explain why President Johnson was more successful than President Kennedy in getting domestic reform legislation through Congress.

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

131. Even though Senator Barry Goldwater was buried in Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory in 1964, he is often seen as the forerunner of the later rise of conservatism in American politics. What explains the longer-term appeal of Goldwater-style conservatism? Why was he able to make so little headway in 1964?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



132. How did the Republicans' nomination of the ultraconservative Senator Barry Goldwater in 1964 pave the way for Lyndon Johnson's sweeping Great Society legislation?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

133. Which of Lyndon Johnson's Big Four Great Society legislative achievements had the most long-term impact on American society: federal aid to education, Medicare and Medicaid, immigration reform, or the Voting Rights Act of 1965? Defend your answer.

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



134. Do you agree with the text authors that Martin Luther King, Jr., was "one of the most inspirational leaders in [American] history," who "left a shining legacy of racial progress"? Why or why not?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

135. Why do you think President Johnson's Vietnam policy of "a fine-tuned, step-by-step increase in American force [that] would drive the enemy to defeat with a minimum loss of life on both sides" was unsuccessful?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



136. Would the outcome of the 1968 election have been substantially different if Senator Robert Kennedy had not been assassinated? Would Kennedy have been more effective than Hubert Humphrey in overcoming the deep Democratic divisions of that year?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

137. Why was Richard M. Nixon, with his "loser's image," able to win the presidential election of 1968? What issues and events worked to his advantage?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



138. How did the cultural and social upheavals of the 1960s alter American religion and values?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

139. In what ways were the American political and cultural upheavals of the 1960s simply part of a worldwide uprising by affluent young people against traditional authority? Was there anything that made American protest unique compared with similar movements in France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, and other places?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



140. Were the cultural protests of the 1960s connected to the political protests? Why or why not?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

141. What was the impact of the 1960s cultural rebellions on education, religion, and the family?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



142. Do you agree that the protests were partly fueled by the baby boom population bulge and the economic affluence of the times? Would there have been rebellions even if the Vietnam War had not occurred?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

143. Which of the 1960s liberation movements were most significant and enduring? How did African Americans, young whites, Hispanics, workers, women, and gays each experience the sixties differently?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



144. How did the mainstream liberal Protestant churches lose cultural authority in the 1960s? Why were more conservative evangelical Protestants able to take their place?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

145. Why did so much of the idealistic youthful political movements and counterculture end in disillusionment and cynicism? Could those movements have taken a different turn under different circumstances, such as with the Vietnam War and assassinations of the 1960s?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


146. To what extent was the gay movement a direct outgrowth of the 1960s? How does it compare with the other civil rights and liberation movements of the time?

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



147. Why did the seeming idealism and hope of the early 1960s turn so sour by the end of the decade? Were liberal political leaders partially responsible for raising hopes too high, or was the Vietnam War primarily responsible for crushing liberal hopes and policies?

ANS:


Student answers will vary.
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