Chapter 38—The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968 short answer



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Chapter 38—The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968
SHORT ANSWER
Identify and state the historical significance of the following:
1. John F. Kennedy

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

2. Robert F. Kennedy

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



3. Robert S. McNamara

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

4. Charles de Gaulle

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



5. Ngo Dinh Diem

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

6. Martin Luther King, Jr.

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



7. Medgar Evers

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

8. Lyndon B. Johnson

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



9. Michael Harrington

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

10. Barry Goldwater

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



11. Malcolm X

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

12. Elijah Muhammad

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



13. Stokely Carmichael

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

14. J. William Fulbright

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



15. Eugene McCarthy

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

16. Hubert H. Humphrey

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


17. Richard M. Nixon

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

18. Spiro T. Agnew

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



19. Curtis LeMay

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

20. Jack Kerouac

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



21. Allen Ginsberg

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

22. George Wallace

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



Define and state the historical significance of the following:
23. flexible response

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

24. massive retaliation

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


25. modernization theory

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

26. "rights revolution"

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



27. counterculture

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

28. credibility gap

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



Describe and state the historical significance of the following:
29. New Frontier

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

30. Peace Corps

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



31. Bay of Pigs

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

32. Cuban missile crisis

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


33. Alliance for Progress

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

34. Freedom Rides

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



35. March on Washington

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

36. War on Poverty

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



37. Great Society

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

38. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



39. Civil Rights Act of 1964

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

40. Voting Rights Act of 1965

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



41. "black power"

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

42. Nation of Islam

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



43. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

44. Medicare and Medicaid

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



45. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

46. Gulf of Tonkin resolution

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



47. Six-Day War

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

48. Palestine Liberation Organization

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



49. Operation Rolling Thunder

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

50. Viet Cong

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



51. "hawks" and "doves"

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

52. Tet offensive

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



53. Beat poets

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

54. Free Speech Movement

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



55. Students for a Democratic Society

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

MULTIPLE CHOICE
56. When he became attorney general, Robert Kennedy sought to refocus the attention of the FBI on

a.

organized crime and civil rights.

b.

communist spies and terrorism.

c.

political corruption and campaign law violations.

d.

illegal immigration and drug trading.

e.

automobile theft and illegal weapons.

ANS: A REF: p. 889


57. When he took office in 1961, President Kennedy chose to try to stimulate the sluggish economy through

a.

a massive foreign-aid program.

b.

large-scale government spending programs.

c.

a tax cut.

d.

reducing expenditures on the space program.

e.

a looser monetary policy.

ANS: C REF: p. 890


58. Kennedy was often cautious and frustrated in advancing social reform and civil rights legislation because

a.

he was looking forward to winning a much larger mandate in the election of 1964.

b.

the civil rights movement's militant demands undercut public support for moderate reform.

c.

his own vice president, Lyndon Johnson, lobbied against the legislation behind his back.

d.

conservative southern Democrats controlled key Congressional committees.

e.

Republican majorities in the Senate blocked his legislative proposals.

ANS: D REF: p. 890


59. President Kennedy's most bitter confrontation with big business occurred when he

a.

raised taxes on corporate business profits.

b.

refused to support compensation for American businesses' lost investments in Cuba.

c.

demanded that the American oil industry stop driving up the price of gasoline.

d.

forced steel industry leaders to roll back steel price increases.

e.

lowered tariff rates to permit more European imports into the United States.

ANS: D REF: p. 890


60. The essential purpose of President Kennedy's promise to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s was to

a.

restore American prestige in the space race damaged by the Soviets' Sputnik.

b.

develop the possibility of deploying American weapons in outer space.

c.

engage in scientific and astronomical study of the moon and the solar system.

d.

provide investments and jobs in the key states of Texas and Florida.

e.

use the space program to develop new technologies in electronics and other areas.

ANS: A REF: p. 890


61. The 1962 Trade Expansion Act

a.

cut taxes to increase American purchasing power.

b.

provided incentives to American overseas investments.

c.

made the United States a member of the Common Market.

d.

raised the minimum-wage and Social Security benefits of most working-class Americans.

e.

reduced American tariffs.

ANS: E REF: p. 891


62. John F. Kennedy's strategy of flexible response

a.

was an updated version of John Foster Dulles's doctrine of massive retaliation.

b.

was used in his battle with the leadership of the steel industry.

c.

called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis.

d.

required increased spending on a variety of nuclear weapons systems to be deployed around the world.

e.

cut back nuclear weapons in favor of guerrilla forces.

ANS: C REF: p. 892


63. American military forces entered Vietnam in order to



a.

try to drive the communists out of North Vietnam.

b.

help to stage a coup against Ngo Dinh Diem.

c.

prevent Ngo Dinh Diem's regime from falling to the communists.

d.

establish defensive perimeters around Saigon and other Vietnamese cities.

e.

promote democratic reforms in South Vietnam.

ANS: C REF: p. 893


64. The Alliance for Progress, which intended to improve economic growth and democratic reforms in Latin America, was

a.

effectively implemented by American Peace Corps volunteers.

b.

effective economically but ineffective in developing pro-American sentiment in the region.

c.

generally disappointing.

d.

weakened by the Kennedy administration's harsh policies toward Cuba.

e.

an incentive for growing Soviet intervention in the region.

ANS: C REF: p. 893


65. The Bay of Pigs invasion failed when

a.

the Cuban rebel forces lost the Battle of Havana.

b.

the anti-Castro exiles were defeated by the Cuban military.

c.

the Soviet Union intervened to protect the Castro government.

d.

President Kennedy's use of U.S. air power led to the capture of American pilots.

e.

anti-Castro Cubans in Florida refused to support the effort.

ANS: B REF: p. 893-894


66. When the Soviet Union attempted to install nuclear weapons in Cuba, President Kennedy ordered

a.

the installation of nuclear weapons in Turkey.

b.

surgical air strikes against the missile sites.

c.

the invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.

d.

resumption of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.

e.

a naval quarantine of that island.

ANS: E REF: p. 895


67. The Cuban missile crisis resulted in all of the following except

a.

U.S. agreement to abandon the American base at Guantanamo.

b.

the removal of Nikita Khrushchev from power in the Soviet Union.

c.

a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba.

d.

an ambitious program of military expansion by the Soviet Union.

e.

withdrawal of U.S. missiles in Turkey.

ANS: A REF: p. 895


68. In a speech at American University in 1963, President Kennedy recommended the adoption of a policy toward the Soviet Union based on

a.

flexible response.

b.

massive retaliation.

c.

peaceful coexistence.

d.

gradual escalation.

e.

containment.

ANS: C REF: p. 895


69. At first, John F. Kennedy moved very slowly in the area of racial justice because he

a.

did not support civil rights.

b.

needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic and social legislation.

c.

had not pledged any action in this area during his campaign.

d.

believed that initiatives in this area should come from the Supreme Court and Congress.

e.

was suspicious of Martin Luther King.

ANS: B REF: p. 896


70. The Freedom Riders

a.

protested segregation by torching buses on segregated routes.

b.

sought to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers.

c.

were involved in the sit-ins across the South to end segregation.

d.

were African Americans who sought to integrate public school buses.

e.

None of these

ANS: B REF: p. 896


71. President John Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy began to join hands with the civil rights movement when they

a.

sent federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders.

b.

ordered the FBI to remove the wiretap from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s phone.

c.

secured passage of the Voting Rights Act.

d.

journeyed south to support the registration of black voters.

e.

ordered the immediate desegregation of schools.

ANS: A REF: p. 896


72. President Kennedy ordered hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of

a.

Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

b.

Louisiana State University.

c.

the lunch counters of Greensboro, North Carolina.

d.

the bus stations in Birmingham, Alabama.

e.

the University of Mississippi.

ANS: E REF: p. 896


73. American and world public opinion turned strongly in favor of the civil rights movement when

a.

Senator Barry Goldwater came out in favor of the civil rights bill.

b.

Martin Luther King led a successful nonviolent march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.

c.

J. Edgar Hoover's wiretaps on Martin Luther King were exposed.

d.

Martin Luther King's peaceful demonstrators were viciously attacked in Birmingham.

e.

Martin Luther King met with President Kennedy at the White House.

ANS: D REF: p. 896-897


74. The 1963 March on Washington led by Martin Luther King, Jr., provided critical support for



a.

the War on Poverty.

b.

the Democratic party.

c.

the Voting Rights bill.

d.

the civil rights bill to end segregation.

e.

jobs and medicare.

ANS: D REF: p. 897


75. During the 1963 March on Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his famous "I Have A Dream Speech," in which he proclaimed

a.

that blacks would become more militant if their rights were not secured.

b.

that a black man would one day be president

c.

that his children would one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin.

d.

All of these

e.

None of these

ANS: C REF: p. 897


76. At the time of his death, President John Kennedy's civil rights bill

a.

had been passed, much to the satisfaction of African Americans.

b.

had been passed, but greatly weakened by amendments.

c.

was still bogged down in Congress.

d.

was on the desk waiting to be signed into law.

e.

was locked in a filibuster in the U.S. Senate.

ANS: C REF: p. 898


77. President Kennedy's alleged assassin was

a.

Jack Ruby.

b.

Lee Harvey Oswald.

c.

Medgar Evers.

d.

James Earl Ray.

e.

an agent of Fidel Castro.

ANS: B REF: p. 898


78. Before he became vice president and then president of the United States, Lyndon Johnson had exercised great power as

a.

secretary of defense.

b.

Majority Leader of the U.S. Senate.

c.

a wealthy Texas businessman.

d.

governor of Texas.

e.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

ANS: B REF: p. 898


79. President Johnson proved to be much more successful than President Kennedy at

a.

getting his legislation passed by Congress.

b.

exciting the ideals and spirit of his fellow citizens.

c.

reducing America's overseas commitments.

d.

gaining the admiration and support of the media.

e.

appealing to America's European Allies.

ANS: A REF: p. 898-900


80. President Johnson called his package of domestic reform proposals the

a.

Great Crusade.

b.

Fair Deal.

c.

New Frontier.

d.

Johnson Revolution.

e.

Great Society.

ANS: E REF: p. 900


81. Besides eliminating segregation and racial discrimination in public facilities and employment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 included a provision that

a.

laid the foundation for busing to achieve integration.

b.

prohibited sexual as well as racial discrimination.

c.

established the principle of affirmative action in college admissions.

d.

protected the rights of Latino immigrants to speak Spanish in schools.

e.

protected gays against discrimination in employment.

ANS: B REF: p. 900


82. Opponents of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act calculated that

a.

they had enough votes from senators and congressmen opposed to racial equality to tank the bill.

b.

it would fail because liberals would not be able to support legislation that would end laws that gave women special protections.

c.

it would be derailed by the inclusion of sexual orientation in the new law.

d.

discrimination in hiring would not be eliminated by this law.

e.

None of these

ANS: B REF: p. 900


83. The War on Poverty was inspired by

a.

the sickness and dire conditions President Johnson witnessed in the mining regions of Appalachia.

b.

Michael Harrington's book The Other America.

c.

increasing public faith that an affluent nation such as America should be able to end poverty.

d.

None of these

e.

All of these

ANS: E REF: p. 900


84. With the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

a.

the United States declared war on Vietnam.

b.

Congress handed the president a blank check to use further force in Vietnam.

c.

the military was given the authority to use tactical nuclear weapons.

d.

Congress maintained its war-declaring power.

e.

the goals of American military involvement in Vietnam were clear.

ANS: B REF: p. 901


85. Voters supported Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 presidential election because of their

a.

loyalty to the Kennedy legacy.

b.

faith in the Great Society promises.

c.

fear of the Republican nominee, Barry Goldwater.

d.

trust in Johnson's Vietnam policy.

e.

All of these

ANS: E REF: p. 901


86. Lyndon Johnson gained strong support for federal aid to education by

a.

making sure that the funds would flow primarily to needy students.

b.

guaranteeing that no aid would be given to Catholic schools.

c.

sidestepping the controversy over parochial schools by channeling aid directly to students.

d.

focusing on improving educational quality rather than racial integration.

e.

directing funds toward higher education only.

ANS: C REF: p. 902


87. All of the following programs were created by Lyndon Johnson's administration except

a.

the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities.

b.

Project Head Start.

c.

the Peace Corps.

d.

Medicare.

e.

the Office of Economic Opportunity.

ANS: C REF: p. 902-903


88. In the final analysis, Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs

a.

did no good at all.

b.

actually increased the poverty rate.

c.

proved that poverty could not be papered over with greenbacks.

d.

won some noteworthy battles in education and health care.

e.

received more money than they could effectively spend.

ANS: D REF: p. 903


89. The landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplished all of the following except

a.

creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

b.

prohibiting discrimination based on gender.

c.

banning sexual as well as racial discrimination.

d.

banning racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public.

e.

requiring affirmative action against discrimination.

ANS: E REF: p. 903


90. As a result of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

a.

fewer Asians came to the United States.

b.

the number of immigrants entering the country was reduced.

c.

the racial and ethnic makeup of the country was unchanged.

d.

sources of immigration tilted to Eastern Europe.

e.

sources of immigration shifted to Latin America and Asia.

ANS: E REF: p. 902


91. The common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters in the South was outlawed by the



a.

Civil Rights Act of 1964.

b.

Voting Rights Act of 1965.

c.

Twenty-Fourth Amendment.

d.

War on Poverty.

e.

Twenty-Fifth Amendment.

ANS: C REF: p. 903


92. After the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, the chief goal of the black civil rights movement in the South became to

a.

secure the right to vote.

b.

end discrimination in housing.

c.

gain equality in education.

d.

prohibit racial discrimination in employment.

e.

integrate private social clubs and organizations.

ANS: A REF: p. 903


93. As a result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965

a.

whites left the South in record numbers.

b.

centuries of discrimination and oppression ended.

c.

whites refused to do business with blacks.

d.

white southerners began to court black votes.

e.

the South became strongly Democratic.

ANS: D REF: p. 903-904


94. The Watts riot in 1965 symbolized

a.

the still-troubled racial situation in the South.

b.

the rise of the Black Muslim movement in Los Angeles.

c.

a more militant and confrontational phase of the civil rights movement.

d.

the power of Martin Luther King in the black community.

e.

the ineffectiveness of the Voting Rights Act.

ANS: C REF: p. 904


95. The militant African American leader who most directly challenged Martin Luther King, Jr.'s goal of peaceful integration was

a.

Medgar Evers.

b.

Malcolm X.

c.

Fannie Lou Hamer.

d.

Marcus Garvey.

e.

Ralph Abernathy.

ANS: B REF: p. 904


96. By the late 1960s, Black Power advocates in the North focused their attention primarily on

a.

housing.

b.

school integration.

c.

voting rights.

d.

black separation.

e.

economic demands.

ANS: E REF: p. 905


97. Some advocates of Black Power made the movement the basis for

a.

emphasizing African American distinctiveness and separatism.

b.

upholding the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.

c.

supporting a movement "back to Africa."

d.

encouraging the end of racially based identity and culture.

e.

promoting affirmative action in education and employment.

ANS: A REF: p. 904-905


98. By 1972, public schools in the South were

a.

integrated at higher rates than schools in the North.

b.

integrated at lower rates than schools in the North.

c.

taught primarily by teachers trained in northern colleges.

d.

continuing to close their doors rather than admit blacks to all-white schools.

e.

the final hold-outs against efforts at racial equality.

ANS: A REF: p. 905


99. The Latin American nation where Lyndon Johnson sent 25,000 American troops to counteract alleged communist influence was

a.

Argentina.

b.

El Salvador.

c.

the Dominican Republic.

d.

Panama.

e.

Mexico.

ANS: C REF: p. 906


100. Aerial bombardment in Vietnam

a.

worked very well.

b.

strengthened the communists' will to resist.

c.

strengthened the will of America's South Vietnamese allies to fight.

d.

had no effect on the war.

e.

destroyed North Vietnamese industry.

ANS: B REF: p. 906


101. The 1967 Six-Day War intensified the Arab-Israeli conflict by bringing into constant, direct conflict

a.

Americans and Israelis.

b.

Israel and Saudi Arabia.

c.

Israel and the United States on the one hand and the Arabs and the Soviet Union on the other.

d.

the Israeli government and Jewish settlers on the West Bank.

e.

Israelis and Palestinians.

ANS: E REF: p. 907


102. The focal point of congressional opposition to Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam War policy was

a.

the Republican party in both the Senate and the House.

b.

the Senate office of Vice President Hubert Humphrey.

c.

Senator Richard Russell's Armed Services Committee.

d.

the House Ways and Means Committee.

e.

Senator William Fulbright's Foreign Relations Committee.

ANS: E REF: p. 907


103. The most serious blow to Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam policy

a.

came with the bombing of Cambodia.

b.

occurred when Defense Secretary Robert McNamara resigned.

c.

was the Tet offensive of 1968.

d.

occurred when Senator J. William Fulbright's Foreign Relations Committee held public hearings on the war.

e.

came with the revelation that the Tonkin Gulf attacks had been provoked by the United States.

ANS: C REF: p. 908


104. During the Vietnam War, President Lyndon Johnson ordered the CIA, in clear violation of its charter, to

a.

lead an invasion of Cambodia.

b.

spy on domestic antiwar protestors.

c.

infiltrate FBI headquarters.

d.

help destabilize the government of Thailand.

e.

protect prowar presidential candidates.

ANS: B REF: p. 907


105. The political challenge to President Johnson's Vietnam policies gained great momentum when

a.

the Senate voted to cut off funds for any further escalation of the war.

b.

the favorite for the Republican nomination, Richard Nixon, began opposing the war.

c.

third-party challenger George Wallace began criticizing Johnson.

d.

Vice President Hubert Humphrey turned against Johnson's policies.

e.

Senator Eugene McCarthy nearly defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire Democratic primary.

ANS: E REF: p. 908


106. The attempt to nominate an antiwar Democratic candidate for president in 1968 suffered a crippling blow when

a.

Senator Eugene McCarthy withdrew from the race before the Democratic convention.

b.

Senator Robert Kennedy was assassinated after winning the California primary.

c.

pro-war vice president Hubert Humphrey won the Oregon and California primaries.

d.

militant leftist demonstrators at the Chicago convention caused a backlash in favor of Humphrey.

e.

public opinion turned back in favor of the war after the Tet offensive.

ANS: B REF: p. 909


107. The 1968 Democratic party convention witnessed

a.

a long deadlock over the nomination of its presidential candidate.

b.

a violent conflict between police and antiwar demonstrators outside the convention hall.

c.

a walkout by hundreds of southern delegates, who then founded the Independent party.

d.

the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy soon after he delivered a speech at the convention.

e.

the enthusiastic nomination of Vice President Humphrey.

ANS: B REF: p. 909


108. The spoiler third-party candidate for president in 1968 was

a.

Robert F. Kennedy.

b.

Hubert H. Humphrey.

c.

Eugene McCarthy.

d.

George Wallace.

e.

George McGovern.

ANS: D REF: p. 909


109. Both major-party presidential candidates in 1968 agreed that the United States should

a.

negotiate an immediate end to the Vietnam War.

b.

withdraw U.S. troops to safe enclaves.

c.

withdraw American forces from Vietnam.

d.

escalate the bombing of North Vietnam.

e.

continue the war in pursuit of an honorable peace.

ANS: E REF: p. 909


110. Former vice president Richard Nixon essentially won the 1968 presidential election by

a.

promising to escalate the Vietnam War and win a decisive victory there.

b.

repudiating Goldwater conservatives and running as a liberal Republican.

c.

re-asserting the Republican party's historic commitment to civil rights and civil liberties.

d.

arguing that the Vietnam War had been a mistake from the beginning.

e.

exploiting Democratic divisions and appealing to moderately conservative law and order sentiment.

ANS: E REF: p. 910


111. In the worldwide youthful protests of 1968, the movement in ____ succeeded in toppling the government, while the movement in ____ ended in harsh repression and failure.

a.

the United States; France

b.

Poland; France

c.

Germany; Britain

d.

France; Czechoslovakia

e.

Japan; the United States

ANS: D REF: p. 911-912


112. The skepticism about authority that emerged in the United States during the 1960s

a.

was a new phenomenon for America.

b.

did not occur anywhere else in the world at that time.

c.

touched all institutions except religion.

d.

had deep historical roots in American culture.

e.

arose from the music and drugs of the time.

ANS: D REF: p. 911


113. The three P's that largely explain the cultural upheavals of the 1960s are

a.

poverty, political radicalism, and protest against authority.

b.

public schools, parietal rules, and parental restrictions.

c.

population bulge, protest against Vietnam, and prosperity.

d.

patriotism, prowar enthusiasm, and perfectionism.

e.

the pill, pot, and popular rock music.

ANS: C REF: p. 913


114. The site of the first major militant protest on behalf of gay liberation in 1969 was

a.

the Mattachine Society headquarters (Los Angeles).

b.

Fire Island, New York.

c.

Key West, Florida.

d.

Indiana University (Bloomington, Indiana).

e.

the Stonewall Inn (New York City).

ANS: E REF: p. 913

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