A strong sense of common purpose among the first settlers shaped the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Because of the close alignment of religion and politics in the colony, those who challenged religious orthodoxy, among them Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams, were considered guilty of sedition and driven out of Massachusetts. The banished Williams founded Rhode Island, by far the most religiously and politically tolerant of the colonies. Other New England settlements, all originating in Massachusetts Bay, were established in Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire. Although they shared a common way of life, the New England colonies developed with a substantial degree of independence.
The middle colonies took shape quite differently. New York, founded as New Netherland by the Dutch and later conquered by England, was economically and ethnically diverse, socially hierarchical, and politically quarrelsome. Pennsylvania, founded as a Quaker haven by William Penn, also attracted an economically ambitious and politically troublesome population of diverse ethnic groups.
With their economic variety, ethnic diversity, and political factionalism, the middle colonies were the most typically “American” of England’s thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies.
Chapter 3 Study Guide
Write a detailed
answer for each.
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
1. How did John Calvin's teachings result in some Englishmen wanting to leave England?
The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
2. Explain the factors that contributed to the success of the Plymouth colony.
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
3. Why did the Puritans come to America?
Building the Bay Colony
4. How democratic was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Explain.
Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
5. What happened to people whose religious beliefs differed from others in Massachusetts Bay Colony?
The Rhode Island "Sewer"
6. How was Rhode Island different than Massachusetts?
Makers of America: The English
7. In what ways did the British North American colonies reflect their mother country?
New England Spreads Out
8. Describe how Connecticut, Maine and New Hampshire were settled.
Puritans versus Indians
9. Why did hostilities arise between Puritans and Native Americans? What was the result?
Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
10. Assess the following statement, "The British colonies were beginning to grow closer to each other by 1700."
Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
11. How did events in England affect the New England colonies' development?
Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands
12. Explain how settlement by the Dutch led to the type of city that New York is today.
Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors
13. "Vexations beset the Dutch company-colony from the beginning." Explain.
Dutch Residues in New York
14. Do the Dutch have an important legacy in the United States? Explain.
Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
15. What had William Penn and other Quakers experienced that would make them want a colony in America?
Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
16. Why was Pennsylvania attractive to so many Europeans and Native Americans?
The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies
17. What do the authors mean when the say that the middle colonies were the most American?
Varying Viewpoints: Europeanizing America or Americanizing Europe?
18. “The picture of colonial America that is emerging from all this new scholarship is of a society unique—and
diverse—from its inception.” Explain?
Opposing 0viewpoints (POV)
Thomas J. Wertenbaker, The Founding of American Civilization (1938).
A view of America as the product of European culture:
“The most stupendous phenomenon of all history is the transit of European civilization to the two American continents. For four and a half centuries Europeans have been crossing the Atlantic to establish in a new world their blood, languages, religions, literatures, art, customs. This movement, involving many nations and millions of men and women, has been termed the expansion of a new Europe in America. The Indian civilizations have been overwhelmed or subordinated, and in their place have arisen great nations speaking English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, whose peoples profess the Christian religion, are partly or entirely European in blood, accept Shakespeare or Cervantes or Molière or even Tolstoy as their own. . . . Historians have been too prone to neglect the factor of inheritance in interpreting the United States, especially the multiple inheritance which makes it the child, not of England, but of Europe.”
Gary Nash, Red, White, and Black: The People of Early America (1974).
A view of America as the product of the meeting of Indian, European, and African cultures:
“The pathways of power did not strictly dictate the history of cultural interchange—a point that is obscured if we mistakenly assume that under conditions of oppression and exploitation, acculturation occurs in only one direction. The cultures of Africans and Indians—their agricultural techniques, modes of behavior, styles of speech, dress, food preference, music, dance, and other aspects of existence—became commingled with European culture.… A New World it is…for those who became its peoples remade it, and in the process they remade themselves, whether red, white, or black.”
0. How does Wertenbaker represent the older and now generally unaccepted view that American society is essentially an extension of European civilization?
0. How does Nash combine recognition of European “exploitation” with a belief that all
the peoples of America created a genuinely new culture?
0. How is our view of subsequent American history altered if one adopts the “diversity” rather than the “Europeanist” perspective?
How is the “Thanksgiving image” of the Pilgrims and Puritans squared with the historical reality?
What was the relationship of the New England settlers and their Puritan leadership to the Indians? How did they adjust, or fail to adjust, their understanding of covenant and the communal role of town government to those on the frontier of settlement. Analyze episodes like King Philip’s War and the Pequot War to discover what they revealed about the roles of “insiders” and “outsiders” in defining American identity and culture.
Did the Puritans really come to America seeking religious freedom? How did they reconcile their own religious dissent from the Church of England with their persecution of dissenters like Hutchinson, Dryer, and Williams? Does their outlook make them hypocrites?
Consider William Penn and the Quakers as a case study in religious influence on colonial origins, and compare the Quakers with the New England Puritans. Examine the influence on Pennsylvania of particular Quaker belief—such as each individual’s “inner light,” social equality, and nonviolence—as well as how circumstances altered the implementation of such beliefs.
“The Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us as his own people and will command a blessing upon us all in our ways.… And he shall make us a praise and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantations: the Lord make it like that of New England. For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill; the eyes of all people are upon us.” (John Winthrop, Sermon aboard the Arbella, 1630)
“I am sorry at heart for your animosities. For the love of God, me, and the poor country, be not so governmentish, so noisy, and so open in your dissatisfactions.” (William Penn, Letter to settlers, 1701)
Was an American Revolution separating the colonies from England inevitable after the Glorious Revolution had encouraged colonists to end the Dominion of New England, England's serious attempt at enforcing royal authority? Did England's "salutary neglect" contribute to future problems in its empire? How might have England been able to successfully enforce its rule on the colonies without causing rebellion?
0Compare the colonizing effort of the Dutch in New Netherland with that of their English neighbors. Note particularly how Peter Stuyvesant’s absolutist religious and political controls differed from the much “looser” quality of English colonialism.
How does the founding of the New England colonies compare with the origin of the middle colonies? In what ways were New England and the middle colonies each like the South, and in what ways were they different?
What were the push and pull factors for immigrants coming to each region of English colonies?
Compare and contrast Jamestown and the Massachusetts Bay Colony in terms of their reasons for their founding, types of settlers, early problems, and the reasons for successes and failures.
“See how your argument stands. Priscilla, with her husband, took Apollo home to instruct him privately. Therefore Mistress Hutchinson, without her husband, may teach sixty or eighty.”
“I call them not, but if they come to me, I may instruct them.”
“Yet you show us not a rule.”
“I have given you two places of Scripture.”
“But neither of them will suit your practice.”
“Must I show you my name written therein?” (Excerpt from Hutchinsons’s trial, 1637)
10. Puritanism bore within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Apply this generalization.
11. In the seventeenth century
, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their
aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century?
12. “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British Colonies in North
America.” Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600’s.
13. Analyze the differences between the Spanish settlements in the Southwest and the English colonies
in New England in the seventeenth century in terms of TWO of the following:
Politics Religion Economic development
1. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492-1690
The Reformation has an impact on Europe and European settlement of North America
The Dutch Separatists (Pilgrims) depart Holland in the Mayflower and establish the Plymouth Colony (1620), where they lay the foundation for a government in the form of the Mayflower Compact. The colony merges with the MA Bay Colony in 1691.
Religious discontent and divisions stimulate the creation of other colonies such as the one established by “dissenters” in RI and William Penn’s Quaker colony in PA.
The motives and incentives for colonization were varied; however, many early English colonists were inspired to resettle in North America for religious and economic reasons.
Religious dissent and challenges to the religious and political status quo emerged in the MA Bay Colony. For example, Anne Hutchinson challenged the rigidity of the Puritan leadership. Banished from the Bay Colony, she helped to establish a new colony in RI.
The MA Bay Colony was in a very real sense the nucleolus for later colonies, especially the New England.
By the mid-seventeenth century the middle colonies of DE, NJ, NY, & PA were established.
First European contacts with Native Americans
Spain's empire in North America
French colonization of Canada
English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South
From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region
Religious diversity in the American colonies
Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon's Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo
2. Colonial North America, 1690-1754
Population growth and immigration
Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports
The eighteenth-century back country
Growth of plantation economies and slave societies
The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening
Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America