Chapter 3 Indus Valley and China Section 1 Geography and Climate

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Chapter 3 Indus Valley and China
Section 1

  1. Geography and Climate

      1. Himalaya Mountains run on the Northern part India. Serves as a Natural barrier between India and outside invaders.

      2. Khyber Pass was only open section of the mountains.

      3. Hindu Kush and Karakoram Mountains help to make India a Sub-Continent.

      4. Indus and Ganges rivers run across northern part of India. Called Indus-Ganges Plain.

      5. Center of India made of Plateaus and is called Deccan.

      6. Southernmost is lush, jungle-like areas on the coast.

      7. Monsoons are seasonal winds that bring rain to India.

      8. High Temperatures of 120 degrees found in Plains.

  2. Early Cities

      1. Harrapa and Mohenjo -Daro are 1st cities of India.

      2. Oldest cities date back to 3500 B.C.

      3. Both had Complex city construction plan with cities and advanced plumbing system (pg. 44)

      4. Traded with Sumerians.

      5. Something mysterious happened in 1500 B.C. due to a large number of bodies not buried.

      6. May have overworked the land to Non-Fertile.

Section 2

  1. Early Chinese River Cultures

      1. Latest starters of 4 early civilizations.

      2. Main river was Huang-He river. Also had Yangtze.

      3. Mountain ranges and Desert occupy 90% of China.

      4. River flooding Unpredictable.

      5. Not a lot of trade initially for Chinese due to borders and mountains.

  2. 1st Chinese Civilization

      1. Xia dynasty led by a man named Yu. Engineer and Math man.

      2. Shang dynasty arose and lasted from 1532 B.C. – 1027 B.C.

      3. Shang’s had 1st written record.

      4. Cities were surrounded by Giant walls to prevent outside attack.

      5. Soil was rich enough for 2 sets of crops per year.

  3. Chinese Culture

      1. Family was central to life in china.

      2. Most important role was to be respectful to parents.

      3. Men wore the pants in the family. Women were treated as inferior.

      4. If father died, Mother had to obey sons.

  4. Religion

      1. believed spirits of loved ones who had died brought them good luck or bad luck. Only Father’s Ancestors.

      2. Used Oracle Bones to tell future. Heated up bones and wrote a question on it. How the cracks showed up, they got their answer.

  5. Chinese Writing

      1. Had the same written language throughout empire. Had over 10,000 symbols.

      2. Had to know 1,000 just to be barely literate

  6. Other facts,

      1. Made silk clothing and used Bronze.

  7. Zhou Bring change

      1. Declared they had the Mandate of Heavan- Meant that rulers before them had done such a bad job, that the gods had told them to take over now.

      2. A bad king could lose the Mandate of Heaven.

      3. Floods, catastrophes, and death = Loss of Mandate

      4. Rise, decline, and new dynasty = dynastic cycle

  1. Other Chinese Issues

      1. Great Philosopher Confucius occupied China. Emphasized 5 key relationships in life. Ruler/Subject, Father/Son, Husband/Wife, Older Brother/Younger Brother, Friend/Friend.

      2. Also pushed for Filial Piety = respect for parents.

      3. Great Wall of China Built. Basically combined existing walls. 1,400 miles long. Those who died while making it were buried within the wall.

      4. Only man made object visible from space.

      5. People were supposed to get in balance with Yin and Yang

      6. Yin= Women, earth, passive

Yang= Men, Heaven, Active

      1. If out of whack, acupuncture would balance you out.

Other Facts and Figures about Ch. 1-4

  1. Fierce Warriors. Used ladders, iron weapons, and tunnels to overwhelm enemies.

  2. Built 1st libraries.


  1. Settled on the island of Crete.

  2. Sea sailing people. Opened up trade worldwide.

  3. King Minos main leader. Supposedly had a half-human, half-bull creature called a Minotaur.

  4. A Volcanic eruption destroyed their empire.


  1. Great sea traders and gifted sailors.

  2. Made up the Phoenician alphabet that we get roots of our alphabet from.

  3. Also worked with Glass and Purple Dyes.

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