Chapter Outline and Key Points
The Number of Governments in the U.S. (Figure 3.1)—
The Origins of the Federal System: Governmental Power Under the Constitution
The Federal, Unitary, and Confederate Systems of Government (Figure
National Powers Under the Constitution
necessary and proper clause—
Migratory Bird Treaty of 1918—
The Origins of the Federal System (Figure 3.3)—
State Powers Under the Constitution
powers of the states mentioned in the main text of the Constitution—
reserve or police powers—
Concurrent Powers Under the Constitution
Powers Denied Under the Constitution
powers denied Congress under Article I—
bill of attainder—
ex post facto laws—
Relations Among the States
disputes between states settled by Supreme Court—
full faith and credit clause—
1997 Supreme Court case on full faith and credit—
Emergency Management Assistance Compact—
Compacts by the Numbers (Table 3.1)—
Relations Within the States: Local Governments
the Constitution and local governments—
Federalism and the Marshall Court
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
McCulloch v. Maryland—
Chief Justice Marshall’s answers to the two questions raised—
necessary and proper clause today—
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Gibbons v. Ogden—
Dual Federalism: The Taney Court, Slavery, and the Civil War
Roger B. Taney—
Dred Scott and the Question of Slavery
the Taney Court era and the role of the Supreme Court—
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)—
The Civil War, Its Aftermath, and the Continuation of Dual Federalism
the Civil War and federalism—
Civil War Amendments—
the Supreme Court’s adherence to dual federalism—
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)—
the Supreme Court and the national government’s ability to regulate
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Setting the Stage for a Stronger National Government
Cooperative Federalism: The New Deal and the Growth of National Government
the end of dual federalism in the 1930s—
economic events in the 1920s as catalyst for end of dual federalism—
Presidents Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover—
The New Deal
rampant unemployment and the Great Depression—
Franklin D. Roosevelt—
the New Deal and local governments—
the Supreme Court’s laissez-faire attitude toward the economy—
FDR’s Court-packing plan—
Court reverses itself on anti-New Deal decisions—
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Co. (1937)
The Changing Nature of Federalism: From Layer Cake to Marble Cake
layer cake metaphor—
marble cake metaphor—
the 1970s energy crisis and the national 55 mph speed limit—
Federal Grants and National Efforts to Influence the States
Congress and Revolutionary War debt payments—
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862—
FDR and federal dollars to the states—
federal grant-in-aid programs—
Lyndon B. Johnson—
“War on Poverty”—
control of programs shift toward Washington—
New Federalism: Returning Power to the States?
The Reagan Revolution
Republican “Reagan Revolution”—
massive cuts in domestic programs—
dramatic alteration of federal-state-local government relationship—
four categories of block grants in late 1980s and early 1990s—
The Devolution Revolution
Contract with America—
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of
fiscal and economic results of these programs in the short run—
economic conditions, limited federal government and the Bush and Gore
presidential campaigns in 2000—
Federalism Under the Bush Administration
George W. Bush—
state budget shortfalls—
federal budget deficit—
sources of the federal deficit—
“No Child Left Behind”—
The Supreme Court: A Return to States’ Rights?
“a new kind of judicial federalism”—
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989), illustrative of trend—
the Court and the authority of states to limit abortion—
Stenber v. Carhart (2000) and 2006 Roberts Court unanimous decision—
the Court has decided several major cases on the nature of the federal
system since 1989—
The Rehnquist and Roberts Courts and Federalism (Figure 3.4)—
Violence Against Women Act of 1994 and the Supreme Court—
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)—
1996 Supreme Court decision on the author of Congress to place
requirements on states regarding Indian tribes—
other Supreme Court cases constraining federal power—
cases on Family Medical Leave Act—
Roberts Court’s first decision involving federalism—
1) While most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
favored a strong national government, they realized that some compromises
regarding the distribution of powers would be necessary, and therefore created
a. a confederate form of government very similar to one that had existed
under the original constitution, the Articles of Confederation.
b. a highly centralized form of government, similar to Great Britain’s.
c. a direct democracy.
d. the world’s first federal system, in which the states were bound together
under one national government.
2) When is the supremacy clause applicable?
a. when a state and national law concur
b. when a state law exists where no national law exists
c. when state and national law conflict
d. when a law passed by Congress conflicts with god-given rights
3) The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1913, gave what power
to the national government that had not existed under the original Constitution?
a. the power to levy taxes
b. the power to borrow money
c. the power to tax personal income
d. the power to regulate intrastate commerce
4) A power that is not stated explicitly in the Constitution but is considered to
reasonably flow from a power stated in Article I, section 8, is called a(n)
a. derivative power.
b. implied power.
c. enumerated power.
d. concurrent power.
5) The guarantee of states’ rights was provided in the Constitution by
a. Article I, section 8.
b. the supremacy clause.
c. the necessary and proper clause.
d. the Tenth Amendment.
6) Article I denies certain powers to the national and state governments, including
a. passing bills of attainder.
b. entering into contracts.
c. involvement in elections.
d. the power to tax.
7) Article IV requires that states recognize judicial proceedings, records, and laws of
other states. This is known as the clause.
b. full faith and credit
d. necessary and proper
8) The first major decision of the Marshall Court (in 1819) to define the federal
relationship between the national government and the states (by upholding the
necessary and proper clause and the supremacy clause) was
a. Marbury v. Madison.
b. Gibbons v. Ogden.
c. McCulloch v. Maryland.
d. Dred Scott v. Sandford.
9) The Supreme Court ruled in 1824 that Congress had wide authority under the
commerce clause to regulate interstate commerce, including commercial activity,
a. Marshall v. New York.
b. Gibbons v. Ogden.
c. McCulloch v. Maryland.
d. Fulton v. New Jersey.
10) In 1937, the Supreme Court reversed its series of decisions against New Deal
programs, afterward approving broad extensions of the use by Congress of the
commerce clause to regulate and bolster the economy. The Supreme Court
reversed its anti-New Deal trend as a result of
a. the worsening of Great Depression conditions.
b. the increased participation of city government in federal affairs.
c. the imminent threat of war with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.
d. the Roosevelt court-packing plan.
11) The type of federalism metaphorically referred to as “marble cake” federalism is
known as federalism.
12) A broad grant of money given to states with few qualifications or restrictions by
the federal government for specified activities is called a grant.
13) The practice of the federal government overriding specific areas of state action is
14) The 1995 Supreme Court case, U.S. v. Lopez, is significant because it was the first
decision by the Court in many decades in which the Court
a. restrained Congress’s use of the commerce power, thus shifting power
from the national government to the states.
b. expanded Congress’s use of the commerce clause in enhancing federal
c. questioned the use of the power of judicial review by the Court.
d. declared that federal preemption was unconstitutional.
15) The ruling in Bush v. Gore (2000) was surprising because
a. more liberal justices sided with George W. Bush.
b. more conservative justices sided with Al Gore.
c. the Court had traditionally shown a reluctance to intervene in state issues.
d. All of the above.
1) State and local governments are not bound by the provisions of the U.S.
2) The Framers chose federalism to imitate the British centralized governmental
3) In some instances, an American citizen needs a passport to go from California
to New York.
4) The Supremacy Clause states that all powers not specifically granted in the
Constitution are reserved to the states.
5) Police powers are among those powers reserved to the states.
6) Legal controversies between the states can be decided only by the U.S. Supreme
7) The Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case contributed to the advent of
the Civil War.
8) The Civil War forever changed the nature of federalism.
9) The first federal grant program came in the 1930s as a response to the Great
10) The current Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Roberts refuses to consider
cases brought up on appeal relating to federal excursions into the powers reserved
to the states.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
confederation and unitary system
national powers, concurrent powers, and state powers
enumerated, implied, and denied powers
supremacy clause and reserve (police) powers
dual federalism and cooperative federalism
layer cake and marble cake federalism
categorical and block grants
the expansion and contraction of federal powers under Supreme Court rulings
ESSAY AND SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1) Why did the Framers choose a federated system? (Remember to define
2) Discuss the nature and ramifications of the supremacy clause to
intergovernmental relations between the states and the national government.
3) Explain the doctrine of implied powers.
4) What is the role of the states in our federal system? How is it dealt with in the
Constitution? Is the question of states’ rights settled now or is it ongoing?
5) Discuss the significance of the elastic clause and the commerce clause in the
growth of federal power.
6) Explain the distribution of power in the federal system.
7) Discuss how McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden contributed to the
development of federalism. Be sure to include the facts and ruling in each case.
8) Discuss the various stages of federalism this country has gone through, from dual
federalism to today. What does the evolution of federalism tell us about our
9) Explain the uses of preemption and unfunded mandates. How have these methods
been used to alter the nature of federalism, and what is their current status?
10) Discuss the impact of decisions by the Rehnquist and Roberts Courts since the
late1980s in defining federalism.
ANSWERS TO STUDY EXERCISES
MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS