Chapter 26: World War II section 1: Paths to War

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Chapter 26: World War II

Section 1: Paths to War

-Adolf Hitler’s plan for domination will allow push him to invade Czechoslovakia and Austria

-he then will sign a non-aggression pact with Russia, which allowed Germany to invade Poland

-England and France accepted occupation of Czechoslovakia and Austria, but were forced into action after the events of Poland

-Spanish Civil War will bring the Hitler and Mussolini closer together (gave up on protecting Austria in order to become closer to Hitler)

-Mussolini and Hitler will form an “Axis” in 1936

-Mussolini did not share Hitler’s view of the Jews (Jewish mistress), eventually he persecuted the Italian Jews (50,000 among 40 million), created resentment

-the Japanese had become an industrial powerhouse and sought to create an empire throughout SE Asia

-in search of natural resources (2,000 air force “zero fighter”)

Anti-Comintern Pact: pact with Germany to discourage Russia, United States, and British from interfering in SE Asia

-due to Japans alliance with Germany, western powers refused to sell Japan oil and other natural resources (embargo)

-Hitler raised an army and entered an area of Germany known as the Rhineland; this was in direct opposition to the Treaty of Versailles

-Hitler believed that Neville Chamberlain, conservative PM of Britain, would accept the occupation of Austria and the Czech Sudetenland

-Chamberlain felt that the areas that Hitler wanted fell in line with Nationalism, and sympathized with Germany due to their unfair treatment after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles

-Britain feared their colonial resources in Egypt and Burma would be threatened if they were to attack Germany

-Hitler demanded the Austrian party to legalize the Austrian Nazi Party

-the chancellor demanded a plebiscite vote, instead Hitler invaded Austria claiming that his German people were being mistreated

Anschluss: Hitler’s unification of Germany and Austria

Czechoslovakia: Hitler wanted to unify his new Nation with the Germans of the Sudetenland

-also wanted to discipline the anti-Nazi Germans who had taken refuge in Prague

-Chamberlain will meet Hitler at the Eagles Nest; Hitler expressed the need for World War in order to unite the Sudetenland

-Chamberlain and other leaders will meet with other world leaders to give Hitler the Sudetenland and redistribute the properties of Czechoslovakia (Peace in our time)

-France will feel betrayed by England, and France feared that Franco could become a member of the new Axis Powers

Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia: Hitler broke the appeasement in Munich by taking over Prague (Hitler’s promise to Chamberlain was dead; Hitler officially broke all peace agreements with Western European countries) (Bohemia-Moravia were territories within Czechoslovakia, Slovakia becomes Nazi puppet state)

-in turn, Mussolini took over Albania, and eyed the French territories of Tunisia and Corsica

-Hitler demanded the port of Memel from Lithuania and from Poland they wanted the port of Danzig and the Polish Corridor (property running through Prussia and Germany)

-England and France was in alliance with Poland, Chamberlain called conscription of all 20 and 21 year olds

Winston Churchill: leader in the House of Commons who believed since 1936 that war was inevitable with Germany, pushed for an alliance with Russia (Stalin was shady)

Pact of Steel: formal alliance between Hitler and Mussolini, Mussolini was not prepared for war (painted in a corner)

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: Hitler no longer risked Russian aid to Poland and would create fear to the French and English

-Hitler ordered the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939

Blitzkrieg: quick, lightning attacks

-Russia under Stalin will invade the eastern border of Poland with Hitler’s blessing

-Stalin’s slaughter in Katyn, “special settlers”

The Japanese Path to War:

Mukden Incident: Japanese, disguised as Chinese, blew up a railroad and blamed the Chinese

-used military to slowly take over Manchuria within China, rich in natural resources

Manchukuo: puppet country with a puppet ruler. Henry Pu Yi was claimed to be the last Chinese emperor and the first emperor of Manchukuo

-upon investigation by the League of Nations, Japan will withdraw from the League

-Military became the dominant political faction in Japan even overshadowing Emperor Hirohito

-began to take N. Chinese property in Beijing and in Inner Mongolia

-Chinese General Chiang Kai-shek tried to avoid conflict with the Japanese believing that Communism was the true threat

Rape of Nanjing: Japanese takeover of the Chinese capital of Nanjing. 100,000 die and Kai-shek refused to surrender.

New Order: comprised of Japan, Manchuria, and China. Japan had planned to use their relationship with Germany to take the oil-rich area of Siberia

-without the resources in Russia, Japan attacked French Indochina which led to sanctions against Japan

Section 2: The Course of World War II

Europe at War:

Blitzkrieg: Iron columns consisting of panzers, planes, and troops

-by the end of October Germany and Russia had divided Poland

-Hitler went into hiding until April when he used Blitzkriegs on Denmark and Norway

-attacked Netherlands, Belgium, and France, through Luxembourg and Ardennes Forest

Maginot Line: created by France along the German Border. Concrete and steel defenses with heavy weaponry

-rather than attack across the Maginot line, they attacked through Belgium like they did in WWI

-surprised by the German’s, the Royal Navy and private vessels will organize the escape of over 300,000 soldiers from the beach at Dunkirk

Vichy France: French government after the armistice with Germany. Germany had created an Authoritarian government. France was led by WWI veteran Henri Petain

-Britain still had not been defeated and after their escape at Dunkirk, they tried to pull the U.S. into the War

-FDR refused to break isolationism and upheld neutrality acts created in the 30’s, overtime we will see U.S. give supplies and weapons to Britain

The Battle of Britain: Germany used the Luftwaffe to start a massive air raid against London. Attacked strategic military and communication targets

-after Britain had fought back by attacking Berlin, the Luftwaffe began bombing British cities

-British morale will push them to stop the Luftwaffe air raids and postpone Hitler’s plan for a takeover

-Hitler had convinced himself that the British were still in the war because Russia was supplying them

-Hitler convinced himself that the Russian army was weak and decided a two front war was okay

-Hitler’s quick attack on Russia was known as operation Barbarossa, plan was to attack the border and have Japan attack Siberia to divert troops

-Hitler had planned on attacking Russia in 1941, but due to Mussolini’s failure in taking Greece Hitler was forced to secure Greece and Yugoslavia

-Hitler reorganized and attacked Russia in June of 1941, trying to avoid a winter war

-within a short amount of time, Germany had taken the Ukraine, put pressure on Leningrad, and was just outside Moscow

-The Aurora was brought back to help protect Leningrad; its guns were taken from a museum

-Germans were not prepared for winter and their scorched earth policy had left no supplies, Leningrad began to fight back strong

-U.S. extended the Lend-Lease policy to Russia in order to hold off the German forces

-equipment and soldiers froze

-Hitler lost 40% of his troops and was not able to defeat England and Russia

Japan at War:

-December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor (wounded 3,500 Americans)

-Roosevelt, “A Day that will live in infamy”

-also attacked British occupied Singapore, American Phillipenes, and British colony of Malaya

-in Phillipenes the 60 mile march (Bataan Death March)

Kamikaze Pilot: suicide pilots fueled by Saki. Honor in death.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: Japan’s SE Asian Empire, promising to free many of American and European control

-Hitler will declare war on Japan on December 11, 1941 and Churchill will declare “we have won the war”

-American production of war materials will reach a fever pitch by 1943

-internment camps were set up throughout the west to hold Japanese American citizens

-in the eyes of Americans, the enemy was Japan “Remember Pearl Harbor”

The Allies Advance:

Grand Alliance: England, United States, and Russia agreed to attack the Axis powers until an unconditional surrender

1942 German Offensive: Hitler’s Africa Korps. Under General Erwin Rommel advanced into Egypt and moved toward Alexandria, Hitler also captured the Crimean Peninsula

-by the summer of 1942 the tide of the war had changed, British forces had pushed Rommel’s troops back after a battle at El Alamein

-Grand Alliance will then push the Italians and Germans out of French occupied N. Africa

-rather than secure the oil fields in Crimea, Hitler had decided to attack Stalingrad (major industrial center on the Volga River)

-German Sixth Army was destroyed and Hitler was forced to surrender at Stalingrad, by February of 1943 Hitler realized that he would not defeat Russia

-in 1942 in the east the Asian front was changing as well

Battle of Coral Sea: May of 1942 American Naval forces stopped Japan from invading Australia

Midway Island: American’s established naval control of the Pacific and sunk 4 Japanese aircraft carriers

General Douglas Macarthur: “island hopping” took the Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) and began to take back territories in SE Asia that had been taken over by the Japanese

-with taking back the Phillipenes and Okinawa, Americans began to bomb Japanese cities

-Tokyo was leveled over a four day bombing

Last Years of the War:

-by the beginning of 1943, the Allies had begun the invasion of Italy

-Allied leaders convinced Victor Emmanuel III to take power from Mussolini (wanted to keep his throne)

-publicly Emmanuel sided with Germany, but secret negotiations had begun with the Allies

-Emmanuel signed Armistice with Italy on Sept. 3rd 1943, on the same day British and Canadian forces began an invasion of the Italian Peninsula

-Allies secured Rome in 1944 with heavy casualties

-Mussolini will be broken out of prison in the Italian Mountains

-Allies began a second front in Europe after the Americans had pushed for a full invasion of France

Normandy: Allied attack across the English Channel, led by American Dwight D. Eisenhower

-history’s greatest naval invasion “Operation Overlord”

-German’s fortified the beach under General Erwin Rommel

-June 6, 1944 German Air Force was outnumbered 20 to 1 which did not allow reinforcements for the Germans

-Allies suffered heavy losses on the beach due to heavy fire

-Rommel escaped execution by committing suicide

-by the end of the summer, the Allies had retaken Paris

-led to the last counter-offensive by Adolf Hitler with the Battle of the Bulge (Battle of Ardennes)

-bubble pushed the 7th corps

-Soviets were attacking from the other side, successfully taking back the Ukraine, occupying Warsaw, and advancing on Berlin

-Mussolini will be executed by Partisans in Italy and Hitler will commit suicide in his bunker 55 feet below Berlin

-May, 7 1945 VE Day

-Island hopping continues as Allies try to capture Iwo Jima and Okinawa

-goal was to take over air fields in order to aid in the bombing of Japan

-Harry S. Truman and the nuclear dilemma

-Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the unconditional surrender of Emperor Hirohito

-war was over August 14, 1945 total losses at 60 million

Section 3: The New Order and the Holocaust

The New Order in Europe:

-Nazi territory was either annexed or run in conjunction with local govt. who supported Nazi ideology

-racial conquest and the push for a racial superior species (Aryans)

-after the takeover of Poland, plans for the superior species began (Slavic’s were inferior)

Heinrich Himmler: in charge of resettlement of inferior races from German territory

Ethnic Germans: Germans who had lived outside of Germany and were relocated to repopulate in new areas

-after the invasion of Russia, the plan was to Germanize them (Russia would lead the repopulation)

Social Engineering: Hitler’s idea for repopulation by Germans, everyone else becomes slave labor

-20% of German labor force came from populations who had been dominated

The Holocaust:

Final Solution: extermination of all Jews, strongly supported by Hitler and Himmler

Einsatzgruppen: special strike force headed by Reinhard Hedrich whose responsibility was to carry out the final solution

-the first action would be to create Ghettos for the Polish Jews (Forced to wear identification)

-death squads travelled into new territories and killed Jews and buried them in Mass graves

-death squads were too slow so death camps were created throughout Poland (6 total), largest was Auschwitz

-worked to death, medical experiments, gas chambers (shipped by rail from all areas occupied by Germany)

-Nazi’s were responsible for 2 out of 3 Jews in Europe

Roma: travelling gypsies of Europe who were taken by Hitler

-Slavs and Russians were also killed or worked to death in the camps

Holocaust: comes from the Jewish word Shoah which translates to total destruction

-many tried to help Jews (Pope)

Collaborators: those who helped in the Nazi effort

-many ignored the reality of the concentration camps, many chose not to believe it (exaggerations of WWI)

-mothers and children were the first to the gas chambers, children were often evacuated which led to a large amount of orphans, many lived in the countryside

The New Order in Asia:

-Japanese military slowly took over SE Asia and those rich in resources were absorbed into the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere

-many starved because they were not allowed to use their own products (Vietnamese rice)

-Japanese felt superior and used POWs and forced labor to cultivate natural resources

-people resisted both the Japanese and the new colonial powers

Section 4: Home Front and the Aftermath

The Mobilization of Four Nations: (Independent)

The Bombing of Cities: (Independent)

Peace and a New War:

-with the complete victory by the Allies, the Cold War began between the U.S. and Russia

The Yalta Conference:

-meeting amongst the Big 3 in S. Russia after the defeat of Germany was assured

-Stalin wanted to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Western powers after the War

-Roosevelt demanded that Europeans get free elections

-in return for Russian aid against Japan, they get Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, two warm water ports and access to the railroads in Manchuria

-Roosevelt pushed the United Nations which would hold its first meeting in San Francisco

-Germany would be divided into four zones (France, England, U.S. and Russia)

-Stalin promised free elections in Poland

-Stalin was unclear how he would treat the political concerns of the rest of Eastern Europe

Potsdam Conference:

-Big 3 meet in the German suburb to consider the fate of defeated Germany (Truman replaced Roosevelt)

-tomato patch method was rejected (small, deindustrialized states)

-Goal became to take away Nazism and rejoin Germany

-Soviet Union demanded the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia)

-many other properties including property throughout Eastern Europe

-Communism began to spread throughout Europe under Stalin’s command

-Nazi’s will be tried at the Nuremburg Trials in 1945 and 1946

-Communism vs. Capitalism

-Winston Churchill, “A iron curtain had descended across the continent”

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