Chapter 25—America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 short answer



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Chapter 25—America Moves to the City, 1865-1900
SHORT ANSWER
Identify and state the historical significance of the following:
1. Jane Addams

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

2. Florence Kelley

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



3. Emma Lazarus

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

4. Mary Baker Eddy

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



5. Walter Rauschenbusch

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

6. Dwight Lyman Moody

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



7. Louis Agassiz

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

8. James Gibbons

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



9. Booker T. Washington

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

10. W. E. B. Du Bois

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



11. George Washington Carver

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Student answers will vary.

12. Charles W. Eliot

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Student answers will vary.



13. Edwin L. Godkin

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

14. William James

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Student answers will vary.



15. William Randolph Hearst

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Student answers will vary.

16. Joseph Pulitzer

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


17. Edward Bellamy

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

18. Henry George

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



19. Lewis Wallace

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Student answers will vary.

20. Horatio Alger

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



21. Mark Twain

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Student answers will vary.

22. William Dean Howells

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Student answers will vary.



23. Stephen Crane

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Student answers will vary.

24. Henry James

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Student answers will vary.



25. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

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Student answers will vary.

26. Carrie Chapman Catt

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Student answers will vary.



27. Ida B. Wells

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Student answers will vary.

28. Anthony Comstock

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Student answers will vary.



29. Emily Dickinson

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30. Henry Adams

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Student answers will vary.



31. Jack London

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32. Paul Laurence Dunbar

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Student answers will vary.



33. Daniel Burnham

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34. Henry H. Richardson

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35. Louis Sullivan

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36. Augustus Saint-Gaudens

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37. Thomas Eakins

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38. James Whistler

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39. Theodore Dreiser

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40. Victoria Woodhull

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41. Carrie Nation

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42. John L. Sullivan

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43. James Naismith

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44. Phineas T. Barnum

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45. William F. Cody

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Student answers will vary.

Define and state the historical significance of the following:
46. megalopolis

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Student answers will vary.

47. "form follows function"

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Student answers will vary.



48. dumbbell tenement

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Student answers will vary.

49. settlement house

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Student answers will vary.



50. New Immigration

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Student answers will vary.
51. "America letters"

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Student answers will vary.

52. "birds of passage"

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Student answers will vary.



53. social gospel

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Student answers will vary.

54. liberal Protestantism

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Student answers will vary.



55. fundamentalism

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Student answers will vary.

56. nativism

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Student answers will vary.



57. evolution

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Student answers will vary.

58. natural selection

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Student answers will vary.



59. normal schools

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Student answers will vary.

60. pragmatism

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Student answers will vary.



61. talented tenth

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Student answers will vary.

62. land-grant colleges

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Student answers will vary.



63. yellow journalism

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Student answers will vary.

64. dime novels

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Student answers will vary.



65. literary realism

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Student answers will vary.

66. single tax

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Student answers will vary.



67. new morality

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Student answers will vary.

Describe and state the historical significance of the following:
68. Macy's/Marshall Field's

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Student answers will vary.

69. Sears/Montgomery Ward

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Student answers will vary.



70. Little Poland/Little Italy

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Student answers will vary.

71. Hebrew schools

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Student answers will vary.



72. Hull House

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73. National Consumers League

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74. Henry Street settlement house

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Student answers will vary.

75. The Origin of Species

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76. American Protective Association

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77. Salvation Army

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78. Christian Science

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Student answers will vary.

79. Young Men's Christian Association/Young Women's Christian Association

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Student answers will vary.



80. Chautauqua movement

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Student answers will vary.

81. Tuskegee Institute

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82. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

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83. Howard University

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84. Johns Hopkins University

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85. Morrill Act

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86. Principles of Psychology

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87. The Nation

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88. Atlantic Monthly

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89. Progress and Poverty

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90. Looking Backward

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91. Ben Hur

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92. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

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93. The Red Badge of Courage

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94. The Education of Henry Adams

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95. Lyrics of Lowly Life

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96. Sister Carrie

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97. Comstock Law

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98. Women and Economics

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Student answers will vary.

99. Women's Christian Temperance Union

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Student answers will vary.



100. American Red Cross

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Student answers will vary.

101. Anti-Saloon League

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Student answers will vary.


102. "City Beautiful" movement

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Student answers will vary.

103. World's Columbian Exposition

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Student answers will vary.



104. "Richardsonian"

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Student answers will vary.

MULTIPLE CHOICE
105. The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was

a.

uniquely American.

b.

fueled by an agricultural system suffering from poor production levels.

c.

attributable to the closing of the frontier.

d.

a trend that affected Europe as well.

e.

a result of natural reproduction.

ANS: D REF: p. 539


106. The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was the

a.

development of the skyscraper.

b.

availability of industrial jobs.

c.

compact nature of those large communities.

d.

advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements.

e.

lure of cultural excitement.

ANS: B REF: p. 539


107. In 1900, the two largest cities in the world were

a.

Buenos Aires and Mexico City.

b.

Paris and London.

c.

Shanghai and Calcutta.

d.

London and New York City.

e.

Berlin and Madrid.

ANS: D REF: p. 539

108. The development of electric trolleys in the late nineteenth century transformed the American city by

a.

ending horse-drawn transportation in the city.

b.

enabling cities to build upward as well as outward.

c.

separating the mass transportation of the working class from the private vehicles of the wealthy.

d.

enabling cities to plan streets along regular grid lines.

e.

creating distinct districts devoted to residential neighborhoods, commerce, and industry.

ANS: E REF: p. 539


109. All of these were factors that increasingly made cities more attractive than farms for young adults except

a.

electricity, indoor plumbing and telephones.

b.

the advent of skyscrapers and suspension bridges.

c.

urban nightlife.

d.

industrial jobs.

e.

the lower cost of living.

ANS: E REF: p. 539-540


110. One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was

a.

mass-production factories.

b.

the Sears catalog.

c.

advertising billboards.

d.

public transportation systems.

e.

large department stores.

ANS: E REF: p. 540


111. The move to cities led to what major and enduring change in American lifestyles?

a.

Delayed marriages

b.

Fragmented family life

c.

More waste and the need for waste disposal

d.

An emphasis on thrift

e.

Increased wealth

ANS: C REF: p. 541


112. Which one of the following has the least in common with the other four?

a.

Slums

b.

Dumbbell tenements

c.

Bedroom communities

d.

Flophouses

e.

The "Lung Block"

ANS: C REF: p. 542

113. American cities increasingly abandoned wooden construction for brick and steel in their downtown districts after

a.

the great Chicago fire of 1871.

b.

the development of the electric elevator and the skyscraper.

c.

brickmaking became cheaper and iron was superseded by more durable steel for construction purposes.

d.

Architects like Louis Sullivan preferred to design steel and brick structures.

e.

wooden tenements collapsed in the new York inner city in the 1880s.

ANS: A REF: p. 542


114. The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880

a.

had experience with democratic governments.

b.

arrived primarily from Germany, Sweden, and Norway.

c.

were culturally different from previous immigrants.

d.

received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants.

e.

represented nonwhite racial groups.

ANS: C REF: p. 543


115. The two immigrant ethnic groups who were most harshly treated in the mid to late nineteenth century were the

a.

Spanish and Greeks.

b.

Irish and Chinese.

c.

Germans and Swedes.

d.

Japanese and Filipinos.

e.

French and Russians.

ANS: B REF: p. 542


116. Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape

a.

political oppression.

b.

famine.

c.

the political disintegration of their country.

d.

the military draft.

e.

the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy.

ANS: E REF: p. 546


117. A bird of passage was an immigrant who

a.

passed quickly from eastern ports to the Midwest or West.

b.

only passed through America on the way to Canada.

c.

came to the United States looking for a wife.

d.

came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe.

e.

flew from job to job.

ANS: D REF: p. 545


118. Most New Immigrants

a.

eventually returned to their country of origin.

b.

tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America.

c.

were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions.

d.

quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life.

e.

converted to mainstream Protestantism.

ANS: B REF: p. 545


119. By the late nineteenth century, most of the Old Immigrant groups from northern and Western Europe

a.

actively promoted the idea of a multicultural America.

b.

were still regarded with suspicion and hostility by the majority of native Americans.

c.

had largely abandoned their ethnically based churches, clubs, and neighborhoods.

d.

were largely accepted as American, even though they often lived in separate ethnic neighborhoods.

e.

still maintained a primary loyalty to their country of origin, especially Ireland or Germany.

ANS: D REF: p. 542-543


120. New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because

a.

most Americans considered Italian, Greek, or Jewish culture inferior to their own.

b.

many New Immigrants attempted to convert Americans to Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, or Judaism.

c.

in many New Immigrant families, women were kept in distinctly subordinate roles.

d.

New Immigrants were often more politically loyal to their homelands than to the United States.

e.

their religions were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical.

ANS: E REF: p. 544


121. While big city political bosses and their machines were often criticized, they proved necessary and effective in the new urban environment because

a.

they were better able to leverage grant money from the federal government.

b.

they consistently upheld high ethical standards.

c.

they were closely allied to other urban institutions like the church and big business.

d.

they were more effective in serving urban immigrants' needs than weak state or local governments.

e.

their support for the Democratic party helped to balance small-town Republican power.

ANS: D REF: p. 546


122. Prominent Protestant pastors like Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden argued that

a.

the ancient Bible should be replaced by more modern scientific sociology and social theory.

b.

the Christian Gospel required that churches address poverty and other burning social issues of the day.

c.

the churches were in danger of being taken over by anti-intellectual fundamentalism.

d.

it was up to women to lead the church in an age of industrial democracy.

e.

the clergy should become the advance guard of a militant working class revolution.

ANS: B REF: p. 549


123. In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants

a.

believed that a final Judgment Day was coming soon.

b.

were driven out of mainstream seminaries and colleges.

c.

welcomed ecumenical conversations with Roman Catholics.

d.

sharply criticized American society and American government.

e.

rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture.

ANS: E REF: p. 552

124. A sign of increasing diversity, by the late 1890s the number of religious denominations in America topped

a.

50.

b.

75.

c.

100.

d.

150.

e.

200.

ANS: D REF: p. 552


125. The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by

a.

turning most scientists against religion.

b.

creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and accomodationists who supported it.

c.

raising awareness of the close spiritual kinship between animals and human beings.

d.

causing a revival of the doctrine of original sin.

e.

sparking the rise of new denominations based on modern science.

ANS: B REF: p. 553


126. Besides serving immigrants and the poor in urban neighborhoods, settlement workers like Jane Addams and Florence Kelley

a.

actively lobbied for social reforms like anti-sweatshop laws and child labor laws.

b.

created the new, largely female profession of teaching.

c.

looked down on the immigrant populations they served.

d.

saw themselves primarily as feminists who worked to advance women's causes.

e.

steered clear of controversial international questions like war and peace.

ANS: A REF: p. 549


127. Settlement houses, such as Hull House, engaged in all of the following activities except

a.

child care.

b.

instruction in English.

c.

cultural activities.

d.

evangelical religious instruction.

e.

lobbying for social reform.

ANS: D REF: p. 549


128. The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was

a.

the big city.

b.

the West.

c.

suburban communities.

d.

rural America.

e.

New England.

ANS: A REF: p. 549


129. In the 1890s, white collar positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for



a.

Jews.

b.

Irish-Americans.

c.

African Americans.

d.

the college-educated.

e.

native-born Americans.

ANS: E REF: p. 550


130. The vast majority of employed female workers in the late nineteenth century were

a.

African Americans.

b.

just arrived from the country.

c.

single.

d.

married but without children.

e.

college-educated.

ANS: C REF: p. 550


131. Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except

a.

opposed to factory labor.

b.

used as strikebreakers.

c.

willing to work for lower wages.

d.

difficult to unionize.

e.

non-English speaking.

ANS: A REF: p. 550-551


132. The American Protective Association

a.

preached the social gospel that churches were obligated to protect New Immigrants.

b.

was led for many years by Florence Kelley and Jane Addams.

c.

supported immigration restrictions.

d.

established settlement houses in several major cities in order to aid New Immigrants.

e.

sought to organize mutual-aid associations.

ANS: C REF: p. 551


133. The religious denomination that was most positively engaged with the New Immigration was

a.

Roman Catholics.

b.

Baptists.

c.

Episcopalians.

d.

Christian Scientists.

e.

Mormons.

ANS: A REF: p. 544 | p. 552


134. The intellectual development that seriously disturbed the churches in the late nineteenth century was the

a.

growing feminist assault on theories of male superiority.

b.

growing awareness of non-Christian religions.

c.

rise of theories of white racial superiority.

d.

new geological studies.

e.

biology of Charles Darwin.

ANS: E REF: p. 553


135. When liberal Protestantism attempted to accommodate religion to modern science, it also tended to

a.

relegate religion to a private sphere of personal conduct and family life.

b.

make Protestantism a powerful actor on the national political stage.

c.

link religion to theories of racial superiority and imperialistic survival of the fittest.

d.

try to prove that religion itself was rooted in scientific fact.

e.

survive only in the universities and advanced intellectual circles.

ANS: A REF: p. 553


136. The new, research-oriented modern American university tended to

a.

focus primarily on theory rather than practical subjects.

b.

give a new emphasis to the importance of religion and cultural tradition.

c.

take the lead in movements of social and political reform.

d.

challenge Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution and natural selection.

e.

de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of practical subjects and professional specialization.

ANS: E REF: p. 557


137. The two major sources of funding for the powerful new American research universities were

a.

tuition paid by undergraduate students and fees charged to those served by the universities.

b.

state land grants and wealthy, philanthropic industrialists.

c.

the federal government and local communities.

d.

income from successful patents and corporate research grants.

e.

churches and numerous private individual donors.

ANS: B REF: p. 555-556


138. The pragmatists were a school of American philosophers who emphasized

a.

the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and the value of ideas that solved problems.

b.

that ideas were largely worthless and only practical experience should be pursued.

c.

that the traditional Greek ideals of Plato and Aristotle should be revived.

d.

that scientific experimentation provided a new and absolutely certain basis for knowledge.

e.

that most academic knowledge was based on bourgeois ideas that oppressed the working class.

ANS: A REF: p. 557


139. Americans offered growing support for a free public education system

a.

to combat the growing strength of Catholic parochial schools.

b.

when the Chautauqua movement began to decline.

c.

because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens.

d.

when private schools began to fold.

e.

as a way of identifying an intellectual elite.

ANS: C REF: p. 554

140. Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was

a.

the vote.

b.

rigorous academic training.

c.

the rejection of accommodationist attitudes.

d.

to directly challenge white supremacy.

e.

economic independence and education

ANS: E REF: p. 554-555


141. The post-Civil War era witnessed

a.

an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws.

b.

the collapse of the Chautauqua movement.

c.

rejection of the German system of kindergartens.

d.

a slow rise in the illiteracy rate.

e.

an emphasis on liberal arts colleges.

ANS: A REF: p. 554


142. The success of the public schools is best evidenced by

a.

the large numbers of students graduating from them.

b.

the ways in which they helped assimilate massive numbers of immigrants.

c.

the falling illiteracy rate to just over 10 percent by 1900.

d.

the large numbers of average Americans going on to attend college.

e.

the movement of men into the teaching profession.

ANS: C REF: p. 554


143. As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington

a.

helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

b.

advocated social equality.

c.

discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut.

d.

promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation.

e.

promoted black political activism.

ANS: D REF: p. 554-555


144. The Morrill Act of 1862

a.

established women's colleges like Vassar.

b.

required compulsory school attendance through high school.

c.

established the modern American research university.

d.

mandated racial integration in public schools.

e.

granted public lands to states to support higher education.

ANS: E REF: p. 555


145. In criticizing Booker T. Washington's educational emphasis on manual labor and industrial training, W.E.B. DuBois emphasized instead that black education should concentrate on

a.

adult education.

b.

education for political action.

c.

developing separate black schools and colleges.

d.

primary and secondary education.

e.

an intellectually gifted talented tenth.

ANS: E REF: p. 555

146. Black leader, Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois

a.

demanded complete equality for African Americans.

b.

established an industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama.

c.

supported the goals of Booker T. Washington.

d.

was an ex-slave who rose to fame.

e.

None of these

ANS: A REF: p. 555


147. In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women

a.

became more difficult to obtain.

b.

was confined to women's colleges.

c.

became much more common.

d.

resulted in the passage of the Hatch Act.

e.

blossomed especially in the South.

ANS: C REF: p. 555


148. Which of the following was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil War era?

a.

Harvard University

b.

The University of California

c.

Johns Hopkins University

d.

The University of Chicago

e.

Stanford University

ANS: A REF: p. 556-557


149. During the industrial revolution, life expectancy

a.

decreased.

b.

changed very little.

c.

was much higher in Europe than in the United States.

d.

measurably increased.

e.

rose for women more than men.

ANS: D REF: p. 557


150. The public library movement across America was greatly aided by the generous financial support from

a.

the federal government's Morrill Act.

b.

Andrew Carnegie.

c.

John D. Rockefeller.

d.

local "friends of the library."

e.

women's organizations.

ANS: B REF: p. 557


151. The two late-nineteenth-century newspaper publishers whose competition for circulation fueled the rise of sensationalistic yellow journalism were

a.

Horatio Alger and Harlan E. Halsey.

b.

Henry Adams and Henry James.

c.

Henry George and Edward Bellamy.

d.

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer.

e.

Edwin L. Godkin and Stephen Crane.

ANS: D REF: p. 558


152. American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by

a.

printing hard-hitting editorials.

b.

crusading for social reform.

c.

repudiating the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.

d.

focusing on coverage of the local community and avoiding syndicalized material.

e.

printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal.

ANS: E REF: p. 558


153. Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in

a.

stock speculators and financiers who manipulated the price of real goods and services.

b.

labor unions that artificially drove up the prices of wages and therefore goods.

c.

landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values.

d.

businesspeople who gained excessive profits by exploiting workers.

e.

patriarchal ideologies that regarded women as inferior domestic beings.

ANS: C REF: p. 558-559


154. Edward Bellamy's novel, Looking Backward, inspired numerous late-nineteenth-century social reformers by

a.

demonstrating that women's work in the home was seriously undervalued.

b.

showing how a single tax on land speculation would end poverty.

c.

portraying the sufferings of an immigrant worker in Chicago's stockyard meat industry.

d.

showing the hypocrisy of the urban wealthy.

e.

portraying a utopian America in the year 2000, where nationalized industry had solved all social problems.

ANS: E REF: p. 559


155. General Lewis Wallace's book, Ben Hur

a.

achieved success only after his death.

b.

was based on a popular early movie.

c.

emphasized that virtue, honesty, and hard work were rewarded by success.

d.

detailed Wallace's experiences in the Civil War.

e.

defended Christianity against Darwinism.

ANS: E REF: p. 565


156. Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work.


A.

Lewis Wallace

1.

success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work

B.

Horatio Alger




C.

Henry James

2.

anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures

D.

William Dean Howells

3.

contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism







4.

psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.




a.

A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1

b.

A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4

c.

A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

d.

A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2

e.

A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

ANS: C REF: p. 565-566


157. Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?

a.

Mark Twain

b.

William Dean Howells

c.

Stephen Crane

d.

Kate Chopin

e.

Henry Adams

ANS: E REF: p. 566


158. In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following except

a.

soaring divorce rates.

b.

the spreading practice of birth control.

c.

more children being born out of wedlock.

d.

increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics.

e.

more women working outside the home.

ANS: C REF: p. 559 | p. 562


159. In the course of the late nineteenth century

a.

the birthrate increased.

b.

the divorce rate fell.

c.

family size gradually declined.

d.

people tended to marry at an earlier age.

e.

children were seen as a greater economic asset.

ANS: C REF: p. 562


160. By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage

a.

acknowledged that women were biologically weaker than men but claimed that they deserved the vote anyway.

b.

temporarily abandoned the movement for the vote.

c.

formed strong alliances with African Americans seeking voting rights.

d.

argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world.

e.

insisted on the inherent political and moral equality of men and women.

ANS: D REF: p. 563


161. One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the

a.

decline in farm income.

b.

stresses of urban life.

c.

emerging feminist movement.

d.

passage of more liberal divorce laws.

e.

decline of religious organizations.

ANS: B REF: p. 562

162. Reflecting women's increasing independence in the late 1890s, author and feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman supported all of the following except

a.

women abandoning their dependent status.

b.

women seeking power via their roles as wives and mothers.

c.

notions that biology made women fundamentally different from men.

d.

centralized nurseries and cooperative kitchens.

e.

women becoming productive members of the economy as workers.

ANS: B REF: p. 562


163. The National American Woman Suffrage Association

a.

achieved its central political goal in 1898.

b.

conducted an integrated campaign for equal rights.

c.

abandoned the goals of Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

d.

elected Ida B. Wells as its president.

e.

limited its membership to whites.

ANS: E REF: p. 563


164. The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of

a.

the new immigrants.

b.

big business.

c.

the poor and working classes.

d.

middle class women.

e.

industrial labor unions.

ANS: D REF: p. 564


165. During industrialization, Americans increasingly

a.

had less free time.

b.

outlawed cruel and violent sports like boxing.

c.

became less involved in physical sports and games.

d.

shared a common and standardized popular culture.

e.

fragmented into diverse consumer markets.

ANS: D REF: p. 572


166. Which of the following sports was not developed in the decades following the Civil War?

a.

Basketball

b.

Bicycling

c.

Croquet

d.

College football

e.

Baseball

ANS: E REF: p. 570



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