Chapter 25 The Global Crisis, 1921–1941 Multiple-Choice Questions



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Chapter 25

The Global Crisis, 1921–1941

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. The secretary of state of the Harding administration was

A. Charles Evans Hughes.

B. Charles Dawes.

C. Henry Cabot Lodge.

D. Henry Stimson.

E. Cordell Hull.

Answer: A

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
2. During the Harding administration, the United States

A. eventually joined the League of Nations.

B. threatened to blockade Japan if it did not stop its military aggression.

C. largely retired from international diplomacy.

D. proposed a dramatic reduction in the fleets of the United States, Britain, and Japan.

E. forgave the international debts of the former European allies.

Answer: D

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
3. The Washington Conference of 1921

A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.

B. saw the Harding administration refuse to participate in it.

C. sought to expand the global markets of the United States.

D. ended as a diplomatic failure for the United States.

E. attempted to create a world court.

Answer: A

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
4. The Five-Power Pact of 1922 dealt with

A. restructuring Germany’s war debt.

B. the League of Nations.

C. the civil war in Russia.

D. Japanese aggression toward China.

E. armament limitations.

Answer: E

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
5. All of the following nations were signatories to the Five-Power Pact of 1922 EXCEPT

A. Britain.

B. Russia.

C. France.

D. Italy.

E. Japan.

Answer: B

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
6. The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928

A. was an alliance between France and the United States against Germany.

B. was to be enforced with multinational trade embargoes.

C. was signed with wide international acclaim.

D. stated that an attack on one nation was an attack on all nations.

E. was an alliance between France and the United States against Japan.

Answer: C

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
7. The Dawes Plan of 1924

A. called for the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments.

B. was designed to help England and France make their debt payments to the United States.

C. called for Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.

D. called for both the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments, and Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.

E. All these answers are correct.

Answer: E

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
8. In his foreign policy for Latin America, President Herbert Hoover

A. repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

B. repeatedly ordered troops into various Central American nations.

C. canceled Latin American war debts owed to the United States.

D. closely followed the policies of the two previous administrations.

E. declared America would henceforth only recognize democratically-elected regimes.

Answer: A

Page: 689

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era

9. As part of his foreign policy, President Herbert Hoover moved to withdraw American troops from

A. Mexico.

B. Cuba.


C. Venezuela.

D. Colombia.

E. Haiti.

Answer: E

Page: 689

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


10. In 1929, a fascist-led government was in power in

A. Germany.

B. Spain.

C. Italy.

D. Japan.

E. France.

Answer: C

Page: 689

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
11. Which of the following statements about the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany is FALSE?

A. His rise was partially precipitated by ruinous inflation.

B. Hitler displayed a pathological anti-Semitism and a passionate militarism.

C. Hitler believed in the genetic superiority of the Aryan people.

D. Hitler argued in favor of extending German territory for the purpose of Lebensraum.

E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government “the Weimar Republic.”

Answer: E

Page: 689

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era
12. In 1932, the Hoover administration, in response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria,

A. issued warnings to the Japanese government.

B. imposed economic sanctions against Japan.

C. sent financial aid to Chiang Kai-shek’s government in China.

D. sent Americans to Manchuria to train Chinese pilots.

E. called for Japanese recognition of the Open Door policy.

Answer: A

Page: 690

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era

13. President Franklin Roosevelt’s sharpest foreign policy break with Herbert Hoover concerned

A. Latin America.

B. Europe.

C. Asia.

D. Russia.

E. Mexico.

Answer: B

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


14. In what became known as the 1933 “bombshell” message, Franklin Roosevelt declared that

A. all foreign war debts would be forgiven.

B. America would no longer recognize fascist governments.

C. the Monroe Doctrine was now null and void.

D. further Japanese aggression against China would be met with force.

E. America would reject any international agreement on currency stabilization.

Answer: E

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
15. In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt carried out international policies that

A. kept the United States on the gold standard.

B. preserved the circular loan system of the Dawes Plan.

C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

D. allowed American banks to make loans to nations in default to the United States.

E. further soured relations with Latin America.

Answer: C

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
16. In 1934, U.S.-Soviet relations soured in part because the United States demonstrated little interest in stopping the expansion of

A. Germany.

B. Italy.

C. China.

D. Japan.

E. Great Britain.

Answer: D

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

17. President Franklin Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbor Policy”

A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.

B. was designed to keep the peace in western Europe.

C. limited land purchases by U.S. companies in neighboring countries.

D. was abandoned by the United States at the start of World War II.

E. gave nations allied against fascism preferential loan rates.

Answer: A

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


18. During the 1920s and 1930s, interest in pursuing an isolationist foreign policy

A. led the United States to give up its membership in the World Court.

B. seemed to grow in the U.S. as it became apparent that Italy would invade Ethiopia.

C. led the U.S. Senate to assert that no single nation was a threat to world peace.

D. was strongly supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.

E. declined after the investigations chaired by Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota.

Answer: B

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
19. The Neutrality Act of 1935

A. sought to protect America’s international trade agreements.

B. prevented Americans from traveling on ships of warring nations.

C. did not prevent the United States from intervening when Italy invaded Ethiopia.

D. was passed by Congress with recent acts of Nazi aggression in mind.

E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.

Answer: E

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
20. The Neutrality Act of 1937

A. stripped the president of many of his powers as commander-in-chief.

B. allowed warring nations to purchase nonmilitary goods in the United States if they paid cash.

C. loosened the trade policy for England, while tightening it for Germany and Japan.

D. banned the sale of all goods from the United States to any nation at war.

E. exempted Asian nations from the provisions of the 1935 Neutrality Act.

Answer: B

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

21. In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt’s “quarantine” speech

A. saw the president call for further isolation from the nation’s enemies.

B. warned Japan it faced a U.S. embargo if it continued to be aggressive.

C. saw Roosevelt challenge England and France to limit the aggression of Germany.

D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people.

E. was given in response to the Japanese sinking of the Panay.

Answer: D

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


22. In response to the breakout of the civil war in Spain, the U.S. government joined with Britain and France in an agreement to

A. support the republican side.

B. support Franco’s regime.

C. offer no help to either side.

D. use the conflict as a means of establishing military positions in Spain.

E. offer help to whichever side would repudiate any diplomatic contact with Hitler’s regime.

Answer: C

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
23. In 1938, Anschluss

A. was proclaimed by Hitler.

B. caused an uproar in the United States.

C. was created at the Munich Conference.

D. led France to put its military on alert.

E. came to be identified with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Answer: A

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
24. The Munich Conference of 1938 was precipitated by a crisis over

A. Austria.

B. Poland.

C. Hungary.

D. Belgium.

E. Czechoslovakia.

Answer: E

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

25. The Munich agreement of 1938

A. was the result of negotiations involving the League of Nations.

B. put most of Poland under German control.

C. ended further German aggression until World War II began.

D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.

E. was signed by Joseph Stalin despite misgivings about German intent.

Answer: D

Page: 695

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


26. Germany began World War II in Europe days after

A. Germany’s occupation of additional areas of Czechoslovakia.

B. a nonaggression pact was signed between Germany and Russia.

C. France promised Poland it would provide military support if attacked.

D. Germany and Austria were unified.

E. Hitler’s violation of the Munich agreement.

Answer: B

Page: 695

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
27. Following the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt

A. declared the United States would remain neutral.

B. declared the United States would be the “arsenal of democracy.”

C. sent American military advisers to England.

D. ordered a “preparedness” campaign much like Woodrow Wilson had in 1916.

E. was unsure whether a majority of Americans supported Germany.

Answer: A

Page: 695

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
28. By the middle of 1940, Germany had defeated

A. Norway.

B. Denmark.

C. France.

D. the Netherlands.

E. All these answers are correct.

Answer: E

Page: 697

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention

29. The American ambassador to London who insisted in 1940 that the British plight was already hopeless was

A. Neville Chamberlain.

B. Joseph Kennedy.

C. Gerald Nye.

D. Burton Wheeler.

E. Wendell Willkie.

Answer: B

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


30. President Franklin Roosevelt’s decision in 1940 to give fifty American destroyers to England

A. was cancelled by Congress.

B. circumvented the cash-and-carry provision of the Neutrality Acts.

C. was in response to requests by the U.S. ambassador to London.

D. both circumvented the cash-and-carry provision of the Neutrality Acts and was in response to requests by the U.S. ambassador to London.

E. None of these answers is correct.

Answer: B

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
31. In July 1940, opinion polls showed the clear majority of the American public

A. believed Germany posed a direct threat to the United States.

B. were strongly against any involvement by the United States in the war.

C. thought the United States should immediately declare war on Germany.

D. believed it would be a waste to aid England, as that nation would soon fall to Germany.

E. believed Japan was a greater threat to the United States than the war in Europe.

Answer: A

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
32. The Burke-Wadsworth Act of 1940

A. reaffirmed the desires of isolationists to stay out of the war.

B. approved sending U.S. weapons to England.

C. approved the first peacetime draft in American history.

D. saw the United States end all trade with any nation allied with Nazi Germany.

E. repealed the 1935 and 1937 Neutrality Acts.

Answer: C

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
33. The America First Committee

A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.

B. was strongly opposed by both major political parties.

C. called for increased U.S. assistance to England without any actual intervention.

D. was made up largely of Democrats who favored diplomacy to end the war.

E. tried and failed to enlist the support of Charles Lindbergh.

Answer: A

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
34. In the election of 1940, Franklin Roosevelt

A. selected Henry Wallace as his new running mate.

B. won a closely contested electoral college victory for his third term.

C. removed Harry Truman from the ticket at the request of conservatives.

D. both selected Henry Wallace as his new running mate, and won a closely contested electoral college victory for his third term.

E. None of these answers is correct.

Answer: A

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
35. In 1940, the “lend-lease” plan

A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England, to be returned or paid for when the war was over.

B. saw England agree to allow jobless Americans to enlist in the British military.

C. saw England allow the construction of American military bases in British territory.

D. saw the U.S. lend funds to the Allies so they could lease war supplies from the U.S.

E. was extremely controversial and barely passed the Senate.

Answer: A

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
36. By September 1941,

A. Germany had agreed with Japan to fight against the United States.

B. the United States extended lend-lease privileges to the Soviet Union.

C. President Roosevelt made a secret agreement to send American troops to England.

D. Germany claimed it had no interest in engaging America in war.

E. the German navy had begun to sink American destroyers, including the Reuben James.

Answer: B

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
37. The German sinking of the American ship Reuben James

A. essentially triggered an American naval war against Germany.

B. led Congress to approve the arming of American merchant ships.

C. led Congress to approve American ships sailing into belligerent ports.

D. led Congress to approve both the arming of American merchant ships and the sailing of American ships into belligerent ports.

E. All these answers are correct.

Answer: E

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
38. In 1941, the Atlantic Charter

A. was signed in Washington, D.C.

B. was completed by senior military officials in the United States and England.

C. saw President Roosevelt agree to an eventual invasion of Europe to drive out the Nazis.

D. saw the United States and England claim to share common principles.

E. gave American merchant ships the authority to fire on German submarines.

Answer: D

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
39. The Tripartite Pact was a defensive alliance among

A. the United States, England, and Russia.

B. the United States, England, and France.

C. Japan, Germany, and Italy.

D. Japan, Germany, and Austria.

E. England, France, and Italy.

Answer: C

Page: 699-700

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
40. In 1941, prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,

A. Japanese troops attacked the Philippines.

B. the Japanese developed a new, unbreakable communication code.

C. Japan tried to repair relations with the United States in order to restore their flow of supplies.

D. President Franklin Roosevelt ordered Japan’s diplomats to leave Washington.

E. President Franklin Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in the United States.

Answer: E

Page: 700

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention

41. Which of the following statements regarding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is FALSE?

A. The State Department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.

B. The American aircraft carriers escaped the attack.

C. Few American authorities believed Japan was capable of an attack on Pearl Harbor.

D. The Japanese suffered light losses in the attack.

E. More than 2,000 American soldiers and sailors died in the attack.

Answer: A

Page: 701

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


42. In 1941, Germany’s declaration of war against the United States

A. occurred after the United States declared war on Germany.

B. came the same day that Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

C. did not occur until two months after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

D. occurred before the United States declared war on Germany.

E. was never reciprocated by Congress.

Answer: D

Page: 702

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention

True/False Questions
43. The United States failed to join the League of Nations.

Answer: True

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


44. During the 1920s, the United States played a more active role in global politics than it ever had in its history.

Answer: True

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


45. In 1921, Charles Evans Hughes feared an arms race would develop on the world’s oceans.

Answer: True

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


46. The Kellogg-Briand Pact declared war illegal.

Answer: True

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era

47. During the 1920s, U.S. banks and corporations were becoming deeply embedded in the daily economic life of Europe.

Answer: True

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


48. Under the Dawes Plan, the United States lent money to European countries to repay war debts owed to the United States.

Answer: True

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


49. President Hoover upheld the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

Answer: False

Page: 689

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


50. The Hoover administration imposed economic sanctions against Japan for its takeover of Manchuria in the early 1930s.

Answer: False

Page: 690

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


51. The Good Neighbor Policy of the Roosevelt administration expanded on earlier changes in foreign policy made by the Hoover administration.

Answer: True

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


52. The Neutrality Acts of the mid-1930s established the U.S. right to use military action to defend any violation of its neutrality.

Answer: False

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


53. The American preference for neutrality increased in popularity in October 1935 when Mussolini finally launched his anticipated attack on Ethiopia.

Answer: True

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


54. President Franklin Roosevelt made his “quarantine” speech in an effort to block Hitler’s takeover of Austria.

Answer: False

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


55. At the time of its announcement, President Roosevelt approved of the Munich agreement.

Answer: True

Page: 695

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


56. Stalin’s nonaggression pact with Hitler was signed before the start of World War II in Europe.

Answer: True

Page: 695

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


57. Like Woodrow Wilson before him, President Roosevelt asked the American people to be neutral in thought when war erupted in Europe in 1939.

Answer: False

Page: 695

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


58. President Roosevelt’s first response to the war in Europe was to request that Congress extend lend-lease to the Allies.

Answer: False

Page: 695

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


59. By 1940 the American ambassador to Great Britain, Joseph Kennedy, thought that the British cause was hopeless.

Answer: True

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


60. President Roosevelt’s decision to give American destroyers to Great Britain was consistent with the “cash-and-carry” provisions of the Neutrality Acts.

Answer: False

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention

61. By the time President Roosevelt ran for a third term, a significant majority of the American people believed that Nazi Germany posed a direct military threat to the United States.

Answer: True

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


62. On foreign policy matters, President Roosevelt and his Republican challenger, Wendell Willkie, were in essential agreement.

Answer: True

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


63. Lend-lease to Great Britain led directly to an American decision to escort convoys of goods across parts of the Atlantic Ocean.

Answer: True

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


64. President Roosevelt responded to the Nazi invasion of Russia by extending lend-lease to Russia.

Answer: True

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


65. President Roosevelt’s August 1941 meeting with Winston Churchill off the coast of Newfoundland led to a private commitment to use the American military in the war against Hitler.

Answer: False

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


66. The Roosevelt administration refused to issue economic sanctions against Japan prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Answer: False

Page: 700

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


67. Prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States knew that a Japanese attack was imminent, but it did not know where the attack would take place.

Answer: True

Page: 700

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention

68. In December of 1941, Germany declared war on the United States before the United States declared war on Germany.

Answer: True

Page: 702

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention



Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
69. The ________ of 1921 was an attempt to prevent a naval arms race among the United States, Great Britain, and Japan.

Answer: Washington Conference

Page: 687

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


70. The 1928 ________ was a multilateral treaty to outlaw war.

Answer: Kellogg-Briand Pact

Page: 688

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


71. The 1931 invasion of Manchuria by ________ was cause for concern on the part of the Hoover administration.

Answer: Japan

Page: 690

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


72. In 1933, the Roosevelt administration extended diplomatic recognition to ________.

Answer: the Soviet Union

Page: 691

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


73. A Senate committee headed by Senator _______ of North Dakota investigated the reasons behind the American entry into World War I.

Answer: Gerald Nye

Page: 693

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


74. Roosevelt’s 1937 “quarantine” speech was directed at ________.

Answer: Japan

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


75. The Anschluss of 1938 was between Germany and ________.

Answer: Austria

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


76. The Munich Conference of 1938 dealt with German designs on the country of ________.

Answer: Czechoslovakia

Page: 694

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


77. After Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1939, Britain and France gave assurances to the country of ________ that they would come to its assistance if it were invaded.

Answer: Poland

Page: 695

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


78. During the winter and early spring of 1939–1940, Europe settled into what some called “the ________ war.”

Answer: phony

Page: 696

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


79. In September of 1940, Congress passed the ________ Act, inaugurating the first peacetime draft in American history.

Answer: Burke-Wadsworth

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


80. In 1940, Charles Lindbergh and Senator Gerald Nye took leading roles in the ________ Committee.

Answer: America First

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


81. Franklin Roosevelt’s Republican opponent in 1940 was ________.

Answer: Wendell Willkie

Page: 698

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


82. Following his reelection in 1940, President Roosevelt asked Congress to establish the ________ program with Great Britain.

Answer: lend-lease

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


83. The sinking of the ________ in the fall of 1941 led Congress to arm American merchant ships.

Answer: Reuben James

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


84. In August 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill met off the coast of Newfoundland to agree to the ________.

Answer: Atlantic Charter

Page: 699

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


85. In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan entered into a defensive alliance called the ________.

Answer: Tripartite Pact

Page: 699-700

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


86. By late November of 1941, American officials assumed that the next Japanese move would be directed not against American territory, but against British or ________ possessions to the south.

Answer: Dutch

Page: 701

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention



Essay Questions
87. During the 1920s, what were the primary objectives of U.S. foreign policy? How did the United States go about achieving these objectives?

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


88. Describe American foreign policy objectives with Europe during the 1920s.

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


89. What were the weaknesses of U.S. foreign policy during the 1920s?

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


90. In what ways did the Hoover administration continue past foreign policy? In what way did it break from the past?

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


91. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Hoover administration’s foreign policy?

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era


92. Why did the events surrounding World War I encourage the growth of isolationism in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s?

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
93. Were American isolationists in the 1920s and 1930s a recent phenomenon, or did their thinking fit into traditional American ideas regarding foreign policy? Justify your response.

Topic: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism
94. How were the activities of other nations affected by American isolationism in the 1930s?

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism


95. How might the Roosevelt administration be labeled isolationist? How and why might it be labeled internationalist?

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
96. What steps were taken during the 1930s to reinforce the American retreat from Europe? What steps did the Roosevelt administration take to lead the United States away from isolationism?

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
97. Explain the evolution of American diplomacy toward Japan between 1921 and 1941.

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism

Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention
98. Was war between the United States and Japan inevitable? Could it have been avoided?

Topic: Isolationism and Internationalism



Topic: From Neutrality to Intervention


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