Chapter 25: The Age of Nationalism



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Chapter 25: The Age of Nationalism

  1. Why did the voters of France elect Louis Napoleon president in 1848? How did he manage to gain the position of emperor?

  2. How and why did Napoleon III liberalize his rule?

  3. Why was Italy, before 1860, just a geographical idea with no reality? What were the three basic approaches to Italian unification? Which one prevailed?

  4. How did the balance of power between nations affect Cavour’s attempt to unify Italy?

  5. What was the importance of Garibaldi’s liberation of Sicily and Naples in 1860 toward Italy’s becoming a unified nation-state?

  6. What obstacles and advantages did Prussia possess in creating a unified Germany?

  7. Identify Bismarck. How did Bismarck unify the northern German states? What was the impact of his method on Austria? (1-2 PARAGRAPHS)

  8. Why did the Prussian middle class liberals change their minds and begin supporting their old enemy, Bismarck, after 1866?

  9. How did Bismarck use foreign affairs to successfully bring the southern German states into a unified Germany?

  10. What was the status of the Russian economy in the early 19th century? Why was the Crimean War a turning point in Russian history?

  11. Explain the “Great Reforms.” How successful were they in improving the economy and basic rights of the people?

  12. What were the causes of the Revolution of 1905? How did the tsar regain control in the midst of so much revolutionary activity? Did the revolution produce real change? Why or why not?

  13. How did emerging mass politics and intensifying national loyalty impact the direction of change in Europe in this period? (5-6 sentences)

  14. Where did power reside in the Germany of 1871? What was Bismarck’s relationship (after 1871) with the Catholic Church? With liberals? With socialists? How did power change after 1890?

  15. Discuss the Paris Commune. What was its impact on France? How and why did the French government change after 1871? What reforms followed? (1-2 PARAGRAPHS)

  16. What were the major political developments and issues in Britain and Ireland in the late 19th century?

  17. What were the major political developments in the Austrian Empire in the late 19th century? Why did these changes not produce greater stability within the empire?

  18. Explain the social situation of European Jews. What forms did anti-Semitism take, and how did Jews respond?

  19. Explain the rapid growth of socialist parties in Europe in the last quarter of the 19th century.

  20. What was the purpose of the Socialist Internationals? Explain the general arguments of the revisionist socialists. (6-8 sentences)

Chapter 25 Vocabulary

Bloody Sunday: massacre of peaceful protesters at Winters Square in St. Petersburg in 1905 that turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a wave of general indignation.

Dreyfus affair: a divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti-Semites against Dreyfus; because of this, the French government severed all ties between the state and church.

Duma: Russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but with absolute veto power from the tsar.

Homestead Act: result of the American Civil War that gave western land to settlers, reinforcing the concept of free labor in a market economy.

Janissary corps: the sultan’s “slave army.”

Kulturkampf: struggle for civilization, Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic Church resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870.

Modernization: the changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.

October Manifesto: the result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power.

People’s Budget: proposed after the liberal party came to power in England in 1906 and vetoed by the lords, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare issues.

Red Shirts: guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to liberate it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.

Reichstag: the popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire after 1871.

Revisionism: an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.

Revolution of 1905: result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.

Tanzimat: regulations or orders.

Young Turks: fervent patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908.

Zemstvo: a new institution of local government in reformed Russia , whose members were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners.

Zionism: movement toward Jewish political nationhood, started by Theodor Herzl.



Zollverein: German customs union founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states.


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