Chapter 23: “Life in the Emerging Urban Society”



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AP European History

Chapter 23: “Life in the Emerging Urban Society”


AP European History

Chapter 24 “Life in the Emerging Urban Society”
Pages 787-818


  1. Around what year did working conditions and real wages begin to rise?



  1. Describe city life during since the Middle Ages



  1. What did the Industrial Revolution reveal about city conditions?



  1. Describe the urban population growth in the 19th century.



  1. How did cities maximize space? Where and how did they build?



  1. Describe city life in these newly expanded cities.



  1. What factors contributed to these conditions?



  1. What was meant by “the decent cottage was the exception, the hovel was the rule”?



  1. Edwin Chadwick-




  1. Benthamite-



  1. “Sanitary idea”-



  1. What were the findings and results of Chadwick’s study?



  1. What impact did the public health movement have?



  1. Miasmatic theory-


  1. Germ theory-



  1. Louis Pasteur-



  1. Pasteurization-



  1. Robert Koch-



  1. Joseph Lister-




  1. Antiseptic principle-


  1. What were the results of the bacterial revolution?



  1. Georges Haussmann-



  1. Describe the Paris of 1850.



  1. Describe the changes made by Haussmann.



  1. What impact did the re-design of Paris have on the rest of the Continent?



  1. What innovations were made in mass public transportation?



  1. What affect did public transportation have on the cities?



  1. What happened to the standard of living in the 19th century?



  1. How much wealth was concentrated in the upper classes?




  1. What happened to the wealth gap between the highest and lowest classes?


  1. What factors contributed to the wealth gap and the creation of multiple classes?



  1. Who made up the upper middle class?



  1. How did members of the upper middle class attempt to imitate the old aristocracy?



  1. How did aristocrats attempt to keep their position and wealth?



  1. Who made up the true moderate middle class?



  1. What two additions did the middle class gain?



  1. How did industrialization expand and diversify the lower middle class?



  1. Which groups became professional “white collar” workers in the new middle class?



  1. What was the average middle class family’s largest expenditure? What was their favorite social function?

  2. What was the greatest indicator that you were no longer working class?



  1. Describe housing in 1900 for the middle class.



  1. Describe middle class clothing



  1. Describe middle class education



  1. Describe the middle class code of behavior and morality



  1. In what industries did most of the working class work?



  1. What factors contributed to the lack of unity in the working classes?



  1. Labor aristocracy-



  1. What pressures did the working class face?



  1. What values did the upper working class adopt?




  1. Who made up the semiskilled laborers?


  1. Who made up the unskilled laborers?



  1. Who made up domestic workers? What were the attractions of domestic work?



  1. What were the “sweating industries”?



  1. What was the favorite leisure time activity of the working classes?



  1. What changes occurred in alcohol use?



  1. Describe sports and music in regards to the working classes.



  1. Describe the state of religion in the 19th century.



  1. Why did working classes begin not to attend church services?



  1. What began to replace financial and traditional concerns when contemplating marriage?




  1. Why were economic considerations more important to the middle classes?



  1. Describe the views on premarital relations for both boys and girls



  1. Illegitimacy explosion-


  1. What was the cause of this “explosion”?



  1. Which areas did not experience this explosion?




  1. After 1850, what patterns existed for pregnancy and legitimacy?



  1. How many women in Paris were prostitutes between 1871-1903?



  1. What does this reveal about attitudes towards prostitution?



  1. My Secret Life



  1. Ultimately, what happened to many former prostitutes?

  2. Describe the state of kinship ties during the 19th century.



  1. What situations warranted family help?



  1. After 1850, what happened to the work spheres of men and women?



  1. What did working outside the home become an indicator of?



  1. Separate spheres-



  1. What was the affect of this for women who wanted to work outside the home?



  1. Describe the legal rights of women



  1. Describe the women’s rights movement



  1. What victories did this movement gain?



  1. How did Marxism and utopianism influence the women’s movement?




  1. What were the benefits of separate spheres?



  1. How was running a home “complicated, demanding, and valuable”?



  1. How did women treat their husbands?



  1. What role did emotions play in marriage?


  1. How did attitudes towards children change between pre and post industrialization?



  1. What signs were there of increased affection for children?



  1. Why did women start to limit the number of children they had?



  1. What beliefs did 19th century people have about the relationship between children and their parents’ emotional and psychological state?



  1. How did parents attempt to regulate children’s sexuality?



  1. Sigmund Freud

  2. Describe Freud’s theories regarding child development



  1. Oedipal complex



  1. Defense mechanisms-



  1. What two intellectual developments characterized the 19th century?



  1. How did industrialization impact science?



  1. Thermodynamics



  1. Law of conservation of energy



  1. Dimitri Mendeleev



  1. Organic chemistry



  1. Michael Faraday




  1. How did scienfitic growth impact industry?



  1. What consequences did scientific growth have in general (3)?



  1. “Social Scientists”



  1. Auguste Comte



  1. Positivist method



  1. Evolution



  1. Charles Lyell



  1. Jean Baptiste Lamarck



  1. Charles Darwin



  1. On the Origins of Species

  2. Describe Darwin’s theory of evolution



  1. Herbert Spencer



  1. Social Darwinists


  1. Emile Zola



  1. Realism



  1. What were the characteristics of realism?



  1. Honore de Balzac



  1. Gustave Flaubert



  1. Mary Ann Evans/George Elliot



  1. Thomas Hardy



  1. Leo Tolstoy



  1. Theodore Dreiser


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