|Chapter 22 The Civil War
22.3 Bull Run: Great Awakening:
-In 1861 President Lincoln and General Winfield Scott created the Union’s war strategy.
The plan was called the Anaconda Plan. First they would surround the South by land and sea to cut off their trade. Then second step was to divide the Confederacy in two so they that they wouldn’t be able to help each other. Step three was to capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, and destroy their government.
-As thousands of volunteers came to D.C. in hopes of helping the Union crush the Confederacy in Richmond, there were being watched by Rose Greenhow. She lived in D.C., but supported the southern cause. She was also friends with Union government officials, and shared the information that she gained from them with Confederate leaders. The question was how was she going to get the information to them without being caught.
-In July of 1861, thousands of Union soldiers left D.C. and started their march to Richmond. They met with lots of cheer and joy as they left the city.
-Rose Greenhow had smuggled a coded note to southern military leaders in the
curls of her hair. The note warned the South of the Union plans. So southern
troops were waiting for the Union around Manassas, Virginia. The armies met
at the creek called Bull Run.
-The Union thought it would be an easy win, but Confederate General, Thomas
Jackson and his regiment of Virginians refused to give up. His men gave him
the nickname “Stonewall” at this battle. Jackson has his men yell at the union
troops at they charged them, the “rebel yell”. The sound and fury of this attack
caused the inexperienced Union troops to retreat back to D.C.
-Bull Run was a great victory for the South, and a huge blow to the North. It
caused the Union to realize that this would not be a short, easy war.
-During the next year as both sides trained large armies, and men were leaving their homes and jobs, women began to fill those voids. Women began to support the families by running farms and businesses, going to work in the factories and other took jobs as nurses, teachers and government workers.
-The military was also an option for some women. They became messengers,
guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers and spies.
-Rose Greenhow was arrested for being a spy after Bull Run. Even though
she was kept under guard in her home, she still sent military messages to
the South. She was eventually allowed to move to the South, and was
seen as a hero.
-Dorthea Dix became the director of the Union army’s nursing service. She
wanted all female nurses to be over 30, plain, strong and willing to do
unpleasant work. Her strict rules gave her the nickname “Dragon Dix”.
-Clara Barton was a nurse who followed Union armies into battle, helping the
troops wherever needed. She founded the “American Red Cross”
22.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair:
-The months following their defeat at Bull Run, the Union started putting its Anaconda Plan into effect.
-In 1861 the Union navy successful set up its blockade of southern ports, and closed most of them to foreign ships. The South asked Britain for help, but they refused. So the South couldn’t export its cotton to Europe and it couldn’t import the supplies it needed.
-Then in 1862 the Union sent troops down to take control of the Mississippi River, to split the South in two.
-Admiral David Farragut led 46 Union ships down the river to New Orleans. It
was the largest U.S. fleet ever assembled. They were able to take over New
Orleans without firing a shot.
-At the same time Ulysses S. Grant moved Union troops south toward the
Mississippi from Illinois. The victories that he and his men had put Kentucky
and much of Tennessee under Union control.
-Grant refused any outcome in battle accept unconditional surrender. So
his nickname became “unconditional surrender”.
-Also at the same time, Union general George McClellan sent 100,000 men by
ship to capture Richmond. It seemed like an easy Union victory, but again the
Confederates held strong and saved Richmond.
-While all of this was going on, Confederate general Robert E. Lee sent troops across the Potomac River into Maryland, a slave Union state. His goal was to persuade them to join the South, and if they won on Union soil they hoped to convince European nations to support the South.
-In September of 1862, the Union and Confederate armies met near Sharpsburg,
along the Antietam Creek.
-McClellan’s Union troops pounded Lee’s Confederates. Lee was greatly
outnumbered, so he pulled back to Virginia.
-McClelland claimed Antietam as a Union victory, but those who saw the battle
saw it as a death to both armies. Over 2,100 Union troops died, and over
10,300 were wounded or missing. In that one day more Americans were killed
than in the War of 1812 and Mexican War combined. This was the bloodies day
of the Civil War.
-There were new realities that came about in the Civil War. Better weapons made killing at a distance much easier.
- Rifles, cannons and artillery all made killing at a distance more accurate and deadly.
-Medical care was not as advanced as the weapons that were being used.
Surgeons used dirty tools and tents to do operations in. Most didn’t even was
their hands between patients.
-This led to the spread of infections.
-Death rate was so high that soldiers often refused treatment.
-More soldiers died of diseases than wounds. The unsanitary conditions of the
camps led to spread of many diseases, like typhoid and pneumonia.
22.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point:
-Even though neither side won at the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln saw it as enough of a victory to begin taking steps to end slavery.
-Emancipation, is the ending of slavery. At the beginning of the war, Lincoln
made sure that people knew that, that wasn’t what the war was about, it was
about saving the Union.
-As the war went on, Lincoln’s attitude changed. He realized that declaring
an end to slavery might discourage Europeans who opposed slavery from
helping the Confederacy, and freeing slave would get rid of the biggest part
of their workforce.
-January 1, 1863 Lincoln gave his Emancipation Proclamation. It declared
that all slaves in Confederate states were free. It was more symbolic at first,
because the Southern states just ignored the declaration.
-It changed the war in the North though, it made it a war for freedom.
-As both sides began to run out of volunteers, the Confederacy passed the first
draft law. All white men between 18 and 35 could be called for 3 years of
service. The North passed a similar law a year later, drafting men between
20 and 45.
-In both parts of the country you could avoid war by paying for a
substitute to take your place. “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.”
-In the summer of 1863 Lee was confident enough to try to invade the North
again. If he could capture a northern city he hoped to convince the North to
-The two sides troops met on July 1, 1863, west of Gettysburg
Pennsylvania. The 90,000 Union troops were led by General
George Meade. The union occupied Cemetery Ridge, and the 75,000
Confederate troops occupied Seminary Ridge, about a mile away.
-After 3 days Lee ordered an all out attack on the center of the Union
line. George Pickett led 15,000 Confederate soldiers towards the
Union line. His charge was the northernmost point reached by
Southern troops during the Civil War.
-Most of the men were taken out by Union gunners, the ones
who made it through lost in hand to hand combat.
-Huge losses at Gettysburg. More than 17,500 Union soldiers and 23,000
Confederate troops were killed or wounded in three days of fighting.
When Lee withdrew from Virginia he would be fighting the rest of the
Civil War on southern soil, a defensive war.
-Even though the Union won at Gettysburg, Lincoln still faced problems on the
-Many people still opposed the war. There were Northern Democrats
known as Copperheads (by republicans) who wanted to restore peace rather than save the Union or end slavery.
-Some Northerners opposed the war because they were sympathetic to
the Confederate cause. Some of these pro-slavery people were attacking
groups of soldier in the North.
-In response Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus.
Which gives a person the right to a trial before being jailed.
People who were suspected of disloyalty were jailed without a
-The Union draft law, which came a few months after the Emancipation
Proclamation, created opposition to the war. Many northerners did not like
being forced to fight to end slavery. Others saw the government as a military
-When the first troops were called up in July of 1863 a riot broke out
in New York City. It lasted four days, and it consisted of burning draft
offices and fighting police. The white rioters had special targets, African
Americans. The mobs also attacked black boardinghouses, churches and
orphanages. Over 100 black New Yorkers died.
-A few months after the draft riots, there was a dedication ceremony at a new
cemetery at Gettysburg, overlooking the battlefield. Lincoln was invited to
speak. Most of the 15,000 people at the cemetery could not hear Lincoln, but the
nation would never forget his Gettysburg Address.
-On purpose he spoke of the war in words that echoed the D of I. He said
this war was testing whether a nation conceived in liberty and dedicated
to the idea that all men were created equal, can long endure.
-He also asked that Americans stay dedicated to what was started. Don’t
let these men die in vain. That this nation with have a new birth of
freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the earth.
22.6 Vicksburg: A Besieged City:
-The Civil War had many firsts in it.
-First American war to use railroads to move troops and supplies.
-First war that used telegraphs to communicate with distant armies.
-First war recorded in photographs.
-First war to see fighting between armor-plated steamships.
-In the beginning stages of the war the Union left a navy yard in Norfolk, Virginia, and left behind a warship named Merrimac. The Confederacy had no navy, so they covered the wooden Merrimac with iron plates and added a powerful ram to the front.
-The Union navy also built iron-clad ships. There first one was called the
Monitor. It had a flat deck with two heavy guns on top.
-When the two ships met each other they fought for four hours until they both
Withdrew with neither side damaged or a winner.
-This singled the end of the wooden ships. Ironclads were the new
addition to both navies. The south could never build enough to stop
the Union blockade of their harbors.
-The Union used ironclads to take control of both ends of the Mississippi river, part of their plan to divide the south. They needed the city of Vicksburg Mississippi to finish off the plan.
-Vicksburg was easy to defend but difficult to capture and whoever had it could
control movement on the Mississippi.
-For 6 weeks Union gunboats fired from the river, and Union troops bombarded
from land. The Union troops burrowed toward the city in trenches and tunnels.
-People in Vicksburg dug caves in the hillsides for protection. They had to eat
horses, mules, dogs, rats and bread of made of dried corn and peas.
-With food and supplies at a minimum, Vicksburg surrendered on July 4, 1863.
Now the Confederacy was divided, as the Union had control of the Mississippi.
-Things were getting bad in the South. The blockade had caused stores to go bare with imported goods. The items still available were very expensive.
-Planters started planting food crops rather than cotton and tobacco, because they
couldn’t sell the later. They still lacked food.
-Union troops were destroy the crops as they traveled the through the south. They
would also cut the rail line making it difficult to move food and supplies.
-Southerners also lacked clothing supplies. As their clothing wore out they had to
wear patches and rough homespun cloth. The soldiers were dressing in rags and
tags by the end of the war.
22.7 Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War:
-At first the Civil War was seen as a white man’s war in the north. In 1862 Congress finally opened the door to black recruits. Around 186,000 African Americans, many former slaves, enlisted in the Union army. 30,000 joined the Union navy.
-Massachusetts was one of the first states to organize black regiments. The 54th Massachusetts Infantry was led by Colonel Robert Shaw, and had around 1,000 men, two were sons of Frederick Douglass.
-They were paid less than white soldiers. When they realized this, they protested
this by not accepting any pay at all. Congress did eventually give them equal pay
at Lincoln’s urging.
-The 54th after training was sent to help in the attack on Fort Wagner. Besides the
normal soldier worries, they had to worry about being captured and sold back
-The attack on Fort Wagner was an impossible mission. Soldiers had to cross 200
yards of open beach, while being shot at by cannons and guns.
-Half of the 54th were killed, so the survivors pulled back. Their bravery won
them widespread respect.
-Throughout the Civil War 166 African American regiments fought in over 500
battles. These soldiers often had little training, poor equipment and less pay than
-They fought though to save the Union and in hopes of ending slavery.
22.8 Appomattox: Total War Brings an End:
-After much search for a strong leader, Lincoln found his man in General Grant. His view on war was right to the point. “Find out where the enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike him as hard and often as you can, and keep moving on.”
-Grant used this idea in his plan to end the war. He would lead a large force
against Lee and capture Richmond. Then at the same time General William
Tecumseh Sherman would lead a second army into Georgia to take Atlanta.
-In May of 1864 Grant invaded Virginia with over 100,000 men. They met Lee’s group of 60,000 soldiers in a dense forest known as “the wilderness”. After much fighting and moving around Grant’s losses totaled Lee’s numbered of troops. Grant kept going because he could continue to get fresh troops, Lee could not.
-Grant believed in total war. This meant you attacked an enemies will to fight
and its ability to support an army. The orders he gave his generals were to pretty
much destroy everything that the enemy had. General Sherman followed his
orders and when he reached Atlanta, the South’s most important manufacturing
center, he set the city ablaze.
-The South’s last hope for victory was if Lincoln lost the election of 1864. His competition was a northern democrat, George McClellan, who urged an immediate end to the conflict.
-Lincoln thought he wouldn’t win, but Sherman’s and Sheridan’s wins in the
south rescued his campaign, giving hope that the war might end soon. He won
-After Sherman burned Atlanta, he moved toward Savannah with the purpose of destroying the last untouched supply base for the Confederacy.
-On his march through Georgia his army destroyed everything they found. They
trampled and burned fields, robbed houses, burned food supplies and everything
useful in their 60 mile wide path was destroyed.
-In December of 1864 Sherman captured Savannah, then moved north into the
Carolinas. He waited in Raleigh for Grant’s attack on Richmond.
-After 9 months of fighting between Grant and Lee’s armies outside of Richmond, the Union forces finally broke through Confederate lines and captured the city. Grant’s soldiers surrounded Lee’s army.
-On April 9, 1865 Lee went to Wilmer McLean’s house in the village of
Appomattox Courthouse. He met Grant there to surrender his army.
-Grant gave generous terms of surrender:
-Confederate soldiers could go home if they promised to stop fighting,
and they could keep their own horses and mules.
-The officers could keep their swords and weapons.
-Grant had food sent to Lee’s starved men
-Lee accepted the terms of surrender. The Union troops shot off their weapons
in excitement. Grant ordered them to stop celebrating because even though
the war was over, the rebels were now our countrymen again.
-The nation had been touched by fire. Some compared the Civil War to a great furnace that burned away one country and forged a new one in its place.
-In this new country slavery or the right to secession would not be allowed.
-Before the war people said the United States are, now they said the United
-Even though these changes were great, they came at a horrific cost.
-Billions of dollars were spent on this war.
-Almost every family lost a member or friend.
-Over 620,000 total troops died, and 1,000’s more were missing an arm or
-Environmental destruction of the South would take generations to fix.
-Croplands were ruined, and 2/5’s of their livestock were destroyed.
-The Civil War has been called the first modern war because it was the first war to use the technology of the Industrial Revolution.
-Railroads, the telegraph, armored ships, and more accurate and destructive
weapons. Total War was also introduced.
-Even though the old society of the South had been destroyed, its memories lingered.
-Secession and slavery were gone, but conflicts over states’ rights and the status of African Americans would continue on for a long time.