The Congress of Vienna—which effectively ended the Napoleonic Era—was followed by a decade in which conservative political forces controlled virtually all of Europe.
Goal of the new system of balance of power was to maintain peace and prevent war
Major powers in Europe sought to maintain the authority of monarchies and aristocracies after the turmoil of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Differing views on the demarcation of national borders
Nationalists wanted borders drawn according to boundaries of ethnicity or nationalities.
Liberals sought moderate political reform and freer economic markets
French Revolution in 1830 and a sweeping reform bill passed through Parliament were victories for European liberals
Conservatives wanted to preserve the traditional order and dominated much of the first half of the nineteenth century.
Russia and eastern Europe continued to resist political and social change
Section One: The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
Historians often refer to the nineteenth century as the great age of “…isms” that includes nationalism, liberalism, republicanism, socialism, and communism.
The Emergence of Nationalism
Definition—as a political outlook, nationalism is the relatively modern concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of a common language, as well as common customs, culture, and history, and who, because of these bonds, should be administered by the same government.
Ethnic and political boundaries should coincide.
Opposition to the Vienna Settlement
Vienna contended that legitimate monarchies and dynasties, rather than ethnicity, provide the basis for political unity which falls in direct opposition to nationalism.
Nationalist saw the Russian and Austrian empires in violation of ethnic nationhood.
They also objected to peoples of the same ethnic group, such as Germans and Italians, dwelling in political units smaller than an ethnic nation.
The idea of popular sovereignty was key to nationalists because the quality of the people, not the rulers, determine a national character.
A shared past
Small group of intellectuals began writing about nationalism and the idea of nationhood in the early nineteenth century.
Historians wrote the histories of these people which gave the people a sense of their past and ethnic identity.
Which language to use in schools and in government offices was always a point of contention for nationalists because the chosen language would supplant, or make local dialects obsolete.
Nationalists often tried to resurrect from earlier times what they regarded as purer versions of national language.
The growth of uniform language helped persuade people who had not thought of themselves as constituting a nation that in fact they were one.
Meaning of Nationhood
Certain nationalist suggested that nations determining their own destinies resembled individuals exploiting personal talents to determine their own careers.
Some argued that nations, like biological species in the natural world, were distinct creations of God.
The Polish, for example, used Christian sensibilities to explain that Poland was the suffering Christ among nations, thus implicitly suggesting that Poland, like Christ, would experience resurrection and a new life.
Metaphors—like the one listed above-- were often used to express what was meant by nationhood.
monarchs and aristocrats offered stiff resistance to liberal reforms; therefore, liberals had little real political influence
sharp social divide existed in Germany and middle class had little opportunity to participate in politics
many German liberals favored a united Germany but Prussia and Austria refused to cooperate with these dreams
Relationship of Nationalism to Liberalism
Nationalism was not naturally linked to liberalism and even opposed it in some ways, however, the two can be compatible.
By advocating representative government, civil liberties, and economic freedom, nationalist groups in one country could gain the support of liberal elsewhere in Europe who might not otherwise share their nationalist interest.
For example, nationalist in Greece made Athens the capital because they believed it would associate their struggle for independence with ancient Athenian democracy, which English and French liberals revered.
Some nationalist wanted their own particular ethnic group to dominate minority national or ethnic groups within a particular region.
For example, Magyars sought political control over non-Magyar peoples living within the historical boundaries of Hungary.
Section Two: Conservative Governments—The Domestic Political Order
The domestic political order that restored conservative institutions in Europe—particularly in Great Britain and eastern Europe, showed remarkable staying power and remained intact until World War I.
Major pillars of nineteenth-century conservatism
legitimate monarchies, landed aristocrats, and established churches
Although Frederick William III (1797-1840) promised the implementation of some form of constitutionalism, he violated his promise in 1817 when he created the Council of State instead, which was responsible to him alone.
Frederick fired his reform-minded ministers and replaced them with hardened conservatives and he appointed a number of members of the Junker class to positions of officers in the military.
The old bonds linking monarchy, army, and landholders had been reestablished.
Student Nationalism and the Carlsbad Decrees
Three southern German states—Baden, Bavaria, and Wurttemberg—had established constitutions after 1815.
many young Germans cherished nationalist and liberal expectations
they formed a student group called Burschenschaften that advocated for a united Germany
Karl Sand, a Burschenschaften member, assassinated the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue
Sand was publicly executed but became a nationalist martyr
these clubs were often anti-Semitic
in Jena, a student club organized festivities surrounding the fourth anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig which made rulers uneasy.
Issued in July 1819, it dissolved Burschenschaften
It also provided for university inspectors and press censors
Limited the issues that the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden could discuss
Asserted the right of the monarch to resist demands of constitutionalism
Postwar Repression in Great Britain
After 1815, Great Britain experienced two years of poor harvests.
Sailors and soldiers out of work joined the unemployment lines in England
Lord Liverpool’s Ministry and Popular Unrest
Lord Liverpool (1770-1828)
Tory Prime Minister of England
Policies of Liverpool
Sought to protect the interests of the wealthy and landed classes
established in order to maintain high prices on domestically produced grain by levying import duties on foreign grain
Parliament replaced the income tax that only the wealthy paid with sales taxes on consumer goods.
These policies and the economic downturn after 1815 led the lower social classes to demand political change
Radical clubs and newspapers formed that called for reform
William Cobbett’s Political Registrar published fiery articles demanding reform
Major John Cartwright (1740-1824) and Henry “Orator” Hunt (1773-1835) were two of the reform leaders
Response to the Unrest
Government responded with repression
Coercion Acts of March 1817
After an unruly mass meeting took place at Spa Fields near London, Parliament issued the Coercion Acts which temporarily suspended habeas corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings,
“Peterloo and the Six Acts
Protest in the industrial north
On August 16, 1819, in Manchester at Saint Peter’s Fields, a militia was ordered by a local magistrate to move upon the audience and eleven people were killed; this became known as the Peterloo Massacre.
a series of laws enacted to prevent radical leaders from agitating
Cato Street Conspiracy
Under the leadership of Arthur Thistlewood (1770-1820), a group of extreme radicals plotted to blow up the entire British cabinet.
The plot was foiled and six conspirators were hanged for their involvement
Bourbon Restoration in France
Royalists and conservatives alike appointed the brother of the beheaded Louis XVI as king of France as Louis XVIII.
Since royalist regard the son of Louis XVI—who died in prison—as Louis XVII, the new king took the name Louis XVIII.
Louis XVIII agreed to rule France as a constitutional monarch.
described the powers of government in France that included a hereditary monarch and a bicameral legislature
Chamber of Peers
upper house in legislature appointed by king and modeled after the English House of Lords
Chamber of Deputies
limited franchise based on property qualifications elected the lower house
reiterated many of the fundamental underpinnings of the Declaration of Rights of Man
religious toleration granted but Roman Catholicism was the official religion
Charter promised not to redistribute land in order to reverse the property transfers that occurred during the revolution
Some royalists did not like the moderate policies of Louis XVIII and therefore rallied around his brother, the count of Artois and heir to the throne.
In the months following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, some royalists carried out atrocities against former revolutionary leaders and supporters of Napoleon.
Between 1804 and 1813, a remarkable Serbian leader, Kara George (1762-1817), had led guerilla war against the Ottomans; although unsuccessful, this movement helped shape Serbian self-identity.
In 1830, a new leader, Milos Obrenovitch (1780-1860), negotiated Serbian independence from the Ottoman Empire.
The presence of Muslims, and other minorities, in Serbian territory was a problem.
In the mid-1820s, Russia—sharing Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Slavic ethnicity--became Serbia’s formal protector .
Section Four: The Wars of Independence in Latin America
The French Revolution and the wars of Napoleon sparked independence movements throughout Latin America.
Between 1804 and 1824, France was driven from Haiti, Portugal lost control of Brazil, and Spain was forced to withdraw from all of its American empire except Cuba and Puerto Rico.
The period of transatlantic history beginning with the American Revolution and ending with the Latin American Wars of Independence marks the first era of decolonization from European rule.
Revolution in Haiti (1791-1804)
Significance of this event
It was sparked by the policies of the French Revolution overflowing into France’s New World Empire.
The National Assembly in Paris in 1791 declared that property-owning mulattos in Haiti should enjoy the same rights as white plantation owners.
The Colonial Assembly in Haiti—comprised of white plantation owners—resisted the orders of the National Assembly and this ignited a full-fledged rebellion.
It demonstrated that slaves of African origins could lead a revolt against white masters and mulatto freemen and it sparked fear in slave owners throughout the Americas.
Francois-Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture (1743?-1803), a former slave, emerged as the leader of the revolt.
The slave revolt was suppressed but the free blacks and mulattos resumed the fighting in order to obtain the rights granted by the National Assembly.
France sent troops to ensure the rights of the free blacks and mulattos and were joined by the slaves in fighting the privileged class in Haiti.
In early 1793, France abolished slavery in Haiti and L’Ouverture was appointed Governor General for life.
Napoleon distrusted LOuverture and, therefore, sent an army to capture him after which he was imprisoned in France and died in 1803.
Another man of slave origins, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) continued the resistance but Napoleon chose to withdraw from Haiti completely when France went to war with Britain in 1803.
France formally acknowledged Haitian Independence in 1804.
Wars of Independence on the South American Continent
In general, on the South American continent, the Creole elite—merchants, landowners, and professional people of Spanish descent—led the movements against Spain and Portugal.
Few Native Americans, black people, mestizos, mulattos, or slaves became involved in or benefitted from the end of Iberian rule.
Creole revolutionaries were like the American revolutionaries in the southern colonies who wanted to reject British rule but keep their slaves, and French revolutionaries who wanted to depose the king but not to extend liberty to the working class.
Reasons for discontentment
Creoles in Latin America were unhappy with Spain’s imperial trade policies that prevented them from trading freely with North American and European markets.
Creoles were also repulsed by recent tax hikes imposed by Spain.
The resented policies that favored peninsulares—white people born in Spain—for political patronage including appointments in the colonial government, church, and army.
Creole leaders became familiar with the works of the Enlightenment philosophes.
Event that triggered Brazilian Indpendence
Napoleon invaded Portugal and Spain in 1807 which presented a unique opportunity for revolutionary-minded Creoles.
Between 1808 and 1810, Creole leaders established juntas, or political committees, that claimed the right to govern different regions in Latin America.
After the establishment of the juntas, Spain never recovered governmental authority over South America.
With the establishment of juntas, peninsulares lost their privileges and Creoles took positions in the government and army.
Creoles would have to fight for a decade before South America’s independence was officially acknowledged.
San Martin in Rio de la Plata
Due to geographical barriers, distinct regional differences, and the absence of an integrated economy meant that there would be several different paths to independence.
Rio de la Plata, or modern-day Argentina, was the first region to gain autonomy.
The citizens of Buenos Aires fought off a British invasion in 1806 which gave them the confidence that they could rely on themselves rather than Spain.
The juntas in Buenos Aires declared independence from Spain and sent an army into Paraguay and Uruguay to liberate them from Spain.
Buenos Aires juntas sent their general Jose de San Martin over the Andes Mountains where the occupied Santiago and established Chilean Independence with Bernardo O’Higgins (1778-1842) as its supreme dictator.
In 1820, San Martin organized a fleet that carried his army by sea to Peru where they landed and forced the royalist army from Lima and San Martin became the protector of Peru.
Simon Bolivar’s Liberation of Venezuela
Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) Bio
organized juntas in Caracas and Venezuela in 1810.
advocate of independence and republicanism
Role in Venezuelan Independence
forced into exile from 1811-1814 when civil war broke out in Venezuela as a coalition of royalists, llaneros (Venezuelan cowboys), and slaves challenged the authority of republican government.
With help from Haiti, he returned and captured Bogota, capital of New Granada, to secure a base from which to launch an attack on Venezuela,
In the summer of 1821, Bolivar captured Caracas and was named president of Venezuela.
Bolivar joined his army with that of San Martin and they jointly liberated Ecuador.
Bolivar believed in republicanism whereas San Martin believed monarchy was necessary for the future of Latin America.
San Martin quietly retired from public life and was sent into exile in Europe.
In 1823, Bolivar invaded Peru and crushed the remaining royalist forces at the Battle of Ayacucho.
Independence in New Spain
The drive for independence in New Spain—which included present-day Mexico as well as Texas, California, and the rest of the southwest United States, demonstrates the conservative outcome of the Latin American colonial revolutions.
Road to independence
A local governing junta was established in 1808 but before it could lead the region to independence, a Creole priest, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811) issued a call for rebellion to the Indians in his parish.
Hidalgo, supported by a group of 80,000 followers, set forth a program of social reform, including changes in landholdings.
Hidalgo was captured by a royalist army in 1811 and executed.
Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (1765-1815), a mestizo priest, became the movement’s leader and he called for an end to forced labor and for substantial land reforms.
He was executed in 1815, ending five years of popular uprising
Conservative creoles and Spaniards rallied behind former royalist general Augustin de Iturbide (1783-1824), who declared Mexico independent of Spain in 1821.
Iturbide was declared emperor.
Brazilian independence was peaceful.
Royal family moved there and established Rio de Janeiro as a royal city that was ruled over by Portuguese prince regent Joao.
Prince regent Joao addressed many local complaints and implemented reform that benefitted Brazil rather than Portugal.
For example, he lifted many trade barriers.
An uprising occurred in 1820 and its leaders demanded that prince regent Joao return to Lisbon.
Joao left his son, Dom Pedro, as regent in Brazil and encouraged him to be sympathetic to the cause of Brazilian Indpendence.
Dom Pedro was declared emperor of an independent Brazil in 1822 which maintained monarchy as its system of government.
Political and social elite in Brazil did not resist in order to avoid destruction of property and to help uphold the institution of slavery in an independent Brazil.
Section Five: The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe
Although independence movements succeeded on the periphery of Europe—in such cases as the Latin American Wars for Independence and the Greek Revolution—the conservative order in the heart of Europe successfully resisted liberalism.
By the mid-1820s, however, the conservative governments of Russia, France, and Great Britain faced new political discontentment; in Russia the result was suppression, in France revolution, and in Britain accommodation.
Russia: The Decembrist Revolution
Tsar Alexander I came to throne after a coup of his father, Tsar Paul, in 1801 and took a leading role both domestically and internationally in suppressing liberalism and nationalism.
Russian troops, influenced by the ideas of the French Revolution they were exposed to while fighting and occupying France, formed secret societies to discuss liberal reform in Russia.
a secret society led by an officer named Pestel advocated representative government and the end of serfdom
a more moderate secret society that favored constitutional monarchy and the end of serfdom, but wanted to protect the interests of the aristocracy
Although the Southern and Northern Societies disagreed on a number of issues, they planned and carried out a coup d’etat in 1826.
Death of Tsar Alexander I
Tsar Alexander I died unexpectedly, without an heir, in 1825 and allegedly named his younger brother, Nicholas, as the new Tsar.
However, Alexander’s other brother, Constantine—being the elder of the two—was the legitimate heir to the throne; however, he did not want to be tsar.
Troops in Russian army have split loyalties between Nicholas and Constantine
Many believed that Nicholas was more conservative than Constantine.
Constantine was more popular with the people of Russia.
Army required to take an oath of allegiance to Nicholas
Most regiments took the oath but the Moscow regiment marched into Senate Square in Saint Petersburg and refused to swear allegiance.
Moscow regiment called for a constitution and that Constantine be named tsar.
Nicholas ordered the cavalry and artillery to attack the crowd and sixty people were killed.
Nicholas investigated the Decembrist Revolt and the secret societies responsible for it.
He executed five of the plotters and sent more than a hundred others were sent to Siberia.
The Autocracy of Nicholas I
Nicholas came to epitomize nineteenth-century autocracy but he did understand that social reform was required to modernize Russia.
For example, Nicholas understood oppression of the feudal system—and reportedly knew it should be eradicated—but he also knew that if he ended serfdom, he would lost the support of the nobility.
He instituted a codification of Russian law in 1833.
Literary and political censorship and a widespread system of surveillance and secret police flourished throughout his reign.
A program instituted by Nicholas and administered by Count S.S. Uvarov, the minister of education.
Russian Orthodox Church controlled schools and universities and taught young Russians to accept their place in life and spurn social mobility.
Political writers stressed that only through the autocracies of Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, and Alexander I had Russia prospered.
Russians were taught that their religion, language, and customs were a source of wisdom that separated them from the moral corruption and turmoil of the West.
Revolt and Repression in Poland
Poland remained under the domination of Russia following the Congress of Vienna but was granted a constitutional government with a parliament, called the diet, that had limited powers.
The tsar also reigned as king of Poland.
Polish nationalists advocated for change in his arrangement.
In November 1830, a small insurrection of soldiers broke out in Warsaw and movements broke out throughout the country.
The diet deposed Nicholas as king of Poland, but Nicholas sent troops into Warsaw and suppressed the revolt.
Organic Statute (February 1832)
Nicholas declared Poland to be an integral part of the Russian Empire.
Revolution in France (1830)
When Louis XVIII died in 1824 , his brother and ultraroyalist count of Artois, Charles X rose to the throne in France and was a firm believer in rule by divine right.
The Reactionary Policies of Charles X
Charles immediately ordered his Chamber of Deputies to organize a fund to pay aristocrats who had lost property and possessions during the revolution an annual sum.
He restored the practice of primogeniture.
To support the Roman Catholic Church, he enacted a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death.
Elections of 1827
Liberals gained enough seats in the Chamber of deputies to make the king compromise.
In 1829, Charles replaced his moderate cabinet with an ultraroyalist cabinet headed by Prince de Polignac.
In response, liberals opened negotiations with the liberal Orleans branch of the royal family.
The July Revolution
Trigger of revolution
Charles X called for a new election in 1830 in which liberals scored stunning victories.
Instead of accepting the new Chamber of Deputies, the king and his ministers planned a seizure of power.
Meanwhile, Polignac sent a naval expedition to Algiers in North Africa which the French conquered and added to their empire; behind this smokescreen, Charles X issued the Four Ordinances which amounted to a royal coup d’etat.
Four Ordinances restricted freedom of press, limited franchise to only the wealthiest people in the country, and called for new elections
Liberal newspapers called for the working class of France to ignore the monarch’s Four Ordinances.
Impoverished workers erected barricades in the streets of Paris.
The king ordered troops to disperse the crowd and over 1,800 people were killed; but the army was unable to take control of the crowd or city.
On August 2, Charles X abdicated and went into exile in England.
The liberals of the Chamber of Deputies named a new ministry comprised of constitutional monarchists and ended the rule of Bourbon dynasty by proclaiming Louis Philippe, the duke of Orleans, the new king of France rather than the Count de Chambord, the infant grandson of Charles X.
The revolution was the work of an alliance between upper-middleclass liberals and hard-pressed laborers but the differences of these two groups would soon emerge.
Monarchy Under Louis Philippe
Politically, Louis was considered more liberal than any prior monarch and was commonly referred to as “king of the French” rather than “king of France.”
Although Louis enacted many liberal measures, the everyday economic, political, and social influence of the landed oligarchy continued.
Reaction from the lower and working classes
In 1830, workers of Paris called for job protection, better wages, and the preservation of traditional crafts
Royal troops suppressed a worker’s revolt in Lyons and another strike by silk workers was also crushed in this city.
A funeral of a popular Napoleonic-era general provided a stage for a revolt that troops were called in to suppress and it resulted in over 800 deaths.