Chapter 2: Short Answer Questions and Suggested Solutions



Download 70.53 Kb.
Date conversion13.05.2016
Size70.53 Kb.

Chapter 2: Short Answer Questions and Suggested Solutions

Chapter 2

Short Answer Questions and Suggested Solutions



Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945

Section I, Part A – Question 11

Short Answer Questions

Tips for answering short answer questions


  • If there is a quote used in the question refer to that quote EXPLICITLY.

  • Even though this is a ‘short answer’, plan what you are going to write.

  • Try to use only the lines made available. If you go over the number of lines available, be sure not to ramble. If you write to the bottom of the sheet provided, turn over and continue your answer on the back.

  • Remember that this answer is worth five marks, do not waste time writing an essay!



Introduction to Short Answer Section
This chapter provides the HSC question, marking criteria provided by the Board of Studies, then sample answer/s. Sometimes two samples have been supplied in this section. Remember that these samples are not meant to be the definitive and only answer. Read them, think about them and perhaps workshop them to improve or strengthen what has been provided.
The 2 Unit Questions are addressed in the second part of this chapter.


2007 Paper

‘The churches should act together in all matters except those in which deep differences of conviction compel them to act separately.’ Conference on Faith and Order, 1952.

Using the above statement and your own knowledge, describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia.
Outcomes assessed: H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, H9
MARKING GUIDELINES

MARKING GUIDELINES Criteria

Marks

• •

Provides detailed and accurate features and characteristics of the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia

Makes relevant reference to the source and own knowledge



5

• •

Provides some features and characteristics of the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia

Makes some reference to the source and own knowledge



4

• •

Provides ONE detailed feature and some general characteristic of the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia

May make reference to the source



3

• •

Makes general statements about the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia

May refer to the source and/or own knowledge



1–2



2008 Paper

‘Too many elders have passed away who hold the information and language necessary to connect dispossessed Aboriginal groups with the land.’



Sydney Morning Herald, 2007
With reference to the statement above and using your own knowledge, discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality.
Outcomes assessed: H2, H9
MARKING GUIDELINES

Criteria

Marks

• Identifies issues and provides detailed and accurate points for and/or against the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality

• Makes relevant reference to the statement



5

• Identifies issues and provides some points for and/or against the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality

• Makes some reference to the statement



3–4

• Makes general statements about the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality

1–2


2009 Paper



With reference to the two signs above and your own knowledge, account for changes in

Australia’s religious landscape since the 1960s.
Outcomes assessed: H2, H4, H6, H9

MARKING GUIDELINES




2009 Paper

Describe the ways in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country.




Question 11 Criteria

Marks

  • Provides details of characteristics and features of relevant and accurate ways in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country

5

  • Provides characteristics and features of some relevant way(s) in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country • Makes simple statements about Aboriginal spirituality and/or belonging to country

3–4

  • Makes simple statements about Aboriginal spirituality and/or belonging to country

1–2

2010 Paper





Dream country* is belonging. Every person has a place in the world in which they are needed, and in which they are ‘healthy’.

*country term uses by Aboriginal people to refer to the land to which they belong and their place of Dreaming



Describe the ways in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country.




Question 11 Criteria

Marks

  • Provides details of characteristics and features of relevant and accurate ways in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country

5

  • Provides characteristics and features of some relevant way(s) in which Aboriginal spirituality is closely linked to belonging to country • Makes simple statements about Aboriginal spirituality and/or belonging to country

3–4

  • Makes simple statements about Aboriginal spirituality and/or belonging to country

1–2

Religion and Non-Religion (2 Unit Students Only)

Section I, Part B – Question 22

Short Answer Questions
2007 Paper


With reference to the illustration and your own knowledge, explain TWO reasons why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities.
Outcomes assessed: H1, H2, H6, H8, H9
MARKING GUIDELINES

Criteria

Marks



Provides TWO detailed and accurate reasons why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities

  • Makes relevant reference to the source

5



Provides TWO accurate reasons why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities

Makes some reference to source



4



Provides ONE detailed and accurate reason AND some general statements about why an individual may explore a new religious expression and spiritualities

May refer to source



3



Makes general statements about why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities

May refer to the source



1–2




  • Be sure to refer to the illustration in your answer.

  • Ensure that you discuss TWO reasons as directed in the question.


2008 Paper

Compare the responses to social responsibility of ONE religious and ONE non-religious belief system.


Outcomes assessed: H1, H2, H9
MARKING GUIDELINES

Criteria

Marks

• Accurately shows similarities and/or differences in the responses to social responsibility of ONE religious and ONE non-religious belief system

• Presents a comprehensive answer on BOTH belief systems



5

• Identifies some similarities and/or differences in the responses to social responsibility of ONE religious and ONE non-religious belief system OR

• Provides detailed information about the response of ONE belief system and general information about the other

• Comparison may be implied


3–4

• Makes general statements about the difference between ONE religious and/or ONE non-religious response to social responsibility

1–2




  • Define the term ‘Social Responsibility’: Caring for other people and the world

  • Chose ONE religious belief system, i.e. Buddhism or Christianity or Hinduism or Islam or Judaism

and

  • ONE non-religious belief system, i.e. Atheism or Agnosticism or Humanism to discuss their responses to Social Responsibility


2009 Paper

‘If God does not exist, then everything is permitted.’

With reference to the quotation, explain how atheism OR agnosticism influences the aspirations and behaviour of individuals.
Outcomes assessed: H2, H6, H9
MARKING GUIDELINES

Criteria

Marks

  • Demonstrates sound knowledge of ways in which atheism or agnosticism can provide guidance for the individual

  • Demonstrates an understanding of the relevance of the quotation to atheism or agnosticism


5

  • Demonstrates basic knowledge of ways in which atheism or agnosticism can influence individuals

  • Makes some attempt to link the quotation to the response


3–4

  • Demonstrates limited knowledge of atheism or agnosticism

  • May make reference to the quotation


1–2



  • Make sure you refer to the quotation in answering this question.

  • Choose EITHER agnosticism OR atheism to explain how it influences the aspirations and behaviour of individuals.

  • Be sure to speak about them as agnostics or atheists


2010 Paper

Question 22 (5 marks)

‘From almost the very beginning men and women have repeatedly engaged in strenuous and committed religious activity … the point of religion was to live intensely and richly here and now. Religious people … want lives overflowing with significance…’

With reference to the quotation, outline the significance of the religious dimension in human history.



Criteria

Marks

• Indicates the main features of the significance of the religious dimension in human history

• Clearly makes reference to quotation






• Indicates some of the main features of the significance/role of the religious dimension in human history

• May make reference to the quotation






Makes general statements with or without reference to the quotation




Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945

Section I, Part A – Question 11 Suggested Solutions

2007 Paper
‘The churches should act together in all matters except those in which deep differences of conviction compel them to act separately.’ Conference on Faith and Order, 1952.
Using the above statement and your own knowledge, describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia.
Sample Answers


  1. Ecumenism is defined as the movement among Christian churches to promote the restoration of unity among all Christians. Its purpose is to increase different denominations of Christianity to increase understanding and effect social change cooperatively. Ecumenical movements such as the National Council of Churches Australia (NCCA) aim to reverse the racist and discriminatory legislation that was affecting the social dynamic in Australia. For example the NCCA passed a resolution in 1966 calling for reforms of the White Australia Policy. This is an example of how the ’churches act together‘, as they are united in fighting against racism and embrace multiculturalism. In 1998 the Lutheran Church joined the NCCA. The NCCA has played a significant role as a peak body representing the voice of the Christian Churches in the public debate in recent years. The Uniting Church of Australia (UCA) also encourage social justice programs and support those discriminated against in Australian society, including women, who are now in positions of leadership, Indigenous Australians and the homosexual community. The churches acted together in relation to the reconciliation movement in May 2000 at the Sydney Opera House, the Council for Reconciliation. This movement raised people’s awareness about the importance of reconciliation with aboriginal people and acknowledging the past wrongs. Dialogue between the Anglican Church and the Churches of Christ began in 1983, with the Lutheran Church in 1972, and with the Uniting Church in Australia in 1979. The Uniting Church itself entered into dialogue with the Churches of Christ in 1978, with the Lutheran Church in 1979, with the Greek Orthodox Church in 1981, and with the Roman Catholic Church in 1977. A Lutheran / Roman Catholic Dialogue began in 1977. These dialogues have done much to draw the Christian Churches together in Australia. [292 Words]




  1. Ecumenism is the movement towards unity within the Christian church between different Christian denominations. Their objectives are that these churches ’should act together‘ and work together for its survival, which is seen as a cooperative spirit in religion. The National Council of Churches in Australia represents the stance of Christianity as a whole, which sets a precedent for what is to become a relentless movement against racism and towards multiculturalism. The NCCA has a number of departments that foster cooperation between churches at formal and informal levels. NSW Ecumenical Council was established to be the instrument through which churches seek to be faithful to their ecumenical calling and commitment. It encourages the pursuit of social justice and operates many cooperative charity events. A central tenet of the NSW Ecumenical Council is the idea of unity between those who believe in one God. This belief that they share allows the churches to act together in matters that concern them, and those that are different to the churches should ’act separately‘. This movement allows involved churches to focus and act together on tasks they perceive as their Christian duties. [188 words]


2008 Paper



‘Too many elders have passed away who hold the information and language necessary to connect dispossessed Aboriginal groups with the land.’

Sydney Morning Herald, 2007
With reference to the statement above and using your own knowledge, discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality.



Sample Answers



  1. Elders in Aboriginal culture are a key aspect in sustaining and maintaining the environment and beliefs for an indigenous generation. This relationship with the land and kinship groups was broken when the non-indigenous rulers tried to assimilate Aboriginal children among the non-indigenous population. The removal of these Aboriginal children from the families dispossessed them from their own family, culture, identity, beliefs and way of living and they became known as the Stolen Generations. The quote highlights that if these Aboriginal elders pass away, it is difficult to reconnect the Aboriginal beliefs and values culture with the land because those who have the knowledge have gone! Without the guidance of the elders, not all, but many indigenous children grow up being influenced by western culture, some of them falling into the trap of addictions, robbery and unemployment (many dropping out of school or having no access to education by living in rural areas), therefore this disadvantages them and there are no elders left to connect these people with their land. [171 words]




  1. Because many Aboriginal elders have died, many Aboriginal groups are disadvantaged. This is evident by the passing of the elders who had the information and language necessary to connect these dispossessed Aborigines with the land. In the late 1900’s many Aboriginal groups became dispossessed. These years known as the Stolen Generations, removed the Aboriginal groups from the land, in which they connected spiritually with and is significant for their Dreaming. Being removed from their land, Dreaming and spirituality, these Aborigines were to be assimilated with the European culture, diminishing their Aboriginal culture, and adapting to the European way of life. By being dispossessed the Aborigines lost all connections with the land, their customs and traditions as they had to acculturate into the European lifestyle. Still today many Aborigines are dispossessed in many areas of life. This is through housing, employment and healthcare, as the rates of the Aborigines are below the standard rates of the rest of Australia’s population. [160 words]


2009 Paper



With reference to the two signs above and your own knowledge, account for changes in

Australia’s religious landscape since the 1960s.



Sample Answer
Since the 1960s, there has been a diverse change in Australia’s religious landscape. For instance, the abolition of the White Australia Policy in the 1970s led to a multicultural country, increasing the diversity of religious traditions and cultural groups amongst those who migrated to Australia, increasing the number of Orthodox and Catholic figures, as well as the number of non-European people.
From the 1960s, ecumenism had become important. The Middleton Uniting Church reflects the great success of the ecumenical movement in Australia in the formation of the Uniting Church. The uniting Church is the largest non-Catholic Christian denomination in Australia founded in 1977 through a merger of Methodists, Presbyterians and Congregationalists. The reason for this merger is their 'seeking to bear witness to that unity which is both Christ’s gift and will for the Church'. This unity made them the largest of the reformist traditions of Protestantism in Australia.
The Middleton Uniting Church sign also reflects the increase of non-European cultures in Australia by introducing services for particular ethnic groups such as the Tongan and Chinese Communities, as well as the emergence of ordained female clergy members. [193 words]

Religion and Non-Religion [2 Unit Students Only]

Section I, Part B – Question 22 Suggested Solutions




2007 Paper

With reference to the illustration and your own knowledge, explain TWO reasons why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities.




Sample Answers


  1. There are a number of reasons why an individual may explore new religious expressions and spiritualities. One reason would be the perceived ‘faceless’, formal and male nature of the traditional religions as depicted in the illustration. The clergy of the traditional religions are sometimes seen as a ‘race apart’ and ‘above’ the ordinary person. Many people today are seeking someone they can relate to, on their own level, a religion that they feel ‘understands’ them. New Age religions seem to offer that experience for many, as depicted in the illustration, the woman looks comfortable talking to the ‘new age’ looking man. The traditional religions then, seem to be outdated and irrelevant. People also seek ethical guidance, but many feel that the traditional religions offer outdated and irrelevant advice. People sometimes feel that the traditional religion are stuck in the past, offering pre-scientific answers to modern dilemmas. Much is also called into question with the rise of charges of paedophilia and sexual abuse amongst members of the clergy of the traditional religions. [171 words]




  1. In the past people belonged to a particular religious community because they were born into it and it was a community affair. The faceless clergy in the illustration represent this former time. You were obedient to the tradition and followed what was presented to you. In modern times this has changed, people are more independent in thought and often question the guidance handed down by traditional religions because they understand it to be outdated. So they seek answers in new places, where they feel comfortable and welcomed as shown in the illustration with the man and woman sitting aside from the ‘traditional clergy’ and conversing in an obviously comfortable way. They also seek to be accepted as equal individuals. The rejection of past feelings of guilt, childhood inhibitions and the fear of punishment which some forms of traditional religions may have taught can also be reasons why people choose new forms of spirituality and religions. [155 words]


2008 Paper

Compare the responses to social responsibility of ONE religious and ONE non-religious belief system.




Sample Answers


  1. Christianity and Humanism

Social responsibility is about caring for other people and caring for the world. Christianity and Humanism share some points of similarity as well as differences in their responses to social responsibility. For Christianity, responsibility to the family, Church and other Christians is of ultimate importance because human beings are made in the image and likeness of God and therefore one is bound to treat others according to this belief. There is a responsibility to build a just society and to ensure that everyone has the means to live with dignity and respect. Christianity also acknowledges that a person needs relationships and therefore marriage is one of the most important relationships. It is also a legitimate means of procreation. Charity and social welfare are important obligations too, for Christians as is stewardship of the environment that has been created and sustained by God. For the humanist, the emphasis is on improving the lot of other human beings, building a just society and ensuring that people, because we are social beings in need of relationship, are able to live in a community that offers dignity and respect. The environment also needs to be looked after if we are to continue to live a sustainable life. The main point of contrast is that for the humanist, the concept of the transcendent is irrelevant, whereas Christianity is centred on the belief in a monotheistic God. [231 words]


  1. Hinduism and atheism

Social responsibility is about caring for other people and caring for the world. Hinduism and atheism share some points of similarity as well as differences in their responses to social responsibility. The Hindu believes that giving to the poor is a way of building up Karma credit or merit as they prepare for their next reincarnation. The two principles of Hindu dharma or righteous conduct, compassion (daya) and liberality (dan), should not be driven by pity and sympathy or be condescending, every Hindu should empathise with others in need, because they are only superficially others; in truth they are part of the same God. Regarding the world and the environment, Hindus believe that caring for the world is respecting God and that doing good in this regard is another way of increasing Karma. Atheists also believe in Social Responsibility because it is important to support laws which protect the individual and uphold equality and justice for all people. They believe that humanity is of prime importance and therefore looking after the environment looks after humanity. The main point of contrast is that for the atheist, the concept of the transcendent is non-existent, whereas in Hinduism there is a clear and undisputed belief in the transcendent. [205 words]


2009 Paper

‘If God does not exist, then everything is permitted.’


With reference to the quotation, explain how atheism OR agnosticism influences the aspirations and behaviour of individuals.


Sample Answers





  1. When discussing atheism it is incorrect to presume that because ‘God does not exist, then everything is permitted.’ Atheists do follow a moral code of conduct; they believe in the law and social responsibility. They believe that humanity is of prime importance and that looking after the environment is equivalent to looking after humanity. Atheists simply believe that there is no divine power within or outside the universe. In practice they often follow the same moral code of conduct as religious people, but they often arrive at the decision of what is right or wrong, good or bad, without the help of any divine power. This stance is very different to saying that ‘If God does not exist, then everything is permitted.’ [122 words]




  1. Agnostics do not deliberately cause harm to society or the environment, as they believe that it is up to people to repair or make up for any harm they do. Agnostics are unsure that 'God does not exist'; however, they are sure that they should not cause harm socially or environmentally. They say that there is possibly no God, and that the most important goal in life is to look after people and the planet. They also believe that just in case there is a God, it is in their best interests to do the right thing for other people and the planet, in case they will face judgement from God after their death. Agnostics argue that conscience is linked to an individual’s understanding of pleasure and pain, and to how that person would like to be treated by others. Most agnostics would also say that regardless of whether there is a God or not, it is one’s responsibility to self and others to do good things to other people and for the environment. Therefore to Agnostics, ‘everything is NOT permitted’! [182 words]



2010 Paper


Sample Answer

The nature and meaning of the dreaming for Aboriginal people and its link to the land or country is central to the spiritual beliefs of indigenous people. Over 200 years ago, at the time of the colonisation, the Indigenous people of Australia followed belief systems and spiritualties that were based on the natural world and included a deep respect for the land. In addition their beliefs were closely linked to ancestral beings who allowed Indigenous people to find meaning in existence. As a result of these religious beliefs it is understood that Aboriginal spirituality is inextricably linked to land or as Aboriginal people call it ‘country’. To the indigenous people of Australia every living organism and every inanimate object on the land has a soul and therefore all are linked together inseparably. Included in this understanding is the link between traditional land, language, story and culture. When the Indigenous people were removed from the land through governmental and church interference, e.g. the stolen generations and missionary activity, this inextricable link was broken resulting in disastrous effects for the indigenous people. Today many indigenous health issues such as alcoholism, mental illness and disconnection with society can be traced back to the fact that many people no longer feel connected to ‘country’. It is important for the indigenous people of Australia that these links to ‘country’ are restored. In recent years activities such as Kevin Rudd’s apology to the stolen generations and the work of groups such as NAIDOC (National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee) have helped to renew these connections to country for indigenous people.





The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page