Chapter 19 Vocabulary: Early Latin America Ferdinand of Aragon



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Chapter 19 Vocabulary: Early Latin America
Ferdinand of Aragon   Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Isabella of Castile   Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
encomienda   Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
Caribbean   First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda, system of colonial management, initiated here.
Hispaniola   First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
encomendero   [AYn kO mAYn dAU rO] Holder of an encomienda; able to use Indians as workers or to tax them.
Las Casas, Bartolomé de   Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
Cortés, Hernán   Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
Moctezuma II   [mokte sU mä] Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernán Cortés' conquest of Tenochtitlan.
Mexico City   Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
New Spain   Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs.
Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de   Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
Valdivia, Pedro de   Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.

Huancavelica   [wäng kuh vuh lEE kuh] Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
haciendas   Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
consulado   Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
galleons   Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas   [torduh sEEl yäs, -sEE-] Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.
letrados   University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
Recopilación   [rAY kO pEEl ä sEE On] Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies   Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
viceroyalties   Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representatives of the King.
audiencia   Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates
de la Cruz, Sor Juana Inés   Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Álvares Cabral, Pedro   Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil.
capitaincies   Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.
Paulistas   Backwoodsmen from São Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century.
Minas Gerais   [mEE nuhs zhi RIs] Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.
Rio de Janeiro   Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.
sociedad de castas   American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Indians at bottom, mixed races in middle.
peninsulares   People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
Creoles   Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares.
amigos del país   [uh mEE gOs, ä mEE-, del päEEs] Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.
War of Spanish Succession   Resulted from Bourbon family's succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French.
Charles III   Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
Gálvez, José de   Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government.
Marquis of Pombal   Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.

Comunero Revolt   One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Amaru, Tupac   Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.


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