Chapter 18: The Age of Kings: 1519 – 1800 I



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Chapter 18: The Age of Kings: 1519 – 1800
In Chapter 10, you read about feudalism. It was the political organization of the Middle Ages. Now you will learn about nationalism. As you watch nations develop, you will study many different kings and queens. Some thought that God gave them the right to rule. Many thought that everything revolved around them.

You will do more than learn about kings and queens in this chapter. You will sail in an armada, learn about a beautiful capital in St. Petersburg, Russia, and see a civil war in England. You will also learn about Prussia and Russia.

Goals for Learning


  • To explain nationalism and explain how nations developed

  • To describe the rise and fall of Spain as a powerful nation

  • To explain rule by “divine right??

  • To describe England’s constitutional monarchy

  • To explain how Louis XIV help France become powerful

  • To explain why historians call two Russian monarchs “Great?? and explain how Prussia became powerful

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Spain
Map Skills: Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe during the 1500s. During this time, Spain sent explorers to the Americas. This brought money into the Spanish treasury. Spain used some of this money to build a great navy. Its navy brought Spain more power. Madrid, located in central Spain, was its capital city.

Study the map carefully, then answer the following questions:



  • 1. What strait do ships pass through to get from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean?

  • 2. What mountains separate Spain from France?

  • 3. What bay is directly north of Spain?

  • 4. What river flows through Seville?

  • 5. What are the names of two seaports in Spain?

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Reading Strategy: Text Structure
Understanding how text is organized helps you decide which information is most important. Before you begin reading this chapter, do these things:

  • Look at how it is organized.

  • Look at the title, headings, boldfaced words, and photographs.

  • Ask yourself: Is the text a problem and solution, description, or sequence? Is it compare and contrast or cause and effect?

  • Summarize the text by thinking about its structure.

Key Vocabulary Words
Lesson 1

Nationalism: Loyalty to one’s country or nation

Boundary: Dividing line

Tradition: A custom, idea, or belief handed down from one person to the next

Monarch: A king or a queen

Absolute monarch: A king or queen who had complete and unlimited power over his or her people


Lesson 2

Inherit: To receive money, land, or a title from someone who has died

Armada: A large fleet of warships

Formation: A shape or pattern


Lesson 3

Divine right: The belief that God chooses the ruler of a nation

Petition of Right: An English document that brought about more democracy

Resolution: A formal statement that a governmental body writes

Treason: The act of turning against the laws and people of your own country
Lesson 4

Cavalier: A person who fought for the king in the English Civil War

Roundhead: A Puritan who fought for Parliament in the English Civil War

Restoration: The period that saw monarchy return to England in 1660

Habeas Corpus: A law that says that the government has to charge someone with a crime before putting the person in prison

Tory: A person who supported a strong monarchy in England

Whig: A person who supported the English Parliament

Glorious Revolution: The overthrow of James II and the crowning of William and Mary as monarchs of England

Constitutional monarchy: A form of government in which a king or queen rules, but there are laws of a democracy to protect the people
Lesson 5

Cardinal: A high official of the Roman Catholic Church

Advisor: A person who gives advice
Lesson 6

Constitution: A body of laws that states the rights of the people and the power of the government

Military state: A place in which a leader rules through the military
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Lesson 1: The Rise of Nations
Objectives


  • To compare feudalism and nationalism

  • To identify what “absolute power?? meant during this time

  • Nationalism

  • Loyalty to one’s country or nation

  • Boundary

  • Dividing line

  • Tradition

  • A custom, idea, or belief handed down from one person to the next

  • Monarch

  • A king or a queen

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

Preview this lesson. Notice the headings, features, and boldfaced words.

The Renaissance, the Reformation, and new scientific discoveries brought great change to European societies. Each challenged the way people had lived since the Middle Ages. Another challenge came when Europe began to develop into nations.

What Is Nationalism?
Feudalism was a political and military system based on the holding of land. In the feudal system, many people might share the same language and customs. But they were loyal to different nobles, because the nobles controlled the land they lived on. People did not think of themselves as English, French, or Spanish. When did they begin to think of themselves that way? When nationalism—loyalty to one’s country—developed.

Nationalism began in Europe in the 11th century when England became a nation. France soon followed. People in these new countries shared the same geographic boundaries, or dividing lines.

In these new nations, people shared the same language and history. They also shared the same traditions, or customs, ideas, and beliefs that had been handed down from one person to the next. The nation became part of who a person was. When someone asked “Who are you??? a person could answer: “I am English?? or “I am French.?? (Nationalism continues to be an important force today.)

What Is Absolute Power?
All new nations had to answer one question: what form of government shall we have? Different groups wanted power—city governments, the nobility, church officials. The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes wrote in the 1600s that a powerful monarch, or king or queen, was the best way to unify a nation. Gradually, some monarchs in Europe gained great power.

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  • Absolute Monarch

  • A king or queen who had complete and unlimited power over his or her people

For some rulers, this power was so great that it had no limits. These monarchs had so much power that historians call them absolute monarchs. An absolute monarch had complete, unlimited power over his or her people.

But why give all this power to one person? Doing this was one early answer to the question of how to govern a new nation. Historians call this period of absolute monarchs the Age of Kings.



How Absolute Was a Monarch’s Power?
How powerful did these monarchs become? There was a humorous story told about Philip III, for example. Early in the 1600s, Philip III, the king of Spain, fell asleep before a blazing fire. Earlier the king had ordered that only one person could move his chair. But this one person was no longer in the room. Seeing that the fire was going to burn the king, his servants searched the castle. No one found the man who had permission to move the king’s chair, so the servants stood there and did nothing. They let the fire burn the king! If they had moved the chair, they would have gone against a royal order. That is absolute power! The story, however, is not true.

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Then and Now

Modern Monarchs

Rulers had absolute, or total, power in the Age of Kings. People often believed this power came from God. Such a monarch ruled by “divine right.?? During the 1700s and 1800s, some people rebelled against their rulers. World War I ended other monarchies.

Some countries, however, still have a king or queen. They include Great Britain, Spain, Holland, and Sweden. Present-day monarchs wear rich robes and jeweled crowns for important events. They live in castles and their children inherit the throne. But today’s monarchs are only symbols. They stand for a country’s tradition and history. In all these countries, a constitution severely limits a monarch’s powers. The parliament and prime minister actually make the laws.

Lesson 1 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.


  • 1. _____ is rule by a king or queen.

  • A Crusades

  • B Nationalims

  • C Feudalism

  • D Monarchy

  • 2. During the Age of Kings, _____, or loyalty to one’s country, developed.

  • A nationalism

  • B feudalism

  • C monarchy

  • D none of the above

  • 3. _____ developed into a nation before France did.

  • A The United States

  • B Italy

  • C North America

  • D England

  • 4. During this period many monarchs had absolute, or _____, power.

  • A limited

  • B unlimited

  • C little

  • D some

  • 5. Philip III of _____ was a king with absolute power.

  • A France

  • B England

  • C Spain

  • D Italy

What do you think?

What might happen to someone who questioned a monarch’s absolute power?

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Lesson 2: The Rise and Fall of Spain
Objectives


  • To identify the city the Moors built in Spain

  • To name the king and queen who first unified Spain

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

Notice that the section headings are written as questions. After you read each section, try to answer the question asked in the heading.



Reading Strategy: Text Structure

As you read, look for words like first, then, next, afterward, and finally. These words will help you understand the order of the events in the crise and fall of Spain.

Both England and France became nations before Spain. However, Spain was the first to become truly powerful. During most of the 1500s, its political and economic power was much greater than that of England and France. Spain’s story begins with the Moors.

Where Did the Moors Settle?
The Moors were nomads in northern Africa. In the eighth century, they accepted Islam—the religion of Muhammad. They invaded Spain and brought with them their new religion. The Moors pushed through Spain and over the Pyrenees Mountains to Tours. The Franks defeated them there in 732. The Moors settled in southern Spain. There, they built a civilization that lasted for almost 800 years.

What Was the City of Córdoba Like?
At that time, civilization was in decline in Europe. But the Moors in Spain built Córdoba. More than a million people lived there. Lamps lit the streets. The library contained thousands of books from all over the world. In fact, the Moors helped to reintroduce ancient Greek and Roman learning into Europe. They studied geometry, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy. Christian scholars came from all over Europe to study in Moorish Spain.

How Did Spain Become a Nation?
Slowly, four Christian kingdoms developed in Spain. Castile and Aragon were the strongest. In 1469, Ferdinand, the king of Aragon, married Isabella of Castile. Their marriage united much of Spain under two strong rulers. They forced Spanish nobles to accept their rule. Ferdinand said that he should make all important decisions because “one head is better than a thousand.??

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  • Inherit

  • To receive money, land, or a title from someone who has died

Why Did Isabella Go to War?
Isabella wanted to make all of Spain into a Catholic nation. In 1482, she went to war against Granada—the last Moorish kingdom in Spain. In 1492, Granada surrendered. Then Isabella said everyone in Spain had to be Catholic. Any Moor or Jew who refused to become a Catholic had to leave Spain. A few months after conquering Granada, the two rulers provided Christopher Columbus with three ships. He sailed west and found great wealth in the Americas.

What Empire Did Charles V Rule?
King Ferdinand died in 1516. Then his grandson Charles became the second king of Spain. Charles I was also the grandson of the Holy Roman Emperor. When the emperor died in 1519, Charles became Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He was only 19, but he ruled one of the largest empires in history and was the most powerful king in Europe.

What Countries Made Up Charles V’s Empire?
Charles V was a member of the powerful Hapsburg family. It held power for more than 700 years—from the 1200s to 1918. Charles V inherited lands in France from his father. To inherit is to receive money, land, or a title from someone who has died. Through his grandfather, he became ruler of Austria. He also ruled half of Italy and all of the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium. Charles also controlled all the lands that Columbus and other Spanish explorers discovered. The gold and silver from the Americas made Charles’s empire rich.

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Map Study: Hapsburg Land (c. 1560)
This map shows land that the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs owned in about 1560. Which Hapsburgs controlled Bohemia? What was the largest land area controlled by the Spanish Hapsburgs? Which Hapsburgs controlled the Netherlands?

The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Only half of the Spanish Armada ships made it back to Spain. The loss put an end to Spain’s status as a sea power.



Why Did Charles V Retire?
Charles V was one of the most powerful rulers in history. His large empire kept him busy. He fought religious wars in Germany. He fought against France over lands in Italy. In fact, Charles spent most of his life traveling throughout his empire fighting one enemy after another.

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  • Armada

  • A large fleet of warships

Finally, when he was 56, Charles V had had enough. In 1556, he gave up his power. He gave control of the Holy Roman Empire to his brother, Ferdinand I. He gave his lands in Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain to his son, Philip II. Afterward, Charles went to a monastery and stayed there until his death.

Why Did Philip II Build an Armada?
As a Roman Catholic, Philip II wanted to stop the spread of Protestantism. Elizabeth I of England had made her country into a leading Protestant nation. Philip II wanted to defeat Elizabeth I and England. He thought that Europe would then become Catholic again.

Philip II decided to invade England. To do this, he built a naval armada, or large fleet of warships. In the spring of 1588, the Spanish Armada of 130 ships sailed for England with 1,100 cannons and 30,000 soldiers.


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History in Your Life



Sailing Ships

Explorers in the 1400s used the new full-rigged ships. They had three masts and multiple sails. Such a ship moved under sail power. It did not rely on rowers. The Portuguese developed a full-rigged ship called a caravel to explore the African coast. It was small and very fast. Explorers used it to explore other places too.

In comparison, galleons were heavier and larger. They were first built in the 1500s. They could carry bulky cargoes or heavy guns. Spanish galleons, for example, brought gold and silver from the Americas to Spain. About one-third of the Spanish Armada in 1588 were galleons. These craft relied on boarding an enemy ship and using soldiers to capture it. English galleons, however, were faster and easier to maneuver. They relied on firepower, which could disable an enemy ship from a distance. This ability defeated the Spanish Armada


  • Formation

  • A shape or pattern

How Did England Defeat the Armada?
The Spanish fleet sailed north and anchored off the coast of England. Next, the captains put the ships into a protective formation, or shape. But then they broke their formation. The English captains sent three burning ships into the Spanish fleet. This scattered all the Spanish ships.

The Spanish Armada ships also had a weakness: they were too big and too slow. The smaller and faster English ships attacked the scattered Spanish ships. One by one, they sank.

Knowing that the English had defeated them, the Spanish captains tried to sail home. A sudden storm sank many more of their ships. Only half of them returned to Spain. In 1598, Philip II died. In the next two centuries, England and France replaced Spain as the most powerful nations in Europe.

Lesson 2 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.


  • 1. From what area of Africa did the Moors come?

  • 2. What important city did the Moors build in Spain?

  • 3. What are the names of the king and queen who first unified Spain?

  • 4. In 1519, who became the most powerful ruler in Europe?

  • 5. What country defeated the Spanish Armada?

What do you think?

Where do you think Philip II got the money to build the Spanish Armada?

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Lesson 3: English Monarchs Struggle for Power
Objectives


  • To explain how King James I used his power

  • To identify the “Petition of Right??

  • Divine Right

  • The belief that God chooses the ruler of a nation

  • Petition of Right

  • An English document that brought about more democracy

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

This lesson tells about a problem and the solution. Ask yourself: What is the problem? What is the solution?

Elizabeth I was a strong monarch in England. She shared power with the English Parliament. For example, Elizabeth took care of business with other countries. Parliament made laws and taxed people.

What Is Divine Right?
When Elizabeth died in 1603, King James of Scotland became James I of England and Scotland. He refused to share power with Parliament. Instead, he said that he ruled by divine right. That is, James thought that God had chosen him to rule. He thought no one had the right to question him and his decisions.

A simple story shows how divine right worked. In 1603, a man accused of stealing was brought before James. James ordered that the man be hanged without a trial. He believed that, as king, he was both judge and jury.



What Made Parliament and the People Angry?
James I died in 1625. His son, Charles I, also believed in divine right. But Parliament did not. Soon after becoming king, Charles asked Parliament for money to fight a war with Spain. Parliament said no. Because of this, the king did not have money to pay for a place for his soldiers to stay. Charles forced people to house the soldiers. The people and Parliament did not like this. They decided to do something to limit the king’s power.

When Did Parliament Limit the King’s Power?
In 1628, the king again asked Parliament for money. Once again, Parliament refused. Parliament said that it would give money only if the king signed the Petition of Right. This important paper was a big step in the growth of English democracy. By signing it, the king agreed to three things.

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  • Resolution

  • A formal statement that a governmental body writes

  • Treason

  • The act of turning against the laws and people of your own country

  • 1. Only Parliament can collect taxes.

  • 2. The king can send no one to prison without a trial.

  • 3. No one, not even the king, can force citizens to house soldiers unless these citizens want to.

The next year, Charles again asked for money. This time, Parliament passed a resolution, or formal statement, that said three things.

  • 1. The king cannot change English Protestantism.

  • 2. The king cannot tax the English people unless Parliament says he can.

  • 3. If the king does these things, he commits the crime of treason. That is, he turns on his country and its laws.

Charles was forced to accept these limits. Slowly, power shifted from monarchs to Parliament.

Lesson 3 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

  • 1. In England, which government group makes the laws?

  • 2. How did James I rule England?

  • 3. How did Charles I anger Parliament?

  • 4. What was the Petition of Right?

  • 5. What are two things Parliament said in its resolution?

What do you think?

Should Parliament have limited the power of Charles I? Explain your answer.

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Lesson 4: England Rejects Absolute Monarchy
Objectives


Reading Strategy: Text Structure

Study the map on page 440. How does it help you understand the causes of the civil war in England?



What Led to Civil War in England?
In 1639, Charles was again out of money. He needed it to put down a rebellion in Scotland. The people of Scotland refused to become members of the Church of England.

Once again Charles asked Parliament for money. And once again, Parliament worked to limit the king’s power. Then, in 1642, the king tried to arrest the leaders of Parliament. This was too much for the English people. They became so angry that Charles had to leave London. Civil war broke out between two groups: the people who supported the king and the people who supported Parliament.


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Map Study: The English Civil War


This map shows territory gained and lost by the king and Parliament during the English Civil War. Which side controlled London? Which side controlled the land by the English Channel? Name three places where the two sides fought battles.

  • Cavalier

  • A person who fought for the king in the English Civil War

Who Fought the English Civil War?
The two groups who fought the war were different. They had different religions and they dressed differently. Cavaliers fought for the king. They were mostly Anglicans or Catholics. They dressed in fancy clothes and wore wigs with long curls.

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  • Roundhead

  • A person who fought for the king in the English Civil War

  • Restoration

  • The period that saw monarchy return to England in 1660

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

As you read the lesson, use a graphic organizer to compare and contast the Cavaliers and the Roundheads.

Puritans fought for Parliament. They were English Protestants who wanted to purify the Anglican Church. The Puritans dressed simply. Because they wore their hair so short, people called them Roundheads. Oliver Cromwell led the Roundheads. His army was better than the king’s Cavaliers. In 1643, the Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers.

What Did the Puritans Do to Charles I?
The Roundheads put King Charles I on trial. They found him guilty of treason. That is, he had turned against England and its laws. Charles was then beheaded in 1649. Never before had a king been put on trial and then put to death before a crowd of people.

What happened next? In 1653, Cromwell took control of the English government. He became a military dictator. The Puritans began to change English society. They closed the theaters; they said no one could play sports. All this lasted until Cromwell’s death in 1658.



What Is the Restoration?
The English grew tired of Puritan rule. In 1659, Parliament voted to bring back the monarchy to England. In the spring of 1660, the oldest son of Charles I returned to England. He was crowned Charles II. Historians call his 25-year reign the Restoration.

Charles II rejected the idea of the divine right of kings. He tried to avoid religious problems by asking Catholics and Puritans to be tolerant toward one another. That is, they should respect one another’s beliefs and customs.


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  • Habeas Corpus

  • A law that says that the government has to charge someone with a crime before putting the person in prison

  • Tory

  • A person who supported a strong monarchy in England

  • Whig

  • A person who supported the English Parliament

  • Glorious

  • Revolution The overthrow of James II and the crowning of William and Mary as monarchs of England

The English people liked Charles II. He encouraged the theater, sports, and other entertainment. He loved to have fun, so people called him the “Merry Monarch.??

What New Law Did Parliament Pass?
In 1679, Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act. This law said that the government has to charge someone with a crime before putting the person in prison. Habeas corpus is Latin for “you should have the body.?? The Habeas Corpus Act is an important protection of a citizen’s rights. Now, not even the king could take away a person’s freedom without a trial.

What Is the Glorious Revolution?
When Charles II died in 1685, his brother, James, became king. Like Charles, James II was a Catholic. But James wanted the monarchy to have more power.

At the time, two political groups held power in England. The Tories supported a strong monarchy; the Whigs supported a strong Parliament. Both sides agreed on one thing—they did not want a Catholic king. However, James was old and his two daughters were Protestant. The Tories and the Whigs believed that after the king’s death, they would have a Protestant ruler. Then, in 1688, James II’s wife gave birth to a son.

This son would grow up and become a Catholic king. The Tories and the Whigs joined together. They said that Mary, who was James II’s older daughter, should become queen. In the fall of 1688, Mary and her husband, William, left the Netherlands and arrived in England with an army.

James II had no support, so he fled to France. Parliament then said that William and Mary were the king and queen of England and Scotland. The English had rebelled against their king without anyone being killed. Historians call this the Glorious Revolution.

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  • Constitutional monarchy

  • A form of government in which a king or queen rules, but there are laws of a democracy to protect the people

What Is a Constitutional Monarchy?
Before William and Mary could become monarchs, they had to sign the English Bill of Rights. This document said that only Parliament can make laws. It also said that the king must obey the laws Parliament passes.

The document also gave the members of Parliament freedom of speech. Now the king could not arrest them if he did not like what they said.

Between 1628 and 1689, Parliament passed the Petition of Right, the Habeas Corpus Act, and the English Bill of Rights. These documents showed that England did not want an absolute monarch.

England wanted both a democracy and a king. We call this form of government a constitutional monarchy. That is, England has a monarchy, plus a body of laws and elected officials to protect the rights of the people.



Lesson 4 Review
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank

  • Cavalier

  • Charles I

  • Cromwell

  • Roundhead

  • William and Mary

  • 1. _____ was the king of England when civil war broke out.

  • 2. A _____ was a person who supported the king in the civil war.

  • 3. A _____ was a person who supported Parliament in the civil war.

  • 4. _____ was the leader of the group that fought against the king.

  • 5. _____ were the first English monarchs who ruled under a form of government called a constitutional monarch.

What do you think?

Why did the English get tired of Puritan rule?

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Lesson 5: Absolute Monarchy in France
Objectives


  • To explain the problems that Louis XIV faced

  • To describe how his love of beautiful things caused a problem

  • Cardinal

  • A high official of the Roman Catholic Church

  • Advisor

  • A person who gives advice

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

As you read, look for the words but, that is, and however. These words often introduce important information to help you understand what you are reading.

Much was happening in England during the seventeenth century. But much was also happening across the English Channel in France. In 1643, Louis XIII of France died. His son, who was only five, then became king. He ruled as Louis XIV.

Who Helped the Young King Rule?
Louis XIII had been a weak king. He had turned over much of his power to a cardinal, or high official, in the Catholic Church. From 1624 to 1642, Cardinal Richelieu served as the king’s advisor. That is, he gave advice to the king. Richelieu was against any form of democratic government.

By the time Louis XIV became king, the French monarchy had a lot of power. For many years, however, Louis XIV was too young to make decisions. Another church official, Cardinal Mazarin, really ruled France. Under the leadership of these two cardinals, France became the strongest nation in Europe.

When Cardinal Mazarin died, people wanted to know who would be the king’s next advisor. Louis was now 23. He decided then and there that he alone would rule France. He ruled France alone for 54 years. Louis became one of the most powerful monarchs in history.
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Reading Strategy: Text Structure

Notice that the section headings are questions. After you read each section, try to answer the question.



What Problems Did Louis XIV Face?
Louis wanted to rule France alone. But many problems stood in his way. The nobles often paid little attention to what he wanted. He had a hard time collecting taxes. Each noble had his own army, but he had no national army that he could control. Sometimes the nobles and their armies fought against him.

How Did Louis XIV Centralize France’s Government?
All these problems existed because France had no central, or main, government that was more powerful than the nobles. Louis wanted to force these nobles to obey his wishes. He thought that he alone should decide what was best for the people of France, so he began to centralize the government.
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First, Louis XIV appointed officials to collect taxes. They ruled over different areas of France in the name of the king. Next, Louis reorganized the French army. He gave uniforms to the soldiers to show that they belonged to his army. Then he increased the size of the army from 100,000 to 400,000. This large army made Louis XIV powerful.



What Other Things Did Louis XIV Do As King?
Louis XIV lived in a palace in Paris called the Louvre. He built a second great palace at Versailles, which was 10 miles away. Versailles took 30 years to complete. More than 30,000 people worked to build this dream palace. His love of beautiful things was a problem for the French taxpayers. They had to pay for all of this. They also had to pay for the wars Louis XIV fought. Between 1667 to 1714, he fought many wars to get more land. These wars drained the French treasury. At the end of his life, Louis XIV was sorry that he had fought so much. Before he died in 1715, he advised his grandson, the future king, to keep peace. Louis said, “I have been too fond of war.??

The long reign of Louis XIV was a great time for France. Beautiful churches and palaces were built. Art and music spread. The French nobility was weakened. People called Louis XIV the “Sun King?? because all of France seemed to revolve around him like planets around the sun.

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Lesson 5 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.


  • 1. What two cardinals advised Louis XIII and Louis XIV of France?

  • 2. What are five problems Louis XIV faced when he decided to rule alone?

  • 3. What steps did Louis XIV take to improve the army of France?

  • 4. Where did Louis XIV build his second great palace?

  • 5. What advice did Louis XIV give his grandson?

What do you think?

What could happen to a country like France if an absolute monarch puts too great a burden on the people?

Biography

Cardinal Richelieu: 1585–1642

Armand Richelieu was often called the true power behind the throne of King Louis XIII. He started studying religion when he was a teenager. In 1622, he was made a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. He advised the king on government matters from 1624 to 1642.


Henry IV had issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598 to give religious freedom to the Huguenots. Richelieu was against participation in state affairs by any Huguenots. He wanted to make the monarchy stronger. After King Louis died, Richelieu changed the Edict of Nantes to limit the Huguenots’ freedoms.

Richelieu chose Cardinal Mazarin to take his place when he died. During the reign of Louis XIV, Mazarin continued to work toward a stronger monarchy.

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Lesson 6: Russia and Prussia Produce Strong Monarchs
Objectives


  • To describe what Peter the Great did for Russia

  • To describe what Catherine the Great did for Russia

  • To explain how Prussia expanded its territory

Reading Strategy: Text Structure

As you read this lesson, use a graphic organizer to keep track of facts about the two countries Russia and Prussia.

Russia and Prussia also had strong absolute monarchs. In 1613, a young noble was chosen to lead Russia. His name was Mikhail Romanov. His family ruled Russia for the next 300 years, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. One of Russia’s most powerful leaders was his grandson, Peter the Great. He became king in 1682 and believed in his absolute power.

What Was Peter’s “Window on the Sea???
Peter the Great wanted to make Russia into a modern nation. To improve his nation’s culture, he invited scholars and artists to his country. He also wanted to increase trade with the nations in Western Europe. Russia’s ports were frozen during the winter, so he went to war to gain warm water seaports.

To do this, Peter fought to gain control of Swedish territory on the Baltic Sea to the north and Turkish territory on the Black Sea to the south. Peter wanted these ports to give his nation a “window on the sea.?? On the Baltic Sea, Peter built a new, modern capital called St. Petersburg. He said that it was the perfect “window for Russia to look at Europe.??



What Did Catherine the Great Do for Russia?
In 1762, Catherine the Great became queen of Russia. She was a strong leader. She improved education and allowed more religious freedom in Russia. In 1767, she tried to have a constitution written for her nation. A constitution is a body of laws that states the rights of the people and the power of the government. However, this effort failed.

For a time, Catherine favored freedom for Russian serfs. When the serfs rebelled against the nobles, she no longer supported the idea.

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  • Constitution

  • A body of laws that states the rights of the people and the power of the government

  • Military state

  • A place in which a leader rules through the military

Writing About History

Research a monarch named in this chapter. How would this ruler describe what ruling in the Age of Kings was like? In your notebook, write the monarch’s response as a speech.



When Did Prussia Become a Military State?
Until the late 1600s, the German states were small and weak. This changed with the rise to power of Prussia—one of the German states. Frederick William came to power as an absolute ruler in 1713. He increased the size of the Prussian army and made Prussia into a military state. A military state is one in which a leader rules through the military.

How Did Prussia Expand Its Territory?
In 1740, Frederick William’s great-grandson became Frederick II. He wanted to increase the size and power of Prussia. He invaded the Austrian territory of Silesia, which was south of Prussia.

At that time, Maria Theresa—a strong leader—ruled Austria. She decided to fight the Prussian army. But she had to battle more than one army. Both France and Spain wanted more power too. They invaded Austria. Then England, the Netherlands, and Russia entered the war and supported Maria Theresa. The war lasted on and off for many years.

When all the fighting ended, Maria Theresa lost Silesia to Prussia, which doubled its size. Because of his success, the Prussian people called their king Frederick the Great. By the 1790s, Prussia had become a powerful military force in Europe.
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Lesson 6 Review
On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.


  • 1. Peter the Great built the new Russian capital _____.

  • A St. Petersburg

  • B Romanov

  • C Prussia

  • D Silesia

  • 2. _____ wanted to have warm water seaports so (s)he could trade with other European nations.

  • A Catherine the Great

  • B Peter the Great

  • C Maria Theresa

  • D Frederick II

  • 3. For a while, _____ wanted to free the serfs.

  • A Catherine the Great

  • B Frederick William I

  • C Peter the Great

  • D Frederick II

  • 4. _____ invaded the Austrian territory of Silesia.

  • A Catherine the Great

  • B Peter the Great

  • C Maria Theresa

  • D Frederick II

  • 5. Austria’s monarch, _____, had a long reign marked by many wars.

  • A Frederick William I

  • B Frederick II

  • C Maria Theresa

  • D Peter the Great

What do you think?

Why did England and Russia support Maria Theresa in her war with Prussia and Spain?

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Document-Based Reading
The English Bill of Rights

As you read in Lesson 4 of this chapter, the English Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights in 1689. It gave members of Parliament more authority than kings and queens. It also said that Roman Catholics could not become kings or queens. In addition, it said that the people of England also had rights. The ideas in the English Bill of Rights spread to the colonies. These ideas helped to shape the Constitution of the United States. Here are some excerpts.

[Members of Parliament declared]

That the pretended [claimed] power of dispensing with [setting aside of] laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That levying [collecting] money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative [power] without grant of Parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subject to petition [request from] the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent ot Parliament, is against law;

That election of members of Parliament ought to be free;

That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached [doubted] or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted; …

And that, for redress [setting right] of all grievances and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.



Document-Based Questions


  • 1. How did kings and queens rule before the English Bill of Rights was passed?

  • 2. The Magna Carta, written in 1215, limited the power of kings and queens. Why do you think the kings and queens ignored it?

  • 3. What is one way the United States Declaration of Independence was like the English Bill of Rights?

  • 4. Do you think that the rights demanded in the English Bill of Rights were reasonable? Why or why not?

  • 5. Why is a document identifying the rights of its citizens important to a country?

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Spotlight Story: Playing the Fool
Clowns make us laugh. So do other comic actors. They poke fun at people. They get away with pointing out people’s faults. Historically, that has been their job.

Playing the fool has a long history. In earlier times, clowns were called fools or jesters. The pharaohs of ancient Egypt had fools, as did the ancient Romans.

Fools were very popular from the Middle Ages to the 1600s. Often they lived at the court of a ruler or wealthy noble. A jester sometimes seemed like a family member. He shared meals and celebrations, played with the children, and heard family secrets.

The jester’s costume was a checked coat of many colors. A fool wore bright-colored hose, pointed shoes, and a tight jacket with a pointed hood. Bells jingled on his toes and coat.

Most court jesters acted silly and foolish. They danced and tumbled. They also made up clever songs and verses. They used their wit and sharp tongues to tease.

Jesters held a special place at court. They could say almost anything. Sometimes their purpose was amusement. At other times, they pointed out unwise actions. Fools could have a lot of influence. Richard Tarlton was a famous English comic actor. He was also a jester for Queen Elizabeth I. He was the only person who could criticize her. Louis XIV’s court jester was called L’Angely. Nobles were afraid of his sharp wit.


Archie Armstrong was the fool for King James I of England. He was known as Count Archie. The king sent him to Spain with his ambassadors and he insulted the Spanish. Then Archie wrote the king to tell him what a good job he had done. Eventually, this jester went too far. He insulted church officials and had to leave the court, but he was already wealthy.

Even the powerful Catholic Church could not avoid foolishness. The Feast of Fools was a popular holiday, especially in France. People chose a mock pope or bishop and made fun of church ceremonies.



Court jesters lost their popularity in the 1700s. Today, clowns are only entertainers, but some comedians still carry on the jester’s tradition. They say what no one else dares.

Wrap-Up


  • 1. How long have there been jesters?

  • 2. How was a jester like a part of a noble family?

  • 3. What did a court jester usually wear?

  • 4. What has been the role of court jesters and fools in history?

  • 5. What used to happen on the Feast of Fools?

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Chapter 18 SUMMARY


  • As European nations developed, nationalist feelings grew. Absolute monarchs had total power over their subjects.

  • Moors from North Africa occupied southern Spain in the 700s. They made Córdoba a center for learning.

  • Christian kingdoms in Spain fought the Moors. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile united Spain. By 1492, they had conquered Granada, the last Moorish kingdom. Jews and Moors had to become Catholic or leave Spain.

  • In the 1500s, Spain was more powerful than England or France. King Charles I of Spain, a Hapsburg, became the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. This family ruled large parts of Europe. Charles defended the Catholic faith.

  • Philip II, the son of Charles V, ruled Spain, part of Italy, and the Netherlands. In 1588, he sent the Spanish Armada against England to make it Catholic again. Philip failed when fast English ships and a storm sank Spanish ships.

  • King James of Scotland followed Elizabeth I as England’s ruler and ruled by divine right. His son Charles I fought with Parliament over money and power. Parliament made Charles sign the Petition of Right.

  • Civil war broke out in England. The Cavaliers, on the king’s side, were mostly Anglican or Catholic. Puritans, or “Roundheads,?? were Protestant. Their leader was Oliver Cromwell.

  • The Puritans won the English Civil War in 1643. Charles I was tried for treason and beheaded. Cromwell set up a strict military government. In 1659, Parliament voted to restore the monarchy under King Charles II.

  • In the Glorious Revolution (1688), Parliament rebelled against James II, a Catholic king. His Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William, ruled next. They agreed to a Bill of Rights.

  • Louis XIV of France became Europe’s most powerful ruler. Louis fought many wars and made the central government stronger.

  • Peter the Great wanted to make Russia more like Europe. He built a new capital at St. Petersburg. Later, Catherine the Great supported education and the idea of a constitution.

  • Prussia, in Germany, became a military state. Its ruler Frederick II went to war against Maria Theresa, the ruler of Austria. Prussia became a powerful military force in Europe.

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Chapter 18 REVIEW
On a sheet of paper, use the words from the Word Bank to complete each sentence correctly.

Word Bank

  • Catherine

  • Charles I

  • Charles V

  • Cromwell

  • Hobbes

  • Isabella

  • James I

  • Louis XIV

  • Peter

  • Philip II

  • 1. _____ was a philosopher who believed that a powerful king should rule a nation.

  • 2. The marriage of Ferdinand and _____ united Spain into one kingdom.

  • 3. _____, a powerful emperor and the king of Spain, gave up his power and went to live in a monastery.

  • 4. _____ sent a powerful Armada to invade England in 1588.

  • 5. The English king from Scotland who believed that he ruled by divine right was _____.

  • 6. During the English Civil War, _____ led the Roundheads.

  • 7. _____ was the first English king to be put to death by his own people.

  • 8. The French called _____ the “Sun King.??

  • 9. _____ the Great tried to improve his country’s culture by inviting artists and scholars to Russia.

  • 10. _____ the Great tried to have a constitution written for Russia.

On a sheet of paper, write the letter of the answer that correctly completes each sentence.

  • 11. During the English Civil War, the _____ supported the king.

  • A Cavaliers

  • B Roundheads

  • C Parliament

  • D Whigs

  • 12. During the Glorious Revolution, the _____ supported a strong Parliament.

  • A Cavaliers

  • B Roundheads

  • C Whigs

  • D Tories

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  • 13. The _____ caused problems for Louis XIV of France.

  • A nobles with armies

  • B collection of taxes

  • C lack of a national army

  • D all of the above

  • 14. Prussia doubled its territory under the leadership of _____.

  • A Peter the Great

  • B Frederick the Great

  • C Catherine the Great

  • D Isabella of Castile

  • 15. The queen of Austria when Prussia attacked was _____.

  • A Maria Theresa

  • B Catherine the Great

  • C Isabella of Castile

  • D Elizabeth I

On a sheet of paper, write the answer to each question. Use complete sentences.

  • 16. What is the difference between feudalism and nationalism?

  • 17. What does ruling by “divine right?? mean?

  • 18. What is the difference between an absolute monarchy and a constitutional monarchy?

Critical Thinking
On a sheet of paper, write your response to each question. Use complete sentences.

  • 19. Do you think that the name “Sun King?? was a good description of King Louis XIV? Explain your answer.

  • 20. King Philip II said, “When Spain stirs, the earth trembles.?? After the defeat of his navy in 1588, what do you think Queen Elizabeth I might have said about his boast?

Test-Taking Tip: Pace yourself. If you are unsure about a question, put a check next to it and move on. If you have time left, go back and try to answer the checked questions.

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Unit 3: Skill Builder
Cause and Effect
Looking for causes and effects will help you better understand what you read. An effect is something that happens as a result of a cause. One cause may have several effects. To determine causes and effects, ask these questions:

  • Why did the event happen? (cause)

  • What made the event happen? (cause)

  • What triggered an event? (cause)

  • What happened as a result of the event? (effect)

  • What happened because of that event? (effect)

Here is an example of one cause and effect related to the Hundred Years’ War:

Cause:The French wanted control of the English province of Gascony.



Effect:The English fought to keep their control of Gascony.
In the next column are more causes and effects related to the Hundred Years’ War. Read each pair of sentences. Decide which statement is the cause and which is the effect. Rewrite each sentence on your paper. Label it with “cause?? or “effect.??

  • 1. France’s king died without a male heir. Edward III of England was the French king’s nephew. He thought the French throne should go to him.

  • 2. Edward III landed an army in Normandy. It was part of his plan to get the French throne.
    Edward III decided to take the French throne by force.

  • 3. The English developed the longbow.
    The English beat the French in battle.

  • 4. Joan of Arc beat the English at Orléans, Patay, and Reims.
    Joan of Arc said that she saw visions from heaven. They told her to lead the French against the English. French soldiers believed what she told them.

  • 5. England had to give up all its land in France except for Calais.
    The French won many battles and the Hundred Years’ War.

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Unit 3 SUMMARY


  • The Renaissance began about 1350. It was a time of creativity and learning.

  • Education, art, and science were important during the Renaissance.

  • Great Renaissance writers include Shakespeare and Cervantes. Important artists include da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

  • The Protestant Reformation began in the 1400s.

  • Martin Luther questioned the teachings of the church. His actions led to the Reformation. Luther started the Lutheran Church in about 1530.

  • King Henry VIII of England began the Anglican Church after the pope refused to allow his divorce.

  • The Catholic Church began a Catholic Reformation, which led to the Roman Inquisition.

  • The Reformation split Europe into Catholic and Protestant areas.

  • During the 1500s, scholars began to investigate the natural world. Francis Bacon worked out the scientific method in the 1620s.

  • In 1543, Copernicus said the earth traveled around the sun. Galileo built a telescope and concluded that Copernicus was right. The Catholic Church tried to stop Galileo’s work.

  • Isaac Newton studied light and color; he also discovered how gravity works.

  • Advances were made in the study of the human body. Magnetism and electricity were discovered.

  • Mathematics, geometry, and calculus, along with the microscope and thermometer, were important scientific tools.

  • In the 1400s, explorers from many European countries began to look for new trade routes.

  • Columbus and da Gama tried to reach Asia. Magellan proved that the world is round during his trip of 1519 to 1522.

  • Cortés and Pizzaro destroyed Indian empires in Mexico and South America. The land became the colony of New Spain.

  • The English founded the colonies of Jamestown in 1607 and Plymouth in 1620. Champlain founded Quebec in1608.

  • In the 1500s, Spain was more powerful than England or France.

  • Civil war broke out between the Catholics and Protestant Puritans in England; the Puritans won in 1643.

  • In France, Louis XIV became Europe’s most powerful ruler.


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