Chapter 17: The West and the World The West’s First Outreach: Maritime Power

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Chapter 17: The West and the World

  1. The West’s First Outreach: Maritime Power

  1. New Technology: A Key to Power

  1. New technological developments like the compass, new ships designs, and improved weaponry led to the possibility of ocean passages once thought impossible

  1. Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack

  1. Henry the Navigator, a Portuguese prince, initiated the first voyages of discovery along the Atlantic coast of Africa during the fifteenth century.

  2. Vasco de Gama first successful Portuguese captain to reach India in 1498.

  3. Columbus started Spanish exploration in 1492

  4. Magellan sailed around the world

  1. Northern European Expeditions

  1. In late 16th century, sponsoring discovery voyages became popular

  2. French reached Canada in 1534 and explored along the waterways there

  3. England established colonies along the Atlantic Coast in search of passage to Asia

  4. Dutch soon rivaled the Portuguese in Asian trade

  5. British East India Company and Dutch East India Company played major role in colonizing.

  1. Toward a World Economy

  1. The “Colombian Exchange” of Disease and Food

  1. Europeans brought new diseases killing many natives

  2. New world crops, such as corn and potatoes, grew very well in China and Europe

  3. Europeans brought animals to America

  1. The West’s Commercial Outreach

  1. West dominated the seas, which gave the Europeans a monopoly of transoceanic voyages

  2. Initially Europeans did not seize much territory as part of their trading initiative

  1. Imbalances in World Trade

  1. Spain and Portugal declined because of England, France, and Holland.

  2. England, France and Holland exported manufactured goods in return for raw materials

  3. Outside core region of Europe, there were areas dependent on world trade system.

  1. A system of International Inequality

  1. World trade system benefited merchants and European core.

  2. Economy of the Americas relied on slaves

  1. How Much World in the World Economy?

  1. Huge areas of the world retained their indigenous economies without the technological advances

  2. Most of East Asia remained out of the world economy, except for trading firearms

  3. At first Japan wanted to trade but then went into isolation from the seventeenth century till the nineteenth

  4. The Muslim empires just allowed the Merchants into small enclaves within the city to trade.

  1. The Expansionist Trend

  1. Eventually many countries joined the world trade system

  2. India became a supplier of raw material

  3. Eastern Europe became a supplier of grain for the growing western cities

  1. Colonial Expansion

  1. The Americas: Loosely Controlled Colonies

  1. Spanish conquered Aztecs, and Incas

  2. Portugal expanded in Brazil

  3. Conversion of natives to Catholicism

  4. France, Britain, and Holland colonized in North America

  1. British and French North America: Backwater Colonies

  1. The more western colonies were located in British and French North America

  2. European remained disinterested in them because they did not supply raw materials

  3. Merchant class developed in colonies, when Britain attempted to regulate it a rebellion happened.

  4. Colonist did not intermarry and almost had a total elimination of the indigenous population

  1. North America and Western Civilization

  1. Colonists reproduce most of the patterns of Western culture

  2. Canada was given to the British in the Treaty of Paris of 1763

  3. Canadian and American colonists had a strained relationship

  4. American colonies had a revolution in 1776

  1. Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations

  1. Dutch created the Cape Colony

  2. Europeans did not colonize Africa until nineteenth century, and never really ventured into Asia

  3. France and Britain had a contest to control trade with India that Britain won

  4. Seven Years’ War began between the two with the British winning, expelling France from India

  1. Impact on Western Europe

  1. Western colonialism had a more dramatic effect on Latin America, than on Africa or Asia.

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