Chapter 16 Multiple Choice



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CHAPTER 16

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. What was the name of the group that conspired to assassinate Archduke Francis Ferdinand?



a.

the Serbian People’s Front

c.

the Bosnian Militia

b.

the Red Band

d.

the Black Hand

____ 2. In 1914, ____ was considered an act of war.



a.

assassination of a member of royalty

c.

mobilization of a nation’s army

b.

ending diplomatic relations

d.

breaking a military alliance

____ 3. The Western Front was characterized by



a.

the slow but steady advance of the German army.

b.

trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years.

c.

decisive victories by the French army, quickly driving back the German forces.

d.

innovative strategy and tactics that fully utilized the new technologies available to both armies.

____ 4. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire became known as



a.

the Allied Powers.

c.

the Central Powers.

b.

the League of Nations.

d.

the Eastern Powers.

____ 5. Why did Admiral Holtzendorff promise Emperor William II “not one American will land on the continent”?



a.

He wanted to convince the emperor to resume unrestricted submarine warfare.

b.

He believed the United States had no interest in the war.

c.

He thought the Americans would honor their treaty with Germany.

d.

He was misled by British spies working within the German navy.

____ 6. ____ were councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.



a.

Bolsheviks

c.

Vanguards

b.

Soviets

d.

Dumas

____ 7. The Red secret police, known as the Cheka, began



a.

infiltrating the governments of Russia’s enemies as spies.

b.

to plot against Lenin almost immediately after he came to power.

c.

to restore order to Russia after years of civil war.

d.

a Red Terror campaign to destroy all those who opposed the new regime.

____ 8. The Treaty of Versailles was



a.

a peace settlement that consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations.

b.

forced upon Austria, and gave some of its land to the new state of Poland.

c.

the treaty signed with Germany that many Germans felt was a harsh peace.

d.

a defensive alliance between Great Britain, France, and the United States.

____ 9. France’s approach to peace was guided in large part by



a.

the desire for national security.

b.

a need to reclaim territories lost during the war.

c.

the desire to obtain control over some of Germany’s former colonies.

d.

a vision to create a League of Nations to prevent future wars.

____ 10. World War I was a ____, meaning that it involved a complete mobilization of resources and people.



a.

modern conflict

c.

total war

b.

trench war

d.

mobile conflict

____ 11. ____, the aggressive preparation for war, was growing along with nations’ armies.



a.

Conscription

c.

Warmongering

b.

Militarism

d.

Mobilization

____ 12. The Schlieffen Plan was



a.

Austria-Hungary’s attempt to negotiate a peaceful settlement with Serbia.

b.

Germany’s proposal for dividing up Serbia between Russia and Austria-Hungary.

c.

the Black Hand’s plan to assassinate the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

d.

Germany’s plan for a two-front war with Russia and France, which had formed a military alliance.

____ 13. The German advance toward Paris was halted at



a.

the Battle of Tannenburg.

c.

the Battle of Marne.

b.

the French-Belgian border.

d.

the German-Belgian border.

____ 14. By attacking Austria in May 1915, Italy



a.

betrayed Germany and Austria.

b.

helped to knock Russia out of the war.

c.

won the war.

d.

became a world power.

____ 15. What caused the United States to join the Allies in fighting World War I?



a.

the sinking of the Titanic

b.

the German embargo on gasoline

c.

the United States’s fear of the Austro-Hungarian powers

d.

the Germans’ use of unrestricted submarine warfare

____ 16. Under the leadership of ____, the Bolsheviks became a party dedicated to violent revolution.



a.

Alexander Kerensky

c.

V. I. Lenin

b.

Grigori Rasputin

d.

Alexandra Romanov

____ 17. In an attempt to end Russia’s involvement in the war, Lenin



a.

seized the Winter Palace and overthrew the Russian government.

b.

signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, which gave up much Russian territory.

c.

united the soviets under the Bolshevik party.

d.

called a general strike that shut down all factories in Petrograd on March 10.

____ 18. ____ became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation.



a.

Woodrow Wilson

c.

Karl Liebknecht

b.

Rosa Luxemburg

d.

Georges Clemenceau

____ 19. Germany was especially unhappy with Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles because it



a.

forced Germany to reduce the size of its army and navy.

b.

forced Germany to give back the territories of Alsace and Lorraine.

c.

awarded sections of eastern Germany to the new Polish state.

d.

declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war.

____ 20. After the war, Britain ruled Iraq and Palestine as



a.

colonies, which they received as part of Germany’s war reparations.

b.

mandates on behalf of the League of Nations, but did not own the territory.

c.

indirect rulers, which allowed the two nations some semblance of autonomy.

d.

direct rulers, leading to much animosity that still exists today.


____ 21. Which of the following countries is a Balkan nation?



a.

Serbia

c.

Greece

b.

Austria-Hungary

d.

Both A and C

____ 22. In 1914 which member of the Triple Alliance shared borders with two members of the Triple Entente?



a.

Germany

c.

Bosnia

b.

Austria-Hungary

d.

Italy


____ 23. Which of the following Balkan countries sided with the Central powers?



a.

Serbia

c.

Greece

b.

Montenegro

d.

Bulgaria


____ 24. Where was Archduke Francis Ferdinand shot?



a.

in London

c.

in Sarajevo

b.

in Athens

d.

None of the above

____ 25. Why was Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo?



a.

He wanted to seize Bosnia.

c.

He was trying to disarm the country.

b.

He was on a state visit.

d.

None of the above


____ 26. Based only on the charts above, which country had the strongest economy?



a.

Great Britain

c.

France

b.

Germany

d.

Turkey

____ 27. Based on the charts above, which country was least prepared for war?



a.

Great Britain

c.

Russia

b.

Germany

d.

Turkey


____ 28. According to the figure above, the Russian government was ____.



a.

an oligarchy

c.

an autocracy

b.

a constitutional monarchy

d.

a republic

____ 29. According to the figure above, which of the following had the most to gain from a revolution?



a.

the officials

c.

the middle classes

b.

the nobles

d.

the peasants


____ 30. According to the figure above, at what time was the armistice signed?



a.

5 a.m., Paris time

c.

5 a.m., San Francisco time

b.

11 a.m., Paris time

d.

11 a.m., San Francisco time

____ 31. According to the figure above, where was the armistice signed?



a.

San Francisco

c.

Paris

b.

Washington

d.

Germany

____ 32.



I felt tired out by the time I reached company headquarters, sweating under a pack-valise like the men, and with all the usual furnishings hung at my belt—revolver, field-glasses, map-case, compass, whiskey-flask, wire-cutters, periscope, and a lot more. A ‘Christmas-tree,’ that was called. Those were the days in which officers had their swords sharpened by the armourer before sailing to France. I had been advised to leave mine back in the quartermaster-sergeants’ billet, and never saw it again, or bothered about it.

Robert Graves, “Life in the Trenches” from Good-bye to All That




In the passage above, what is Graves suggesting about his sword?

a.

that his armourer forgot to sharpen it

b.

that he needed it at the front

c.

that in World War I officers as a class were no longer distinguished by carrying a sword

d.

None of the above




I had expected a grizzled veteran with a breastful of medals; but Dunn was actually two months younger than myself—one of the fellowship of ‘only survivors.’ Captain Miller of the Black Watch in the same Division was another. Miller had escaped from the Rue du Bois massacre by swimming down a flooded trench. ‘Only survivors’ had great reputations. Miller used to be pointed at in the streets when the Battalion was back in reserve billets. ‘See that fellow? That’s Jock Miller. Out from the start and hasn’t got it yet.’

Robert Graves, “Life in the Trenches” from Good-bye to All That


____ 33. In the passage above, why was Captain Miller pointed at in the streets?



a.

He was a grizzled veteran.

c.

He was a swimming champion.

b.

He had a breastful of medals.

d.

He was an “only survivor.”

____ 34. Which of the following is the most likely definition of “only survivor”?



a.

a flood victim

b.

the sole survivor of a group of soldiers

c.

a member of the Black Watch

d.

soldier with many medals

____ 35.



I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

President Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points Speech, January 8, 1918




What is Wilson speaking against?

a.

arms reductions

b.

trade restrictions

c.

secret treaties

d.

diplomatic resolution of international problems

____ 36.



IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
President Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points Speech, January 8, 1918


Above is the fourth of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points. What is its topic?

a.

arms reductions

c.

secret treaties

b.

trade restrictions

d.

diplomatic resolution of conflicts

____ 37.



The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

Article 231, Versailles Treaty, 1919




Above is a passage from the Versailles Treaty. What does this article call for Germany to do?

a.

compensate for all damages done to Allied civilians and their property

b.

restore money and property taken by Germany or her allies

c.

accept full responsibility for all loss and damage caused by the war

d.

None of the above

____ 38.



The Allied and Associated Governments, however, require, and Germany undertakes, that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property during the period of the belligerency of each as an Allied or Associated Power against Germany by such aggression by land, by sea and from the air, and in general all damage as defined in Annex I hereto.

Article 232, Versailles Treaty, 1919




Above is a passage from the Versailles Treaty. What does this article call for Germany to do?

a.

pay for all damages done to Allied civilians and their property

b.

restore money and property taken by Germany or her allies

c.

accept full responsibility for all loss and damage caused by the war

d.

None of the above


Completion

Complete each sentence or statement.

39. France, Great Britain, and Russia created the ____________________ in 1907.

40. The terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary was the ____________________.

41. Britain declared war against Germany in August, 1914, officially, because Germany violated the neutrality of ____________________.

42. Early in the war, Germany defeated the Russians at the Battle of ____________________ and the Battle of Masurian Lakes.

43. In 10 months of battle at ____________________, France, 700,000 men lost their lives over a few miles of land.

44. An event that caused American anger towards Germany was the sinking of the ____________________.

45. The March Revolution in Russia began in the city of ____________________.

46. Nicholas II was forced to step down after he unsuccessfully tried to dissolve the ____________________.

47. ____________________ was government control of banks and industry, the seizing of grain, and the centralization of the state under Communist control.

48. Because the Allies would not negotiate with the imperial government of Germany, ____________________ was forced to step down and leave the country.

49. President Wilson’s basis for a peace settlement was known as the “____________________.”

50. One of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles was that Germany must return ____________________ and ____________________ to France.

Matching

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

propaganda

f.

Communists

b.

mandate

g.

Gavrilo Princip

c.

conscription

h.

War Guilt Clause

d.

Erich von Ludendorff

i.

Allied Powers

e.

planned economies

j.

Lawrence of Arabia

____ 51. a military draft

____ 52. assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia

____ 53. the spread of ideas to influence public opinion for or against a cause

____ 54. Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia

____ 55. systems directed by government agencies in order to mobilize resources for the war effort

____ 56. urged princes in the Middle East to revolt against their Ottoman overlords

____ 57. new name for the Bolsheviks after they seized power

____ 58. general who guided German military operations

____ 59. declared that Germany and Austria were responsible for starting World War I

____ 60. a nation officially governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations

Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.

war of attrition

f.

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

b.

mobilization

g.

Grigori Rasputin

c.

Central Powers

h.

self-determination

d.

David Lloyd George

i.

League of Nations

e.

trench warfare

j.

Leon Trotsky

____ 61. his assassination started World War I

____ 62. assembling troops and supplies for war

____ 63. kept the Western Front from moving very much

____ 64. wearing the other side down with constant attacks

____ 65. Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire

____ 66. Siberian peasant who influenced Alexandra

____ 67. head of the Petrograd soviet and, later, commissar of war

____ 68. world organization created at the Paris Peace Conference

____ 69. prime minister of Great Britain, who wanted to make the Germans pay for the war

____ 70. the right of each people to have its own nation

Short Answer

71.




Why was it important for the Allies to attempt to capture Gallipoli?

72.


About trenches,’ said Dunn. ‘Well, we don’t know as much about trenches as the French do, and not near as much as Fritz does. We can’t expect Fritz to help, but the French might do something. They are too greedy to let us have the benefit of their inventions. What wouldn’t we give for their parachute-lights and aerial torpedoes! But there’s never any connection between the two armies, unless a battle is on, and then we generally let each other down.
Robert Graves, “Life in the Trenches” from Good-bye to All That






In the passage above, Dunn is an officer in the British army during World War I. What does he imply about cooperation between the French and British armies?


73.




If you did not know what the word armistice meant, what clues in the figure above would help you determine its meaning?

74.


We now came under rifle-fire, which I found more trying than shell-fire. … But a rifle bullet, even when fired blindly, always seemed purposely aimed. And whereas we could usually hear a shell approaching, and take some sort of cover, the rifle bullet gave no warning. So, though we learned not to duck to a rifle bullet because, once heard, it must have missed, it gave us a worse feeling of danger. Rifle bullets in the open went hissing into the grass without much noise, but when we were in a trench, the bullets made a tremendous crack as they went over the hollow.
Robert Graves, “Life in the Trenches” from Good-bye to All That






In the passage above, why does Graves find rifle-fire more trying than shell-fire?

75.


The Congress calls upon the soldiers in the trenches to be vigilant and firm. The Congress of Soviets is convinced that the revolutionary army will be able to defend the revolution against all attacks of imperialism until such time as the new government succeeds in concluding a democratic peace, which it will propose directly to all peoples. The new government will do everything to fully supply the revolutionary army, by means of a determined policy of requisitions and taxation of the propertied classes, and also will improve the condition of soldiers’ families.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, “Bolsheviks Seize Power in Russia”






According to the passage above, how does Lenin plan to supply the revolutionary army?

76.


23. When all the amounts due from Germany and her allies under the present Treaty or the decisions of the [Reparation] Commission have been discharged and all sums received, or their equivalents, shall have been distributed to the Powers interested, the [Reparation] Commission shall be dissolved.
Annex II, Versailles Treaty, 1919






Above is a passage from Annex II of the Versailles Treaty. According to this passage, how long will the Reparations Commission meet?

77.


First of all, this argument is used with certain interpretations of “democracy in general” and “dictatorship in general” without raising the point as to which class one has in mind. Such a statement of the question, leaving out of consideration the question of class as though it were a general national matter, is direct mockery of the fundamental doctrine of socialism, namely, the doctrine of class struggle, which the socialists who have gone over to the side of the bourgeoisie recognize when they talk, but forget when they act.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”






According to Lenin, in the passage above, what is most important to socialism?

78.


All socialists who explain the class character of bourgeois civilization, or bourgeois democracy, or bourgeois parliamentarism, express the thought which Marx and Engels expressed with the most scientific exactness when they said that the most democratic bourgeois republic is nothing more than a machine for the suppression of the working class by the bourgeoisie, for the suppression of the mass of the toilers by a handful of capitalists.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”






According to the passage above, how did Marx and Engels view the governments of Western Europe?


Essay

79. Describe the Schlieffen Plan.

80. Explain the impact of World War I on women’s roles.

81. Describe the impact of trench warfare on the Western Front.

82. Explain Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” for the peace settlement after World War I.

83. When the Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare, why did they believe the United States would not be a factor?

84. How did World War I contribute to the formation of strong central governments in Europe?

85.


We heard strange throbbing noises, and lumbering slowly towards us came three huge mechanical monsters such as we had never seen before. My first impression was that they looked ready to topple on their noses, but their tails and the two little wheels at the back held them down and kept them level. Big metal things they were, with two sets of caterpillar wheels that went right round the body. There was a bulge on each side with a door in the bulging part, and machine-guns on swivels poked out from either side.
Bert Chaney, “Tanks in Battle”






What is Chaney referring to as “monsters” in the passage above? What is the effect of his description?


86.




Based on the information in the charts above, compare Great Britain and Germany.

87.


And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two German delegates. Dr. Müller, Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying. Their feet upon a strip of parquet between the savonnerie carpets echo hollow and duplicate. They keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed upon the ceiling. They are deathly pale. They do not appear as representatives of a brutal militarism.
Harold Nicolson, “Versailles Treaty Signing”






How does Nicolson view the men described above? What contrasts is the author making in this paragraph?

88.


The bourgeoisie, whose rule is now defended by the socialists who speak against “dictatorship in general” and who espouse the cause of “democracy in general,” has won power in the progressive countries at the price of a series of uprisings, civil wars, forcible suppression of kings, feudal lords, and slave owners, and of their attempts at restoration. The socialists of all countries in their books and pamphlets, in the resolutions of their congresses, in their propaganda speeches, have explained to the people thousands and millions of times the class character of these bourgeois revolutions, and of this bourgeois dictatorship.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, “Dictatorship of the Proletariat”






Read the passage above. How did the bourgeoisie come into power? Does Lenin consider the rule of the bourgeoisie to be democratic or dictatorial?


CHAPTER 16

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12

2. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Pages 499-501

STO: WH9.GHPS12

3. ANS: B DIF: C REF: Page 504 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

4. ANS: C DIF: E REF: Pages 506-507

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

5. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Pages 507-508

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

6. ANS: B DIF: A REF: Page 516 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

7. ANS: D DIF: C REF: Pages 517-519

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

8. ANS: C DIF: C REF: Page 524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, VI-2

9. ANS: A DIF: C REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12

10. ANS: C DIF: E REF: Page 526 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

11. ANS: B DIF: A REF: Pages 500-501

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

12. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Page 502

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b, WH9.GHPS12.d

13. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Page 504 STO: WH9.GHPS12

14. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Pages 504-505

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

15. ANS: D DIF: E REF: Page 507

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-1

16. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Page 517 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

17. ANS: B DIF: C REF: Page 518 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

18. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Page 523

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-2

19. ANS: D DIF: C REF: Page 524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d

20. ANS: B DIF: C REF: Page 525

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d

21. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Page 500 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

MSC: Document Based Question

22. ANS: A DIF: C REF: Page 500 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

MSC: Document Based Question

23. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Pages 503-506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d MSC: Document Based Question

24. ANS: C DIF: E REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

MSC: Document Based Question

25. ANS: B DIF: A REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

MSC: Document Based Question

26. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Pages 499-509

STO: WH9.GHPS12 MSC: Document Based Question

27. ANS: D DIF: C REF: Pages 499-509

STO: WH9.GHPS12 MSC: Document Based Question

28. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Pages 515-519

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a MSC: Document Based Question

29. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Pages 515-519

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a MSC: Document Based Question

30. ANS: A DIF: E REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d MSC: Document Based Question

31. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d MSC: Document Based Question

32. ANS: C DIF: C REF: Pages 503-506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b MSC: Document Based Question

33. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Pages 503-506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b MSC: Document Based Question

34. ANS: B DIF: A REF: Pages 503-506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b MSC: Document Based Question

35. ANS: C DIF: C REF: Page 523

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-2 MSC: Document Based Question

36. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Page 423

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-2 MSC: Document Based Question

37. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Pages 423-424

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c MSC: Document Based Question

38. ANS: A DIF: C REF: Pages 423-424

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c MSC: Document Based Question



COMPLETION

39. ANS: Triple Entente

DIF: A REF: Pages 499-500 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

40. ANS: Black Hand

DIF: A REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12

41. ANS: Belgium

DIF: C REF: Pages 501-502 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

42. ANS: Tannenberg

DIF: A REF: Pages 504-505 STO: WH9.GHPS12

43. ANS: Verdun

DIF: A REF: Pages 505-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12

44. ANS: Lusitania

DIF: A REF: Page 507 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b, VI-1

45. ANS: Petrograd

DIF: C REF: Pages 515-516 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

46. ANS: Duma

DIF: A REF: Pages 515-516 STO: WH9.GHPS12.a

47. ANS: War communism

DIF: A REF: Pages 517-519 STO: WH9.GHPS12.a

48. ANS: William II

DIF: A REF: Pages 522-523 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

49. ANS: Fourteen Points

DIF: E REF: Page 523 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-2

50. ANS: Alsace, Lorraine

DIF: E REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d



MATCHING

51. ANS: C DIF: E REF: Pages 500-501

STO: WH9.GHPS12

52. ANS: G DIF: A REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12

53. ANS: A DIF: A REF: Page 503 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

54. ANS: I DIF: E REF: Page 502 STO: WH9.GHPS12

55. ANS: E DIF: A REF: Page 508 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

56. ANS: J DIF: A REF: Page 506 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

57. ANS: F DIF: A REF: Pages 518-519

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

58. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Page 522 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

59. ANS: H DIF: A REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d

60. ANS: B DIF: E REF: Pages 525-526

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d

61. ANS: F DIF: A REF: Page 501 STO: WH9.GHPS12

62. ANS: B DIF: E REF: Page 502 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

63. ANS: E DIF: A REF: Page 504 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

64. ANS: A DIF: E REF: Pages 505-506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

65. ANS: C DIF: A REF: Pages 506-507

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.d

66. ANS: G DIF: A REF: Page 515 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

67. ANS: J DIF: A REF: Pages 518-519

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

68. ANS: I DIF: A REF: Pages 523-524

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

69. ANS: D DIF: A REF: Page 525 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

70. ANS: H DIF: A REF: Page 506

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d



SHORT ANSWER

71. ANS:

because of its strategic position at the opening of a seaway leading to Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, which was fighting on the side of Germany

DIF: A REF: Pages 503-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12

MSC: Document Based Question

72. ANS:

They do not cooperate with each other.

DIF: A REF: Page 522 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

MSC: Document Based Question

73. ANS:

Answers may vary. The fact that Germany surrendered, hostilities ceased, and there was peace.

DIF: C REF: Pages 503-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

MSC: Document Based Question

74. ANS:

Rifle bullets always seem purposely aimed. Shells can be heard before they hit, but a bullet cannot.

DIF: A REF: Pages 517-518 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

MSC: Document Based Question

75. ANS:

by forcing the propertied classes to provide them

DIF: A REF: Pages 523-524 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

MSC: Document Based Question

76. ANS:

until Germany has completely paid off all payments due according to the Treaty and decisions of the Commission

DIF: A REF: Page 517 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

MSC: Document Based Question

77. ANS:

class struggle

DIF: C REF: Page 517 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

MSC: Document Based Question

78. ANS:

They considered them as nothing more than a means to keep down the working class.

DIF: C REF: Page 502 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

MSC: Document Based Question

ESSAY

79. ANS:

The Schlieffen Plan was Germany’s military plan for a two-front war with France and Russia, which had formed a military alliance in 1894. According to the plan, Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russia while most of the German army would carry out a rapid invasion of France. This meant invading France by moving quickly along the level coastal area through Belgium. After France was defeated, the German invaders would move to the east against Russia.

DIF: C REF: Pages 508-509

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b, WH9.GHPS12.d

80. ANS:

World War I created new roles for women. Because so many men left to fight at the front, women were called on to take over jobs that had not been available to them before. Women were employed in jobs that had been considered beyond their capacity, such as truck drivers and factory workers in heavy industry. This had a positive impact on the women’s movement after the war, resulting in social and political emancipation for women in many countries. The most obvious gain was the right to vote, which was given to women in Germany, Austria, and the United States immediately after the war. Upper- and middle-class women also gained new freedoms that allowed them to take jobs and have their own apartments.

DIF: C REF: Pages 505-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12

81. ANS:

The unexpected development of trench warfare baffled military leaders, who had been trained to fight wars of movement and maneuver. The only plan generals could devise was to attempt a breakthrough by throwing masses of men against enemy lines that had first been battered by artillery. In this way, they hoped to obtain a decisive breakthrough that would allow them to return to the war of movement they knew best. Tragically, these attacks rarely worked because men advancing unprotected across open fields could be fired at by the enemy’s machine guns. Millions of young men died in the search for the elusive breakthrough. Trench warfare on the Western Front turned World War I into a war of attrition.

DIF: A REF: Page 523 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

82. ANS:

Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” were his basis for a peace settlement that he believed justified the enormous military struggle of World War I. His proposals included reaching peace agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy; reducing armaments to a “point consistent with domestic safety”; and ensuring the right of self-determination. He argued that absolutism and militarism could be eliminated only by creating democratic governments and a general association of nations that would guarantee political independence and territorial integrity for all nations. The idea of this general association eventually became the League of Nations.

DIF: C REF: Pages 506-507

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-2

83. ANS:

They believed they could starve the British into submission before the United States would enter the war. They did not believe the United States would act decisively and quickly. They thought the U. S. would not commit ground troops to a war in Europe.

DIF: A REF: Pages 525-526

STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b, WH9.GHPS12.d, VI-1

84. ANS:

World War I involved the total mobilization of the resources and people of each nation. The power of the government over the lives of its citizens increased. Freedom of speech and the press were limited in the name of national security.

DIF: C REF: Pages 503-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12

85. ANS:

Answers will vary. The “monsters” are tanks. He refers to them as monsters because they are a new invention and he wants to convey an impression of them. The description has the effect of making the reader share Chaney’s experience.

DIF: A REF: Pages 499-506 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

MSC: Document Based Question

86. ANS:

Answers will vary. Great Britain’s population was approximately 70 percent of Germany’s. Great Britain was a stronger trading nation, but Germany had almost as much in trading revenues. Germany was much stronger militarily, with more than eleven times the number of soldiers than Great Britain.

DIF: C REF: Pages 523-524 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.b

MSC: Document Based Question

87. ANS:

Answers will vary. Nicolson finds Müller and Bell pitiable. They seem to be ashamed. They are not military officers but “Drs.” and they are not good representatives of the type of leaders Germany had during the war.

DIF: C REF: Page 517 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.c

MSC: Document Based Question

88. ANS:

Answers will vary. The bourgeoisie came to power through a series of uprisings and civil wars against the old order (which consisted of kings, feudal lords, and slave owners). He considers the rule of the bourgeoisie to be a dictatorship, not the democracy that the bourgeois consider it to be.



DIF: C REF: Page 517 STO: WH9.GHPS12, WH9.GHPS12.a

MSC: Document Based Question


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