Chapter 16: Europe’s World Supremacy, 1871-1914 16. 78 Imperialism: Its Nature and Causes



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Outlines for “A History of the Modern World” 9th Edition

Palmer, Colton, and Kramer

Chapter 16: Europe’s World Supremacy, 1871-1914

16.78 Imperialism: Its Nature and Causes


  1. Introduction

    1. Differences between Western and non-Western cultures

      1. Third World

        1. Developing

        2. Traditional

        3. Poor

        4. Weak

      2. Western World

        1. Developed

        2. Secular

        3. Rich

        4. Strong

    2. Globalization

      1. Favored the west

        1. Traditional manufactures could not compete with machine manufactures

        2. Grazing lands gave way to plantations and mines

        3. Railroads displaced workers in traditional methods of transportation

      2. Economic downturn became a world depression

    3. Imperialism

      1. Government of one people by another

      2. Caused conflict

      3. Anti-capitalism passed into socialism

    4. Imperialist rivalries of Europe’s supremacy led to the war and collapse of Europe

  1. Imperialism

    1. Colonialism died down with the growth of free trade

    2. Britain was the last of the colonial empires of Europe

      1. Spain lapsed after 1588

      2. France was ruined through the Napoleonic Wars

      3. Russia was in a state of disarray

    3. By 1900 the West partitioned most of the world among themselves

  2. The New vs. Old Imperialism

    1. Old imperialism was a matter of purchasing desired goods from local suppliers

      1. No territorial ambitions

      2. Protection of trade stations

    2. New Imperialism

      1. Europeans moved in

      2. Invested capital

      3. Developed infrastructure

      4. Locals became wage employees

      5. Lent money to the local leaders to keep the governments cooperative

      6. To protect investments Europe moved to territorial domination

        1. Colonies

        2. Protectorates

        3. Some countries were divided into spheres of influence

          1. China or Persia

      7. Modern nation states loomed as enormous power complexes

        1. Industrialized

        2. Democratic

        3. Financial institutions

      8. Traditional governments

        1. Decaying

        2. Minimum of support form governed

        3. India

        4. Turkey

        5. Persia

        6. China

        7. Japan (revolutionized rapidly)

      9. Conflicts between traditional and modern forces

        1. India

        2. Afghan wars

        3. Burmese wars

        4. Zulu wars

        5. Spanish – American war?

        6. Boer War

      10. Minatory bombardment

        1. Modern warships bombing traditional cites to force submission

  3. Incentives and motives

    1. Europeans needed the world’s resources to maintain their standard of living

    2. Missionaries were dispatched to remote locations

      1. Deaths of missionary led to a clamor for military and political action

    3. Scientific expeditions to learn of the world

    4. Travel by the wealthy

      1. Needed way stations which led to control of the locals

    5. Raw materials

      1. Tea

      2. Cotton

      3. Rubber and petroleum

      4. Jute

      5. Coconut

    6. New Markets

      1. Declining prices demanded greater markets to maintain profits

      2. Tariffs caused industrialized countries to develop a colonial market for itself

        1. Large self sufficient trade unit

        2. Guaranteeing prosperity for the home country

    7. Profit motive

      1. Money invested in developing countries brought a higher rate of return

        1. Cheap labor

        2. Greater risk of losses

        3. Lack of investment opportunity in the inner zone

        4. Outlet for accumulated capital

          1. Demands went up for civilized control to protect investments

 

  1. Socialist critics

    1. Lenin

      1. ascribed imperialism primarily to the accumulation of surplus capital and condemned it on socialist grounds

    2. Hobson

      1. If more of the wealth was given to the workers their would not be capital for export

      2. It he workers had more purchasing power there would be less need for external markets (Ford and the Model T)

    3. Counter arguments against capitalism as the lone cause of imperialism

      1. Need of imports to feed the population

      2. Need of imports to sustain industry

      3. Need of imports to maintain the high standard of living for all

      4. Need for imports prompted the investment of capital

        1. Non-Europeans often asked for the capital investment

      5. Russia and Italy had little capital to invest yet were imperialistic

    4. For the British the capitalistic incentive was primary

      1. Twenty-five percent of British wealth was invested in the empire

      2. Ten percent of French wealth was invested in the French imperial holdings

        1. Egypt, Suez, South Africa, and Asia

      3. Small fraction of German wealth was exported

        1. Ottoman Empire

    5. Foreign investment in Russia

      1. France was heavily invested in Russia (Germany)

      2. Tsar’s power was kept afloat by foreign loans

    6. Joseph Chamberlain

      1. The community should take better care of its members

      2. British community included the empire

      3. Municipal socialism

        1. Public ownership of utilities

      4. Promoted a self-sustaining and self-protecting empire

        1. Source of raw materials and food

        2. Markets for exports

        3. Steady level of profits, wages, and employment

      5. Directed independence movements in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand toward imperial federation

        1. Alliance for military defense and economic well-being

        2. Protective tariffs that favored key components of the Empire

        3. Bind the empire together with economic bonds

          1. Tariff union (zollverine)

          2. Goes against free trade policies

      6. Chamberlain dies before his plan is realized

      7. British Commonwealth of Nations follows a similar plan after WWI

    7. Working classes and imperialism

      1. Workers in western Europe did benefit from imperialism

        1. Wages went up

        2. Prices stayed low

      2. Even Marx recognized that the purchasing power of the workers was increasing

        1. Led to opportunistic or un-revolutionary behavior

        2. Eroded the position of Marxism

        3. Blocked the formation of an international proletariat

    8. Population argument for imperialism

      1. European countries should have colonies for excess population

      2. The concept does not hold up to scrutiny

        1. Population continued to migrate to the Americas even with the existence of colonial choices for migration

    9. Diplomacy and imperialism

      1. Competition between imperial nations caused diplomatic challenges

        1. Competing over imperial turf

        2. Needed to cooperate to maintain a balance of power

      2. Having colonies served as a symbol of status

        1. Much of the world was divided up just to create claims to territories

        2. Britain and France had colonies then everyone else had to have colonies

          1. Underlying threat was that if a nation did not have colonies it might become one

  2. Imperialism as Crusade

    1. Imperialism was an outthrust of modern Western civilization

      1. Advocates claimed that it would bring civilization to the world

      2. Faith in modern civilization became a substitute religion

        1. Imperialism was its crusade

    2. British: White Man’s Burden

    3. French: mission civilisatrice

    4. Germans: diffusing Kultur

    5. Americans: blessings of Anglo Saxon protection

    6. Social Darwinism taught of one race being more fit than another

    7. Civilized whites must keep a guardianship over the rest of the races

      1. Idealism and humanitarianism mixed with greed

      2. .      Schools and hospitals were built as well as railroads and mines

      3. Missionaries

    8. Expressed with a gross condescension

      1. Kipling and “White Mans Burden”

16.79: The Americas- Skip It
16. 80: The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

  1. The Ottoman Empire in the 1850s

    1. Ottoman Empire was the least non-European of the world powers outside Europe’s traditional confines

    2. Diverse population

      1. Muslim, Jews, Eastern Orthodox Christians

      2. Islam was the dominant religion

      3. Religious leadership served as liaisons between people and the government

    3. The capitulations

      1. Religious leaders looked to foreign sources for directives

        1. Christians looked to France for protection

      2. Western merchants obtained favor in trade relations

        1. Tax exemptions

        2. Legal disputes were conducted with western oversight

    4. Little expression of national unity existed

      1. Concepts of sovereignty, uniform law, or a secular stated were largely undeveloped

    5. Significant lag in modernization indicated that the empire was losing ground when referenced with the west

      1. Sick man of Europe

      2. Eastern Question

      3. Erosion of the borders

        1. Hungary, Serbia, Romania, Algeria, Arabia, and Egypt were moving toward a detached relationship with the empire

      4. Remaining empire was significantly large and a potentially important participant in European affairs

    6. The Crimean War

      1. Prompted a movement toward consolidation

      2. Moved toward western models

      3. Outcome of future events led to a stronger western presence



  1. Attempts at Reform and Revival, 1856 – 1876

    1. Hatt-I Humayun

      1. Abolished the civil authority of religious interests

      2. Equality before the law

      3. Eligibility to public office

      4. Open participation in the army

      5. Movement against graft and corruption in the existing government

    2. Prompted a stance toward nationalism

      1. Histories

      2. Newspapers

      3. Foreign investment

      4. Rail development

    3. Resistance developed against radical reforms

    4. Adbul Aziz

      1. Interested in the west

      2. Traditional interests undermined his modernization efforts

    5. Abdul Hamid II

      1. Set up by reform oriented minister Midhat Pasha

      2. Proclaimed a constitution

      3. Declared liberty, freedom, education, and free press

      4. Parliamentary Government (1877)

      5. Turns against the reforms and tosses out the constitution

  2. Repression after 1876

    1. Abdul Hamid’s 33 year reign was characterized by fear and reactionary behavior

    2. Young Turks begin to organize

      1. Activists promoting reform

      2. Many lived in exile and plotted their return

    3. Fierce repression was used to keep outlying areas in line with the empire

      1. Bulgarian massacres of 1876

      2. Armenian massacres of 1894

      3. Butcheries of thousands of peasants by Ottoman troops

    4. Imperial powers are examining the possibilities within the aged empire

      1. No one in the west wanted a reinvigorated Ottoman Empire

  3. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 – 1878: The Congress of Berlin

    1. Russian designs on the Balkans included a sense of liberating Constantinople

    2. Pan-Slavism

      1. Diverted attention from internal troubles

      2. Slavs were willing to use Russian Pan-Slavism against the oppression of the Ottomans

      3. 1877 Russia moves against the Ottomans

      4. Britain was not willing to allow Russian influence in the Middle-East

        1. Suez

        2. Russian naval presence on the Black Sea

        3. Disraeli advanced British interests

          1. Purchase of controlling interests in the Suez

          2. The Queen is now the Empress of India

          3. Suez is a lifeline of British economic interests

    3. Treaty of San Stefano

      1. Russia forced the Turks to sign a treaty that increased Russian presence in the Black Sea and Balkans

      2. Britain responds with hawkish stance

        1. Jingoism

          1. Use force because you can



    1. Turkey’s weakness was exposed

      1. Potential for Anglo-Russo war was high

      2. War was averted through diplomacy

      3. Congress of Berlin 1878 (Bismarck)

        1. Partition of the Ottoman domain

          1. Russian Pan-Slavism gained an independent Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro

          2. Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia

          3. Britain gained Cyprus

          4. French expanded north African presence into Tunisia

          5. Italians were given a suggestion of potential expansion across the Adriatic (undefined)

          6. Germany took nothing (strong relationship with Turkey was reinforced)

      4. Outcome of the Berlin Congress contributed to WWI

        1. No one was much satisfied

        2. Turkey was embarrassed

        3. German influence was enhanced in Turkey

          1. Berlin – Bagdad Railway

  1. Egypt and North Africa

    1. Suez was becoming increasingly important to Britain

      1. Borrowed heavily to the khedive Ismail

        1. Opera House

        2. Lavish lifestyle

      2. Sold canal shares to Disraeli (PM)

    2. 1879 Western banking interests forced the abdication of Ismail

    3. Tewfik was installed and followed similar financial path

      1. Egyptian nationals protested against British influence and Twefik

    4. Colonel Arabi leaded protests

    5. Arab riots caused British and other foreigners to flee

    6. British bombed Alexandria, sent in troops and put Tewfik under protection

    7. 1882 Egypt was declared a British Protectorate (1882 – 1956)

      1. Protected the khedive from the Nationals

      2. Protected Egypt from Ottoman interests

      3. Protected Egypt from other European powers

    8. French objected

      1. French turned to NW Africa

      2. Germans and English objected

    9. Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was deeply integrated into the causes of WWI

      1. Young Turks control the Ottoman government in 1908

      2. 1914 Russia declared war on Turkey

      3. Turkey came into the war on the side of Germany

      4. During the war Arab states detach themselves from Turkey

        1. With British help

      5. 1923 a Turkish republic was declared

        1. Nationalist and secular characteristics develop


16.81 The Partition of Africa- Separate Notes
16.82 Imperialism in Asia: The Dutch the British, and the Russians

  1. The Dutch East Indies and British India

    1. Jewels in the crowns of their mother counties

    2. Each exported more than they imported

    3. Rich and varied natural resources

    4. Divided internally by religion and language

    5. Relatively easy to govern

    6. Fields of opportunity for the upper-class sons

    7. Control of the colonies was not challenged by third parties

    8. Dutch

      1. Java

    9. British

      1. Singapore, Malay, north Borneo

    10. French

      1. Indochina

    11. Germans

      1. Eastern New Guinea

      2. Marshall and Solomon islands

    12. Indonesia

      1. Dutch ruled with strict control

        1. Culture system

        2. Suppression of revolts

        3. Education in Malay and Javanese

          1. Preserved the native cultures

          2. Western ideas entered more slowly

    13. India

      1. Many Indian natives saw the British as dangerous

        1. Banned widow burning

        2. Threatened to ban caste

        3. Displacement of land owners

      2. Muslim population was also agitated

      3. Locals in the military (sepoys) rose up against the British

        1. Rebellion was brutally put down

      4. British re-examine their policies

        1. British East India Company and the Mogul empire were replaced with direct rule from Britain

        2. Allowed the local political structure to exist

          1. Rajahs and maharahahs

      5. Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in 1877

      6. India’s supply of raw materials supported Britain’s position as the world’s workshop

      7. British favored education in English

      8. Numerous Indian natives were educated in England and placed in government administrative positions

        1. Demanded more of a role in the affairs of their country

          1. 1885 Hindu Indian National Congress

          2. 1906 All-India Muslim League

      9. Nationalism spread as British were targeted with criticism

        1. Targets were capitalists

        2. Nationalism took on a socialist tenor

        3. Tone of independence was established before WWI

  1. Conflict of Russian and British Interests

    1. Russian empire was sagging southward in search of warm water ports

    2. Russian expansion was driven from within the government

      1. Not by bourgeois interests operating separately

    3. Russia approached by land the same area the Britain controlled by sea

      1. Ottoman Empire, Persia, India, China

    4. Vladivostok was established as the eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railway

      1. “Lord of the East”

    5. Russia challenged British control in central regions

      1. Afghan conflicts

      2. Roof of the World

        1. Served as a boundary

    6. Persia

      1. British interests included

        1. Communication

        2. Oil

        3. Worked through the shah

      2. Russia competed with British advances

      3. Persian nationals rebelled against external presences

      4. 1907 Britain recognized a Russian “sphere” in the north

      5. Russia recognized a British “sphere” in the south

    7. Partition of Africa strained relations between Britain and the rest of Europe

      1. France the most

    8. Imperial ambitions in Asia and the Ottoman Empire strained relations between Britain and Russia


16.83 Imperialism in Asia: China and the West

 1.     China before Western Penetration



    1. China was a point of conflict between western, imperial nations

    2. Qing dynasty loosely ruled over all that was Chinese

    3. China considered the west to be barbaric and remained isolationistic

    4. Qing dynasty was failing and unable to preserve order

      1. Taiping Rebellion of 1850

        1. 20 million perished

        2. Due to Chinese causes

        3. Rebels attacked the Manchus as corrupt foreigners

          1. Poverty, extortion, rack-renting, and absentee landlords

        4. Taiping and Manchu leadership broke down

          1. Chaos and banditry erupted

          2. Warlords appeared

        5. Manchu put down the Taiping rebels with European help

          1. Europeans began to extort concessions from the Manchu and maintain the Qing dynasty at the same time

          2. Effect was to sustain instability within China and increase European access

  1. The Opening of China to the West

    1. Opium Wars 1839 – 1857

      1. Trade with China was difficult

        1. China desired few European goods

      2. Mainstay of trade was opium for tea

      3. China resisted and in 1857 France and Britain burned the Emperor’s summer palace

        1. Extensive looting

    2. Treaties of Nanking and Tientsim

      1. Treaty system led to

        1. Hong Kong ceded to Britain

        2. Opened cities to Europeans as ports of entry

          1. Europeans were immune to Chinese law

          2. Settlements were established

          3. War indemnities were charged to the Chinese

          4. No import duty over 5 percent (nearly free trade)

            1. Money from duties went to Europeans to pay the indemnities

            2. Some money went to the Qing government

  2. Annexations and Concessions

    1. Russians moved down the Amur River (Vladivostok)

    2. Japanese recognized the independence of Korea

    3. British annexed Burma

    4. French annexed the Indo-Chinese peninsula

    5. Japan shows imperialistic tendencies

      1. Annexes Formosa and Liaotung peninsula

      2. Recognizes Korea’s independence

      3. Designs on Manchuria

    6. China borrowed heavily to westernize

      1. Loans open China further to western influence

      2. Partition of China seemed inevitable

        1. More territories are ceded

          1. Russians obtained Port Arthur and the right to build railroads in Manchuria

      3. Open Door

        1. U.S. demands all nations have open trade rights with China

    7. The condition of China is humiliating to Chinese

      1. Imperialism is leading to agitation

      2. Boxers 1899

      3. Revolutionary movement in China aimed at expulsion of Manchus and foreigners grew under Sun Yat-sen


16.84 The Russo-Japanese War and Its Consequences

 1.     Introduction



    1. Russia and Japan are opposed to each other’s interests in Manchuria

    2. Japanese need natural resources

    3. Russians want a rail way to Vladivostok

  1. Russo-Japanese War

    1. 1904 War broke out

      1. Japan attacked Port Arthur

        1. Armies entered Manchuria

          1. 624,000 men were engaged

          2. Russia was defeated on land

      2. Russians sent the Baltic fleet to Japan

        1. Tsushima Strait the Russian fleet was destroyed

        2. Russia was defeated at sea

      3. Treaty of Portsmouth

        1. T. Roosevelt

        2. Japan received Port Arthur

          1. Preferred position in Manchuria

        3. Southern half of the island of Sakhalin

    2. Consequences of Japanese victory

      1. Russian government shifted its attention back to Europe and the Balkans provoking WWI

      2. The Tsarist government was weakened, collapsed and followed by the Communist government

      3. Japan emerged as the first “modern” non-western power

        1. Served as a model for other nations under imperial control

          1. Get rid of western control

          2. Bring science and industry in

          3. New Nationalism

            1. Movements within imperial colonies toward independence








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