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Chapter 15

The Renaissance and Reformation

Chapter Preview

This chapter will explore the sweeping cultural changes in Europe known as the Renaissance and the Reformation.



Section 1

The Renaissance Begins



Section 2

The Renaissance Moves North



Section 3

Martin Luther and the Reformation



Section 4

Reformation Ideas Spread



Target Reading Skill

Cause and Effect Determining causes and effects helps you understand the relationship between events. A cause makes something happen. An effect is something that results from another event or change. In this chapter you will focus on identifying and understanding historical causes and events.

A gondolier rows along a canal lined by old weathered buildings and spanned by a narrow arched bridge near Piazza San Maria Formosa, Venice, Italy.

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MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Regions Before the modern idea of nations existed, what we know as Italy was made up of regions, each controlled by a powerful city.

Use the Key Who controlled Corsica? Sicily and Sardinia? Which states had little or no access to the sea?

Draw Conclusions Venice was a great European trading and commercial power during the Renaissance. What information does the map provide that would support that fact?

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Section 1

The Renaissance Begins

Prepare to Read

Objectives

In this section you will

1. Find out why Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance.

2. Understand how literature and art were transformed during the Renaissance.



Taking Notes

As you read, look for reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy and how literature and art changed during this period. Copy the outline below, and record your findings in it.



I. Why the Renaissance started in Italy

A.

B.

II. The effects of the Renaissance

A.

B.

Target Reading Skill

Identify Causes and Effects To understand a historical period or event, it is helpful to know what caused it to happen and what effects it had. As you read this section, identify the causes of the Renaissance in Italy, as well as the effects. Write the causes and effects in your Taking Notes diagram.

Key Terms

Renaissance (REN uh sahns) n. a widespread change in culture that took place in Europe, beginning with the 1300s

humanism (HYOO muh niz um) n. an interest in the classics

La Gioconda (lah joh KAHN duh) is another name for the Mona Lisa.

The Mona Lisa is perhaps the most famous piece of art in the world. It is one of the masterpieces created by the great Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci (lee uh NAHR doh duh VIN chee). Like many of da Vinci's works, however, the Mona Lisa may have never been finished. It is possible that da Vinci was drawn to another project without finishing the painting, as he had done on other projects. Da Vinci was not only a painter. He was also one of the world's greatest inventors and scientists.

The story of da Vinci and the Mona Lisa reveals much about the Renaissance. This is the term historians use for the period between 1300 and 1650 in Europe. During that time, the culture of Europe changed dramatically. Artists used new skills and techniques to create works of great beauty and charm. Scholars began looking at the world and its people in new ways. The spirit of the Renaissance is clearly seen in the life of Leonardo da Vinci. His great skills and wide interests reflect much of the spirit and character of the era.

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The Renaissance Begins in Italy

The Renaissance was a widespread change in culture that took place in Europe beginning with the 1300s. The movement began in Italy.

Look at the map on this page, and notice Italy's place on the Mediterranean Sea. Because of this location, Italy became a center of European trade with the rich lands of the East during the late Middle Ages. While feudalism still dominated the rest of Europe, Italy's merchants were building great fortunes.

Italy's trade was based in its cities. Over time, these cities became centers of power and wealth. Successful merchants bought up feudal lands, and many nobles moved to the cities to seek their fortunes. The most powerful Italian cities became independent city-states. They were not under the control of a king or a noble. Even the Roman Catholic Church held little power in these cities.



Reading Check Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?

Identify Causes and Effects

What causes led to the birth of the Renaissance in Italy?



MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Human-Environment Interaction Italy was a center of European trade during the Renaissance. Explain Why did Italy have an advantage in trading with eastern lands? Predict How might the rest of Europe overcome Italy's advantage in trading with the East?

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Renaissance Art

Raphael depicts the great thinkers of Ancient Greece. Analyze Why do you think Raphael included the Greek philosophers in this painting?



Renaissance Art and Literature

The Renaissance is celebrated today as a time of great artistic achievement. Artists in all fields created stunning works. These efforts marked a sharp change from the art of the Middle Ages. During that period, art had focused on the Church. That focus began to change in the 1300s.



Literature As you have read, a new social system was taking shape in Italy's cities. Life no longer centered on feudalism and the Church. Many writers began to turn their attention to something new—or, rather, to something very old. These were the ideas and writings of the ancient Romans and Greeks. The classical works focused on worldly issues, not religious matters. They explored nature, beauty, and other concepts long ignored in medieval life. This new interest in the classics is known as humanism.

The first great humanist was Francesco Petrarch (frahn CHES koh PEA trahrk) (1304-1374). Even as a child, he had loved the works of Cicero (CIS uh roh) and other Latin writers. Petrarch's father disapproved of his son's tastes. He once became so angry that he threw Petrarch's books into a fire. Yet Petrarch continued to study the ancient Romans. His love of the classics is clearly seen in the flawless poetry for which he is known. Petrarch's sonnets reveal a view of love and nature that is far different from medieval sonnets. He also collected the works of many Latin authors.

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Visual Art Medieval art had dealt mostly with religious topics. Like Renaissance writers, however, artists of the Renaissance began to focus on nature and the human form. Painters and sculptors still created religious scenes. These works, however, showed the human body with great accuracy and detail.

You have read about Leonardo da Vinci and his great works. Da Vinci also became famous for the more than 4,000 notebook pages that he filled with sketches and notes about the world around him. The Italian Renaissance also produced such masters as Michelangelo (my kul AN juh loh). His greatest work may be the famous ceiling of the Sistene Chapel. Like da Vinci's Mona Lisa, this work is among the most beloved and recognized paintings in history.

In the early to mid-1400s, the sculptor Donatello (doh nuh TEL oh) worked in the city of Florence, creating life-like sculptures of the human body. He was inspired by the Greeks and Romans of antiquity. Some of Donatello's most famous works are a series of sculptures of the Biblical figure David. Donatello was a master of many techniques, using a variety of materials, including marble and bronze, for his sculptures.

Reading Check What was the main focus of Renaissance visual artists?

Citizen Heroes

Cosimo de Medici

The support of wealthy city residents made possible the flowering of art during the Renaissance. One of the best- known supporters of art was Cosimo de Medici (KOH zee moh duh MED uh chee). As head of a powerful family in Florence, Cosimo de Medici paid for many art works and promoted the study of the Greek language.



Cosimo de Medici

Section 1 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.



Target Reading Skill

Explain the causes that brought about the Renaissance in Italy.



Comprehension and Critical Thinking

1.

(a) Recall What activity helped transform life in Italy in the late Middle Ages?



(b) Identify Cause and Effect What affect did the rise of cities have on feudal life in Italy?

2.

(a) Identify What was the major influence on writers of the Renaissance?



(b) Summarize How did the interest in Greek and Roman classical literature affect Renaissance authors?

3.

(a) Explain How did the focus of Italian artists change during the Renaissance?



(b) Analyze Images What details from Raphael's painting on page 432 illustrate the key features of Renaissance art?

Writing Activity

From the perspective of a person living in an Italian city-state at the start of the Renaissance, write a letter to a relative living somewhere in feudal Europe. Describe some of the changes you see taking place in the world around you.

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Section 2

The Renaissance Moves North

Prepare to Read

Objectives

In this section you will

1. Understand how the Renaissance spread from Italy to the north.

2. Identify key literary figures and ideas of the Northern Renaissance.

3. Identify key artists and artistic ideas of the Northern Renaissance.

Taking Notes

As you read, look for material that explains how Renaissance ideas spread and developed throughout Europe. Copy the graphic organizer below. Record your findings in it.



Target Reading Skill

Recognize Multiple Causes Historical events can be complicated; sometimes several factors cause an event to happen. As you read this section, identify the multiple reasons why the Renaissance spread to the North.

Key Terms

movable type (MOO vuh bul typ) n. individual letters and marks that can be arranged and rearranged quickly

The artisan's work was painstaking. At his bench was a block of wood. With great care, he carved away the surface. His task was to create a raised surface that could then be smeared with ink and pressed onto a flat material. What was the result of all this effort? It was a single page of a book.

In the mid-1400s, a German printer named Johannes Gutenberg (yoh HAHN us GOOT un burg) began work on a project that would create a new way of printing books. He would develop a system of movable type—individual letters and marks that could be arranged and rearranged quickly. Gutenberg also developed a printing press, a machine that used movable type to print pages. The availability of books would change the way information and ideas traveled in Europe and the world.



Movable type allowed printers to use the same letters for different pages.

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Renaissance Thought and Literature Spread

Over time, the changes that supported the birth of the Renaissance in Italy moved northward into western and northern Europe. Northern industry and trade expanded. The feudal and religious base of medieval society weakened. These changes were followed by changes in literature, art, and culture. Renaissance ideas, along with developments such as Gutenberg's printing methods, helped bring great change to the entire European continent.

As had happened in Italy, many scholars in northern and western Europe became interested in humanism. Renaissance thinkers throughout Europe applied the ideas of humanism to religious thinking, a movement called Christian humanism. These thinkers were concerned with the study of Christianity, rather than with the study of Greek and Roman texts. The leading figure of Christian humanism was Dutch-born Desiderius Erasmus (des uh DIHR ee us ih RAZ mus) (1466-1536).

Erasmus was a Roman Catholic priest. However, in one of his most famous works, In Praise of Folly, he mocked certain Church practices. These practices, he believed, had little to do with true faith. In fact, Erasmus thought that such practices often covered up corruption. Erasmus was also a leading scholar of Greek and Latin. His efforts had a powerful impact on education in Europe.

One of Erasmus's close friends was England's Sir Thomas More (sur TAHM us mawr). More was a lawyer. He may have been influenced by Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle. His famous work Utopia (yoo TOH pea uh) describes an ideal world that is based on Greek philosophy. By writing about this perfect place, More was actually pointing out problems he saw in his own world, such as divisions between people who were politically weak and others who were politically powerful.

Reading Check What did In Praise of Folly reveal about Erasmus's beliefs concerning many Church practices?

Gutenberg built this printing press to produce the Bible.

Recognize Multiple Causes

What are some of the causes that allowed Renaissance ideas to spread northward?

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Links to Art

Renaissance Architecture The Renaissance also affected architecture in Europe. Like artists and writers of the period, Renaissance architects drew ideas and forms from ancient Greece and Rome. For instance, medieval churches had been built in the shape of a cross. Now, architects designed buildings in a circular shape. In the ancient world, the circle—a simple, clean figure—represented the perfect shape.

The Globe Theater

The Globe, one of the public theaters in London during the Renaissance, saw the production of many of Shakespeare's plays. A modern staging of A Midsummer Night's Dream is pictured at right. Name What other Shakespeare plays do you know?



Literature of the Northern Renaissance

Many writers in northern and western Europe were influenced by new literary ideas developed during the Italian Renaissance. Like Petrarch and other Italian writers, these authors experimented with new ideas and unfamiliar literary forms.

Francois Rabelais (frahn SWAN rab uh LAY) of France was a devoted follower of Erasmus. Rabelais's best-known work is Gargantua and Pantagruel (gahr GAN choo uh and pan tuh groo EL), a tale that uses comedy to express the ideas of humanism.

A group of seven French poets known as the Pleiade (play YAD) applied ancient Greek and Roman forms to create new poetry in French. These poems focused on common themes, such as love and patriotism.

The spread of Renaissance ideas also brought new energy to poets in England. Sir Thomas Wyatt and the Earl of Surrey helped introduce a popular Italian form of poetry, the sonnet, to English audiences in the early 1500s.

England's best-known poet, William Shakespeare (WIL yum SHAYK spihr) (1564-1616), wrote at least 37 verse plays, many of them based on plots borrowed from ancient works. Shakespeare changed details of these ancient stories to appeal to the audiences of his day, and he created many memorable characters, including Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare's interest in the human character was a key feature of the Renaissance.



Reading Check What common theme was shared by many Renaissance writers in France and England?

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Art of the Northern Renaissance

Several artists in northern and western Europe distinguished themselves during the Renaissance. Flemish painter Jan van Eyck (yahn van yk), who lived in the early 1400s, was a master of realistic portraits. Van Eyck used multiple layers of oil paints to create rich visual effects. His bright colors and eye for realism show the details of everyday life in the region that is now part of Belgium and the Netherlands. He was only one of several well-known Renaissance painters from the Netherlands.

Germany's Albrecht Durer (AHL brekt DYOOR ur) (1471-1528) was a painter as well as a master of woodcuts and engravings. In the late 1400s, Durer visited Italy to see firsthand the work of Italian Renaissance masters. This visit had a deep impact on the young artist, whose work began to reflect the Italian style.

Durer was a person of wide interests. In the early 1500s, his work began to reflect events that were just then shaking the religious foundation of Europe. In the next lesson you will read about these events, which are known collectively as the Reformation.



Reading Check From which country did Jan Van Eyck come?

One of Van Eyck's most famous paintings, The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami

Section 2 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms listed at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.



Target Reading Skill

What caused the Renaissance to spread beyond Italy?



Comprehension and Critical Thinking

1.

(a) Explain What developments in Europe help explain why the Renaissance spread north from Italy?



(b) Synthesize Information Why did Renaissance developments in northern and eastern Europe lag behind those of Italy?

2.

(a) List Identify two literary figures of the Renaissance in western and northern Europe. (b) Summarize How would you summarize the spread of Renaissance literary ideas in western and northern Europe?



3.

(a) List Identify two artists who were part of the Northern Renaissance.

(b) Make Generalizations What features did the art of DŸrer and Van Eyck share with Italian Renaissance art?

Writing Activity

With a classmate, write a debate about whether the Renaissance in Italy was more spectacular than the Renaissance in northern and western Europe. Have one student argue in favor of Italy and the other argue in favor of northern and western Europe.

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Suppose that in order to create a new book, you had to copy every word by hand. Or you had to brush ink on individual letters and stamp each one on paper. Either process would be enormously time-consuming. There would be very few books in existence and limited ways for people to share knowledge and discoveries. The invention of the printing press around 1450 solved this problem. The printing press helped satisfy the great desire for learning and books fueled by the Renaissance.



The Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg, a German inventor, is credited with inventing the printing press. His press was adapted from machines used to press grapes. It used movable type—separate pieces of raised metal type that could be used again and again.

As he prepared to print, the printer took pieces of type, letter-by-letter, from a box, or type case. He then arranged the letters and screwed or tied them in place. He inked the type. Then he placed paper on the type. By turning a huge screw on the press, he brought down a wooden block against the paper to create a printed page.

If you entered a Renaissance print shop like the one shown in this illustration, you might see a highly skilled master printer and an apprentice, or student printer. A journeyman who had completed his apprenticeship and was qualified to work as a printer might also be there. The first books were literary and scientific works, as well as religious texts. Therefore, a scholar might also be present. His job was to advise on the accuracy of the texts.

An Early Bible

Artists decorated printed pages with bright colors and elaborate paintings and designs.

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Assessment

Explain Why was the printing press an important tool for spreading new ideas during the Renaissance?

Apply You may have used the stamping technique described on the opposite page in art class, perhaps carving letters or a design into a potato to use as a stamp. Compare this method of printing with using a printing press.

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Section 3

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Prepare to Read

Objectives

In this section you will

1. Understand the developments that led to the Reformation.

2. Learn about Luther's criticism of the Church 3. Understand the immediate effects of Luther's ideas in Europe.



Taking Notes

As you read, look for the effects of the Church's behavior. Copy the diagram below, and record your findings in it.



Target Reading Skill

Understand Effects A cause makes an effect happen. Sometimes a cause creates several effects. As you read this section, think of the behavior of the Church as a cause. What was the effect of this cause? Write the effects in your Taking Notes diagram.

Key Terms

indulgence (in DUL juns) n. an official pardon for a sin given by the pope in return for money

salvation (sal VAY shun) n. to go to heaven, in religious terms

Reformation (ref ur MAY shun) n. the term used to describe Luther's break with the Church and the movement it inspired



Reformers tried to stop Church abuses by distributing leaflets such as the one above.

The preacher was Johann Tetzel (YOH hahn Tet sul), and in return for a contribution to the Church, Tetzel said, a person could receive an indulgence. An indulgence allowed the buyer to escape punishment for sins. Moreover, Tetzel said, an indulgence could be used to help a loved one who had died. In vivid language, Tetzel told of the torment of the dead as they suffered for their sins. This suffering could be avoided, Tetzel suggested, for a small sum.

The granting of indulgences was not new in the Church. It had been taking place for centuries. In the early 1500s, the Church was trying to raise money for a glorious new church to be built in Rome. Tetzel was selling indulgences as part of this effort. However, attitudes towards this and other Church practices were changing. For a German monk named Martin Luther (MAHRT un LOO thur), Johann Tetzel's actions went too far.

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Differences Between Catholics and Protestants

This German woodcut from the Reformation visually expresses religious conflicts. Critical Thinking Note the details in the two halves of the woodcut. Which half represents Protestants and which represents Catholics?



The Church at the Time of Luther

As you have read, the Church had been at the very heart of medieval European life. In fact, during the medieval period, the Church had become one of the most powerful political institutions in Europe. It carried out wars and made alliances with other states. Its leader, the Pope, was a major public figure. His power was very like that of a king. Often, it seemed that the Church was involved as much in the affairs of the world as in questions of faith.

You have read about Erasmus and other humanist writers of the Renaissance. Many of these thinkers called attention to the changes in the Church. They observed that Church leaders had, in some cases, lost sight of the Church's main purpose—to guide people's religious life.

In the early 1500s, one of those who was dissatisfied with the Church was a monk named Martin Luther. For several years, Luther had struggled with his belief in Church teachings. For example, he was troubled by the Church's belief in the importance of doing good works as a way to get to heaven.

It was while Luther was struggling with these questions that Johann Tetzel began his campaign to sell indulgences. When Luther heard of Tetzel's efforts, he became angry. He decided to issue an official criticism to the Church.

Reading Check How did the Church's great power lead to criticism of the Church during the Renaissance?

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Understand Effects

In this section, you have read about Luther's criticisms of the Church. What effects did Luther's criticisms have on the Church? How did Church leaders respond to his actions and statements?



The portrait above shows a quiet Martin Luther, but in the illustration to the right, members of the upper class look on as Luther posts his Ninety-Five Theses.

Luther Starts the Reformation

In October 1517, Luther wrote a document in which he challenged the Church on the issue of indulgences. This document featured 95 theses, or arguments. Luther posted his Ninety- Fives Theses on the Church door at Wittenberg, Germany.

Church officials tried to silence Luther. Luther responded by widening his criticism of the Church. For example, he argued that people could achieve salvation through faith alone. Salvation, in religious terms, means to go to heaven. This differed from Church teachings on the importance of doing good works. Luther also challenged the role of priests. In Church teachings, only a priest could perform certain Church rituals. Wrote Luther, A priest ... is nothing else than an officeholder?'

Luther also challenged the authority of the pope to rule on religious matters. He said that the Bible was the only true authority. If the pope's teachings did not follow the Bible, Luther said, people could disobey the pope.

Luther's ideas outraged Church officials. They tried to force German officials to have Luther punished. Luther refused to take back what he had said and written. "Here I stand, may God help me. Amen," he said.

In 1521 the Church succeeded in having Luther labeled an outlaw in Germany. However, Luther's popularity was growing, and his ideas were spreading quickly. The judgment against him was never enforced.



Reading Check What did Luther say was the final authority in religious matters?

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The Reformation Succeeds

The Reformation is the term to describe Luther's break with the Church and the movement it inspired. This movement continued in the 1520s.

There are many reasons for the Reformation's success. Many Germans were attracted to Luther's teachings. Some nobles resented the pope and the power of Rome. They welcomed a break with the Church. The poor were encouraged by what they saw as Luther's message of equality. In the 1520s, German peasants rose in revolt. They were disappointed when Luther spoke out against them. He believed that people should respect authority in nonreligious matters.

Still, Lutheranism (LOO thur un iz um), as the movement was called, took hold in many parts of Germany. It also spread to other parts of Europe, including Sweden and Norway. In 1555 the Church of Rome finally gave in. With the Peace of Augsburg (peas uv AWGS burg), Lutherans won the right to practice their religion.

The Peace of Augsburg did not end the Reformation. In the next section, you will read about how Reformation ideas affected other parts of Europe.

Reading Check Why were peasants drawn to Luther's teachings?

In the painting above, German princes in 1530 present Emperor Charles V with the Augsburg Confession, in which Philip Melanchthon tried to present Lutheran theology in a form that Roman Catholics could accept. His attempt failed.

Section 3 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.



Target Reading Skill

What effect did Martin Luther's teachings have on religion in Europe?



Comprehension and Critical Thinking

1.

(a) Explain What was the role of the Church in European life in the Renaissance?



(b) Draw Inferences Why do you think the political power of the pope and Church officials troubled many people in Europe?

2.

(a) Identify What action by Johann Tetzel upset Luther and led to the Ninety-Five Theses?



(b) Synthesize Information Which of Luther's key complaints against the Church did the selling of indulgences represent?

3.

(a) Recall What happened to Luther after he was declared an outlaw in Germany?



(b) Analyze Information Why do you think the movement started by Martin Luther is known as the Reformation?

Writing Activity

The year is 1520. Write a memo to the pope, summarizing the events taking place in Germany. Briefly trace the story behind Martin Luther and his ideas. Explain how these ideas differ from Church teachings.

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Skills for Life

Identifying a Point of View

Karen, the leader of the student chorus, got right to the point during the planning meeting. "A lot of people would come out to see a spring musical," she said. "We have a number of strong singers, and we had very good attendance at our holiday musical."

"I don't know," replied Jason. "Some of the students who want to be in a spring play aren't involved in chorus, and some of us who are in chorus would rather act than sing."

Sandra, chairperson of the school theater committee, had to decide whether their class should put on a musical or a play in the spring.

After thinking all afternoon about what Karen and Jason had said, Sandra realized that Karen really wanted to do a spring musical, but that Jason preferred to put on a play. She would have to decide between their points of view.

Identifying point of view helps you understand different viewpoints and make judgments about them.



Learn the skill

Use the steps below to identify point of view.

1. Consider what you know about the background of each speaker and how that background might affect the speaker's viewpoint. Sandra knew that Karen wanted to do another musical in the spring, but she also knew that Jason and other students would rather act than sing.

2. Consider facts and other evidence that the speakers give to support their points of view. Karen used the attendance at the holiday musical as a reason for a spring musical. Jason gave the example of students who would rather act than sing.

3. Identify and explain each speaker's point of view, basing your conclusions on what you know about the speaker and the evidence that the speaker gives. Sandra knew that Karen supported a spring musical because Karen enjoyed singing and that Jason preferred a spring play because he wanted to include students who weren't involved in chorus.

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In this painting, Martin Luther is shown defending himself to Charles V at the Diet of Worms.

Practice the Skill

Reread The Church at the Time of Luther and Luther Starts the Reformation in Section 3 of this chapter. Then use the steps above to identify different points of view.

1. Answer these questions to help you identify the backgrounds of speakers: Who was Martin Luther? How did Catholic Church leaders live at this time?

2. Consider the facts and other evidence given about the points of view expressed. State your ideas in this form: "X said he believed Y because ... " For example, "Church officials believed that Martin Luther should be declared an outlaw because he challenged their power."

3. From the questions you have answered and the statements you have written, what is each side's point of view?

Apply the Skill

Turn to Section 4 of this chapter and read the passage titled The Reformation After Luther. Use the steps in this skill to identify the points of view of various Protestant groups, such as the Calvinists, Zwinglians, and Anabaptists.

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Section 4

Reformation Ideas Spread

Prepare to Read

Objectives

In this section you will

1. Learn that Luther was the first of several religious reformers.

2. Identify other religious movements of the 1500s in Europe.

3. Understand how the Catholic Church responded to the Reformation.

Taking Notes

As you read, look for ways that the Reformation inspired new religious groups and changed the Catholic Church. Copy the diagram below, and record your findings in it.



Target Reading Skill

Recognize Cause-and-Effect Signal Words Causes and effects follow one another in a certain sequence. This section contains information about the spread of Reformation ideas. To help keep the order of events clear, look for words and phrases like so, suddenly, finally, for this reason, and as a result. These terms signal the relationship between a cause and its effects.

Key Terms

Protestant (PRAHT us tunt) adj. refers to Christian groups that separated from the Catholic church



A portrait of Henry VIII by Dutch painter Hans Hobein the Younger

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Henry VIII, King of England, was unhappy. He wanted very much to have a male child to inherit his throne. He and his wife, Catherine, had only one surviving child, a girl. So Henry decided that it was time to marry another woman. First, however, he needed the Church of Rome to officially end his marriage to Catherine. The pope refused Henry's request.

Henry had always been a strong supporter of the Church. In 1521 he had written an attack on Martin Luther's ideas. In response, the pope had given Henry the title of Defender of the Faith. Now, however, Henry attacked the Church and its practices. Still, the Church would not end his marriage. Finally, in 1534, Henry officially broke from the Catholic Church and became the head of a new church— the Church of England. Suddenly, the people of England were part of the Reformation.

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The Reformation After Luther

Many people in Europe adopted Martin Luther's ideas in the mid-1500s and several other Protestant groups appeared. Protestant refers to Christians who separated from the Catholic Church.

John Calvin began his preaching in the 1530s in Switzerland. He believed that faith alone could win salvation and that God had determined long ago who would be saved, a belief known as predestination.

Also from Switzerland came Ulrich Zwingli (ool rik ZWING lee). His church was formed in the 1520s. Zwinglians (ZWING lee unz) believed that the Bible contained all religious truth.

The Anabaptists (an uh BAP tists) also formed at this time. They did not believe in the baptism of infants. Only older people, they argued, could have the faith that this religious practice required.

Reading Check Where did the Zwinglians first appear?

MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Movement This map shows how Reformation ideas and groups spread across Europe in the 1500s. List The map identifies the major Protestant groups that existed in Europe around 1600. List these groups. Making Generalizations In what part of Europe did the Reformation fail to weaken the hold of the Catholic Church?

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Recognize Cause-and-Effect Signal Words

Which words signal the effect of the Reformation on the Church?



The Council of Trent addressed the abuses that prompted the Reformation, but it did not reunite the Church.

The Catholic Church Reforms

The Reformation was a significant challenge to the Church of Rome. As you have read, much of Europe was swept up in the Reformation. As a result, the Church carried out its own reforms in the mid-1500s. These helped the Church survive and regain strength in much of Europe. The initial reforms of Luther and others became known as the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church's reforms were called the Catholic Reformation.

One key development of the Catholic Reformation was the establishment of the Society of Jesus in 1540. This was a religious order, or group, led by Ignatius Loyola (ig NAY shus loy OH luh). The Jesuits (JEZH oo its), as they came to be called, worked tirelessly to educate people and spread the Catholic faith. Their efforts helped build Church strength in southern Europe.

The Catholic Church was also strengthened by Paul III, who became pope in 1534. Paul III helped focus the Church on many of the abuses that had led to the Reformation. These included corrupt practices among the clergy. In 1542 Paul III called for a meeting now known as the Council of Trent. This meeting helped return the Church's focus to matters of religion and spirituality.



Reading Check What was the function of the Jesuits?

Section 4 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.



Target Reading Skill

Reread the description of Henry VIII's break with the Church of Rome. Which words signal the cause-and-effect relationship that led to the founding of the Church of England?



Comprehension and Critical Thinking

1.

(a) Explain How did the Reformation develop following Luther's break with the Church?



(b) Draw Conclusions Why did other reformers follow Luther?

2.

(a) List Name three religious reformers who established a Protestant faith in Europe.



(b) Compare What basic idea did the Protestant reformers share?

3.

(a) Explain How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?



(b) Summarize How did the Jesuits help the Catholic Church?

Writing Activity

Summarize the Reformation in Europe in the mid-1500s. Explain key features of the groups, and identify the places in which the new movements were strongest.

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Chapter 15 Review and Assessment

Chapter Summary

Section 1: The Renaissance Begins

• The Renaissance began in Italy because Italy's geography encouraged trade and the development of large trade cities.

• Ancient ideas inspired humanism and helped transform the literature of Italy.

• Renaissance art flourished as new techniques helped artists produce works of great beauty.



Section 2: The Renaissance Moves North

• Renaissance ideas spread northward from Italy into the rest of Europe.

• Key literary figures of the Renaissance in northern and western Europe included Francois Rabelais and William Shakespeare.

• Renaissance art in northern Europe was led by masters such as Jan van Eyck and Albrecht Durer.



Section 3: Martin Luther and the Reformation

• Martin Luther opposed such Roman Catholic Church practices as the selling of indulgences.

• Luther's challenge to Church authority and teaching touched off the Reformation.

• In spite of Church opposition, Lutheran ideas spread to many parts of Europe.



Section 4: Reformation Ideas Spread

• Other Protestant reformers followed Martin Luther in breaking with the Roman Catholic Church.

• The Catholic Church responded to the Reformation with reforms of its own.

Key Terms

Each of the statements below contains a key term from the chapter. If the statement is true, write "true." If it is false, rewrite the statement to make it true.

1. The Reformation began in Italy, which was a center of commerce

2. All Protestants were alike in that they opposed certain beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church

3. Humanists believed that the ideas and values of the ancient world were corrupt.

4. Martin Luther believed that a person could achieve salvation through faith alone.

5. Erasmus was best known for his development of movable type, which helped make possible the large-scale printing of books.

6. Luther was a firm believer in the practice of selling indulgences.

7. Renaissance art featured an interest in realistic depiction of the human form.

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Comprehension and Critical Thinking

8.

(a) List List some of the accomplishments of Leonardo da Vinci.



(b) Synthesize Information Why is da Vinci considered a true example of a Renaissance artist and thinker?

9.

(a) Recall What was the Renaissance?



(b) Identify Cause and Effect How did Italy's location help shape its economic life at the start of the Renaissance?

10.


(a) List Name two Renaissance writers from northern or western Europe.

(b) Identify Frame of Reference How did William Shakespeare's work reflect Renaissance ideas?

11.

(a) Recall When did Luther first begin to question Catholic teachings and practices?



(b) Draw Inferences Why was Luther's idea that scriptures were the final authority in religious matters so radical?

12.


(a) Recall How did the Church respond to Luther's challenges?

(b) Identify Cause and Effect How did Luther's popularity in Germany change after his challenge of the Roman Catholic Church?

13.

(a) Explain What was Henry VIII's reason for breaking with the Church?



(b) Draw Inferences What can you infer about Henry VIII's views of Church teachings?

Skills Practice

Identifying Point of View In the Skills for Life activity, you learned how to identify point of view. Review the steps you follow to use this skill. Reread the Citizen Heroes passage in Section 1 about Cosimo de Medici. Use what you read and your own thinking to identify de Medici's view of the changes that Renaissance ideas brought to Italy.

Writing Activity: Art

You are an art critic in Italy during the Renaissance. Artists of the day are painting pictures that are amazingly realistic; for example, round objects look round. The technique these artists use is called perspective. Research and write a brief report on this technique. Explain how an artist can make a flat surface look "deep."



MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Place Location For each place listed below, write the letter that indicates its location on the map.

1. Republic of Florence

2. Republic of Venice

3. Rome


4. Pisa

5. Florence

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Standardized Test Prep

Test-Taking Tips

Some questions on standardized tests ask you to find main ideas. Read the paragraph below. Then follow the tips to answer the sample question.

The Renaissance supported a spirit of adventure and a wide-ranging curiosity that led people to explore new worlds. The Italian navigator Christopher Columbus represented that spirit. So did Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish scientist who revolutionized the way people viewed the universe. Renaissance writers and artists, eager to experiment with new forms, also demonstrated that adventurous spirit.

TIP As you read the passage, identify its main ideas, or most important points.

Choose the statement that best reflects the main idea.

TIP Look for a key word in the question or answer choices that connects to the paragraph. In this case, the word is curiosity.

This passage shows that—

A art influenced science

B curiosity led to new ways of thinking and exploration.

C exploration inspired curiosity.

D exploration led to adventure.



Think It Through Start with the main idea—the curious nature of Renaissance thinkers encouraged changes in science, art, and exploration. You can link this idea to the key word, curiosity. You can rule out A and D, which do not discuss curiosity. C is a statement linking exploration to curiosity, but the statement does not reflect main point of the passage. The correct answer is B.

Practice Questions

Use the tips above and other tips in this book to help you answer the following questions.

1. How did the growth of Italian cities at the dawn of the Renaissance affect the feudal system?

A The growth of cities strengthened feudal power.

B The growth of cities weakened feudal power.

C The growth of cities forced nobles to fight one another.

D The growth of cities expanded the feudal system into a city environment.


2. Which of the following was one of Luther's central Reformation ideas?

A The Jesuits should spread religious faith.

B Infants should not be baptized.

C Women should be allowed into the priesthood.

D Faith, not good works, was the key to salvation.
Use the passage below to answer question 3.

"Dare we believe, my brothers, that St. Benedict had such expensive horses and mules as we now see many a [Church official] possess? Certainly not!"

3. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of this passage?

A St. Benedict should have had better horses.

B The Church is much better off today than it was during the Renaissance.

C Church officials live too well and should follow the example of St. Benedict.



D Expensive horses are better than expensive mules

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