Germany. This classroom is in a high school in what was once East Berlin.
Germany's People, Cities, and Future
Germany has more than 83 million people. It has more people than any other country in Western Europe. The Germans are hard workers who feel proud when they do good work. But they also try to enjoy life. They enjoy good food. They also like to sing and dance with friends. Education is important to Germans. All children spend at least nine years in school.
Most Germans live in cities. Most cities have excellent subways and other transportation. Germans are very proud of Berlin. It has the largest department store in all of Europe. Berlin also has a special museum about the Berlin Wall. Hamburg is a large northern port. Munich, in the south, has many theaters and museums.
Dachau is a city near Munich. Many Jews were killed there during World War II. During the war the Germans tried to kill all the Jews of Europe. The killing of Jews and other groups of people during the war is called the Holocaust. By the end of the war, six million Jews had been killed. Dachau has a museum that teaches about the Holocaust.
Germany is a rich country but it must solve some big problems. Many immigrants have moved to Germany. There are not enough jobs for them.
Unemployment is a problem in Germany today. The country does not have enough houses for all of its people. Pollution is another big problem. Factories have caused air pollution. River water has also become very dirty from all the factories. Germans are working to solve these problems. They want Germany to continue to be a great industrial country.
Chapter Main Ideas
1. Germany was divided into two countries after World War II. In 1990 unification made Germany one country again.
2. Germany is an industrial leader. But it must import food and raw materials.
3. Pollution and unemployment are problems in Germany today.
A highway in Germany
Katarina Witt (Born 1965) Katarina Witt grew up in East Germany. She started ice-skating when she was five years old. The East Germans believed young Katarina could be an Olympic winner. So Communist leaders paid the country's best coach to train her. In 1984 Witt skated in the Olympic Games. She won a gold medal for East Germany. Four years later she won a second gold medal at the Olympics. The Communists rewarded her with cars and apartments.
Witt made many Germans angry when she spoke out against unification. Yet her life changed after unification. Witt could now decide for herself when or where she would skate. She was able to earn much more money. In 1992 Witt skated in the Olympics again. She skated for a united Germany, but she did not win a medal. Witt continues to skate in ice shows in Germany, the United States, and in other countries.
Write a paragraph in your journal about Katarina Witt. Tell how Katarina's life changed after the unification of Germany.
USING WHAT YOU’VE LEARNED
Find the Meaning Write the word or words that best complete each sentence on the blank lines.
1. When Germany was defeated in 1945, Germany had
won the war
lost the war
built new cities
2. A national anthem is a for your country.
song of praise
3. The unification of Germany means the country became
4. The chancellor is the of Germany.
5. Currency is the used by a country.
Read and Remember
Write the Answer Write one or more sentences to answer each question.
1. How was Germany divided after World War II?
2. How was the city of Berlin divided?
3. Why did many East Germans want to go to West Berlin?
4. Why did Communists in East Germany build the Berlin Wall?
5. When did Germany become a united country again?
6. Why was unification hard for the German people?
7. What is the main landform in southern Germany?
8. What are some products that are made in German factories?
9. What must Germany import?
10. What are two problems in Germany today?
Think and Apply
Sequencing Write the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 next to these sentences to show the correct order.
Germans voted for Helmut Kohl to lead a united Germany. Germany attacked Poland and World War II began.
The Berlin Wall was torn down.
After Germany was defeated in World War II, the Soviet Union started a Communist government in East Germany.
Communists built the Berlin Wall in 1961.
Imagine that you were a German who lived in East Berlin in 1989. Write a paragraph that tells what you would have done after the Berlin Wall was torn down.
Reading a Political Map
A political map helps you learn about countries. The map key on a political map uses symbols to show borders, cities, rivers, and other places.
Study the political map and its map key. Then answer each question.
1. What three countries are to the east of Germany?
2. What seas are north of Germany?
3. What city in Germany is in the east?
4. What city in Germany is in the south?
5. What two countries are to the south of Germany?
6. What city is in northern Germany?
7. What countries are west of Germany?
8. Name three rivers in Germany.