Chapter 15 battle cries and freedom songs: the civil war 1861–1865 Chapter Summary

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Chapter 15


THE CIVIL WAR 1861–1865
Chapter Summary
Chapter 15 offers an overview of the Civil War. Special emphasis is given to the relative advantages and disadvantages of each side on the eve of war; the capabilities and limitations of Presidents Lincoln and Davis; each side’s military strategies and attitudes about the length and nature of the war; the major battles of the years from 1861 to 1863; the events culminating in Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation; the impact of the Civil War on the economy, political life, and social life (particularly gender roles, race relations, and faith) in the Union and the Confederacy; the military accomplishments of Grant and Sherman during 1864 and 1865; and an assessment of the overall impact of the war on the United States.
I. Mobilization, North and South

A. War Fever

B. The North’s Advantage in Resources

C. Leaders, Governments, and Strategies

  1. Jefferson Davis and the South

D. Abraham Lincoln and the North

E. Lincoln’s fight for the border states

1. Strategies and tactics

F. The Southern Landscape

II. The Early War, l861–l862

A. First Bull Run

B. The War in the West

1. The Real War

D. The War in the East
III. Turning Points, l862–l863

A. The Naval War and the Diplomatic War

B. Antietam

C. Emancipation

  1. The Emancipation Proclamation

  2. “Stealing” freedom

  3. Black troops in the Union Army

D. From Fredericksburg to Gettysburg

  1. Fredericksburg

  2. Chancellorsville

  3. Gettysburg

E. Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the West

  1. Vicksburg

  2. Chattanooga

  3. The war in the Trans-Mississippi West

IV. War Transforms the North

A. Wartime Legislation and Politics

  1. Suppressing dissent

  2. Creating a national economy

  3. Conscription and the draft riots

B. The Northern Economy

C. Trade Unions and Strikebreakers

  1. Profiteers and corruption

D. Northern Women and the War
V. The Confederacy Disintegrates

A. Southern Politics

B. Southern Faith

C. The Southern Economy

D. Southern Women and the War
VI. The Union Prevails, 1864–1865

A. Grant’s Plan to End the War

  1. From the Wilderness to Cold Harbor

  2. Atlanta

B. The Election of 1864 and Sherman’s March

  1. The Republican victory

  2. Sherman’s march to the sea

  3. Lincoln’s second inaugural

  4. Arming the Confederacy’s slaves

C. The Road to Appomattox and the Death of Lincoln

  1. The surrender at Appomattox

  2. The death of Lincoln

VII. Conclusion

Learning Objectives

After a careful examination of Chapter 15, students should be able to answer the following:

1. What were the North’s key advantages at the outset of the war?
2. How did the two sides’ objectives dictate their strategies in the early years of the war?
3. What convinced Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation?
4. What impact did the war have on the North’s economy?
5. How did the war affect civilian life in the South?
6. What was Grant’s strategy for ending the war?

Chapter 15: Battle Cries and Freedom Songs: The Civil War, 1861–1865

Multiple Choice

Mobilization, North and South

  1. Which state did NOT pull out of the Union when President Lincoln called for troops?

  1. Before the first battle of the Civil War, most people on both sides thought:

  1. Which statement would have been made by Stephen Douglas in the early days of the war?

  1. In the spring of 1862, the Confederacy:

  1. All of the following were advantages for the North EXCEPT:

  1. The Confederate economy was especially hurt by:

  1. President Lincoln earned an early political and military advantage when:

  1. This state’s strategic position north of Washington, D.C. made it vital for the Union cause.

  1. Several counties in the western part of ___________ supported the Union and eventually became the 35th state.

  1. Which of the following states initially joined the Confederacy?

  1. What flaw existed in the Confederacy’s strategy for victory?

  1. During the Civil War, ________ occupied Mexico.

THE EARLY WAR, 1861–1862

  1. A major outcome of the First Battle of Bull Run was:

  1. In the West, General Ulysses S. Grant employed the wise strategy of:

  1. Union victories in the West gave them key strategic control of:

  1. When Joseph Johnston was badly wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines, he was replaced by:


  1. President Lincoln understood that emancipation of African-American slaves would:

  1. The bloodiest single day of fighting in American history occurred at:

  1. Despite McClellan’s timid Union attacks, Antietam was a major turning point because:

  1. The Emancipation Proclamation:

  1. The Confiscation Act of 1862:

  1. The Emancipation Proclamation:

  2. At the Battle of Fredericksburg:

  1. Which statement about the Battle of Chancellorsville is NOT true?

  1. The Confederates accidentally met Union forces when they went to confiscate shoes at:

  1. General Meade correctly guessed that the Confederates’ attack on day three at Gettysburg:

  1. The result of Pickett’s Charge was:

  1. The Union captured Vicksburg by


  1. President Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus for the purpose of:

  1. Copperheads were:

  1. The Homestead Act:

  1. The New York Draft Riot:

  1. During the Civil War, the northern economy:

  1. During the Civil War, women in the North:


  1. Members of the Order of the Heroes of America:

  1. A major problem in the South during the years of 1863–1865 was:

  1. Early in the war, southern women:


  1. Who did President Lincoln name as commander of all Union forces in March, 1864?

  1. General Grant’s effective strategy for winning the war was based on:

  1. All of the following statements about the Battle of the Wilderness are true except:

  1. Many of General Grant’s victories in Virginia were characterized by:

  1. Early in the Atlanta campaign, William T. Sherman refused to make the mistake of:

  1. Effects of the Union’s takeover of Atlanta included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. After the election of 1864, the Republicans:

  1. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution outlawed:

  1. Confederate defeats at the battles of Franklin and Nashville:

  1. Sherman’s March ended in:

  1. General Lee surrendered his army to General Grant at the courthouse in:

  1. The last army surrendered by the Confederacy was:

  1. Confederate General Johnston realized that the assassination of Abraham Lincoln:

  1. John Wilkes Booth:


  1. Which event happened last?

a. Confiscation Act

b. Seven Days’ Battles

c. Battle of Antietam

d. Emancipation Proclamation

  1. Which event happened last?

a. the assassination of President Lincoln

b. Atlanta falls

c. Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse

d. Charleston surrenders

  1. The Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution was passed by Congress in:

  1. Which of the following battles occurred in 1861?

a. Chancellorsville

b. Antietam

c. First Battle of Bull Run

d. Fredericksburg

  1. Which of the following events occurred in 1864?

a. Sherman captures Atlanta

b. Battle of Gettysburg

c. Emancipation Proclamation takes effect

d. New York Draft Riot

Short Essays

  1. How did the North and South’s strategies for victory differ?

  1. How did class antagonisms come to the forefront of draft policies in both the North and South?

  1. What were General Grant’s strategies for winning the war in the East?

  1. What events show that people from both the North and South were becoming weary of the Civil War’s devastating effects?

  1. What characterized Sherman’s March to the Sea?

Extended Essays

  1. How did the Union and Confederacy compare in terms of resources, leadership, and military strategies in the period 1861–1863?

  1. In what ways were the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg turning points in the Civil War?

  1. How did Ulysses S. Grant show that he, more than any other Union general, understood how to defeat the Confederacy? What key victories did he gain in the period of 1861–1863?

  1. What evidence reveals that, in 1861 and 1862, Confederate generals were consistently outwitting their Union opponents?

  1. What important effects did the Emancipation Proclamation have on both the Union and Confederate causes?

  1. What were the vital factors that led to a Union victory in the Civil War?

  1. Some historians view the 1864 presidential election as one of the most important elections in American history. Why?

  1. Analyze the immediate effects of the Civil War. What was accomplished and what problems persisted?

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