Chapter 14 Test (Part I) Name: Date



Download 174.3 Kb.
Date02.06.2016
Size174.3 Kb.


Chapter 14 Test (Part I)

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________


Use the following to answer questions 1-13: Write the letter of the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.



a. pluralism

b. Edict of Nantes

c. anticlericalism

d. penance

e. indulgence

f. Protestant

g. transubstantiation

h. purgatory

i. Huguenots

___1.

The official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy.


___2.

Moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.


___3.

Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.


___4.

The name originally given to Lutherans, which came to mean all non-Catholic Western Christian groups.


___5.

Members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith.


___6.

The teaching that God has determined the salvation or damnation of individuals based on his will and purpose, not on their merit of works.


___7.

The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

___8.

The clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each.

___9.

French Calvinists.


___10.

A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins.


___11.

The fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 against England as a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.


___12.

A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.


___13.

Opposition to the clergy.

j. iconoclasm

k. The Institutes of the Christian Religion

l. predestination

m. politiques

n. Jesuits

o. Holy Office

p. Spanish Armada



q. Union of Utrecht

Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer.


___ 12.

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the conflict known as the

a)

Wars of the Roses.

b)

Hundred Years' War.

c)

Habsburg-Valois Wars.

d)

Thirty Years' War.

e)

War of the Spanish Succession.




___ 13.

In the early sixteenth century, anticlericalism focused primarily on all of the following issues except

a)

the immorality of priests who were drunkards and neglected the rule of celibacy.

b)

the ignorance of priests who were barely literate and merely mumbled the Mass in memorized Latin.

c)

the pluralism of clerics who held several different church offices and collected their revenues.

d)

the heresy of priests who preached messages contrary to church doctrine.

e)

the absenteeism of clerics who seldom visited the regions or religious houses under their authority.




___ 14.

Which of the following best describes Martin Luther's doctrine of salvation?

a)

Salvation came through faith in God and works that demonstrated that faith.

b)

Salvation came through the performance of the Holy Sacraments.

c)

Salvation came through God's predestined selection of those he chose to save.

d)

Salvation came through faith alone as a free gift of God's grace.

e)

Salvation came through priestly intercession with God on behalf of the sinner.

___ 15.

What aided Martin Luther as his call for reform emerged?

a)

Luther did not need political support and, therefore, was able to develop his ideas without political interference.

b)

Luther understood the power of the new printing press and authorized the publication of his works.

c)

Luther led a unified reform movement that was able to coordinate its actions in several different territories and kingdoms.

d)

Luther's status as a nobleman brought him respect and legitimacy that he could use to defend his ideas.

e)

Luther's friendship with the pope offered him protection from his religious enemies during the crucial early years of the Reform movement.


___ 16.

How did Luther benefit from his appearance before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms?

a)

Luther obtained permission to continue to call for reform as long as he remained loyal to papal authority.

b)

Luther gained a larger audience for his reform ideas, and others began to challenge the church's teachings and practices.

c)

Luther guaranteed the personal protection of the emperor for the rest of his life as long as he remained within imperial lands.

d)

Luther was granted permission to call for church reform of institutional corruption as long as he accepted official papal doctrine.

e)

Luther was granted permission to challenge church teachings as long as he remained submissive to the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor.




___ 17.

The Colloquy of Marburg

a)

failed to resolve the differences among Protestants on the issue of the Eucharist.

b)

established the basic tenants of Catholic reform in opposition to the Protestant Reform movement.

c)

created the basic tenets of Calvinism that could then be adopted to specific national contexts.

d)

required all Protestants to adopt a common reformed liturgy and standards for clerical behavior.

e)

identified Luther's teachings as heretical and called for the elimination of all who embraced his ideas.




___ 18.

The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre led to

a)

the end of Protestant power in France.

b)

new efforts to bring civil order to France.

c)

a lengthy civil war.

d)

an international peace conference.

e)

a new spirit of cooperation between Protestants and Catholics.




___ 19.

Luther believed that the church consisted of

a)

the entire body of clergy.

b)

the elect.

c)

all those who supported his views.

d)

the saints and Christ, not human beings.

e)

the entire community of Christian believers.




___ 20.

Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany

a)

appealed to the national sentiment of German princes.

b)

were met with dismay by the ruling elite.

c)

led to administrative reform in the empire.

d)

found an audience only among the peasantry.

e)

are generally considered paranoid by modern historians.




___ 21.

How did the choice to embrace or reject the Reform movement occur in a territory or region in the Holy Roman Empire?

a)

Individual parishes selected their leaders, who would decide whether to reform the parish.

b)

Local religious councils determined whether or not to embrace reform.

c)

Individual priests decided whether or not to embrace the Reform movement and introduce new doctrines and practices.

d)

Individual Christians responded to the call for reform and then required local religious officials to adopt the Reform movement.

e)

The political leader(s) of the territory or region determined whether to introduce reforms.




___ 22.

Why did Protestants allow the dissolution of marriages in divorce?

a)

Protestants believed that individuals were responsible for their own salvation. and therefore should be allowed the choice to stay in a marriage or not.

b)

Protestants viewed marriage as a contract for mutual support, and married partners who failed to provide support endangered their souls and the entire community.

c)

Protestants believed that the “priesthood of all believers” required that all be treated equally before the law to make decisions about their marriages.

d)

Protestants viewed marriage as a temporary arrangement in this world that had no significance for the afterlife.

e)

Protestants believed the right to divorce in marriage was the equivalent of the idea of spiritual free will.




___ 23.

As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany

a)

remained Catholics.

b)

were able to practice the religion of their choice.

c)

converted to Lutheranism.

d)

became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince.

e)

threw off the papal yoke.




___ 24.

Luther viewed celibacy as

a)

opposed to human nature and God's commandments.

b)

the ideal act of spiritual devotion.

c)

required for all Lutheran pastors.

d)

a gift only the spiritually mature could enjoy.

e)

undermining efforts to expand population.




___ 25.

How did the closing of the monasteries and convents affect upper-class women?

a)

Upper-class women were freed from the numerous restraints of convent life.

b)

Marriage became virtually the only occupation for upper-class women.

c)

Upper-class women were able to participate in art and literature, which were denied to them in the convent.

d)

Families were forced to take over the care and support of women who had no productive role.

e)

Upper-class women were able to take administrative abilities developed in the monasteries into the royal courts and bureaucracies.




___ 26.

Why did Elizabeth I have her cousin and heir Mary, Queen of Scots, executed?

a)

Mary became implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.

b)

Elizabeth executed Mary to demonstrate the consequences of supporting Catholicism.

c)

Mary had married Philip II of Spain against Elizabeth's wishes.

d)

Elizabeth resented Mary's beauty and ability to dominate men.

e)

Mary had led Scottish troops against England in order to seize the throne.




___ 27.

Why did John Calvin reject the idea of human free will?

a)

Human free will would undermine the idea of human sinfulness.

b)

Human free will would eliminate the idea of the divine right of kings.

c)

Human free will would detract from the sovereignty of God.

d)

Human free will would undermine the need for the crucifixion of Christ.

e)

Human free will would detract from the authority of the church.




___ 28.

Martin Luther's first response to the Peasants' War was

a)

a call to the nobles to crush the peasants.

b)

to undertake penance for the peasants' sins.

c)

a call for peasants and nobles to unite in a crusade against the Turks.

d)

a call for the confiscation of Catholic nobles' estates.

e)

to side with the peasants.




___ 29.

The Consistory was

a)

a body of laymen and pastors who led Geneva.

b)

the intellectual leaders of the Reformation.

c)

those individuals chosen for salvation.

d)

all Protestants.

e)

the elected ministers of the church.




___ 30.

How did the Calvinists understand the idea of work or labor?

a)

Work was the consequence of sin entering the world; it marked the shame of humankind.

b)

Hard work, well done, was pleasing to God, and all work with a religious aspect was dignified.

c)

Work marked the duty to which God called the unlearned, freeing the superior minds to contemplation.

d)

Hard work was the duty of criminals and non-Christians so that Christians could pursue holiness.

e)

All were called to hard work in fields in order to keep them in contact with God's creation.




___ 31.

Why did most ordinary Poles oppose the Lutheran reform movement?

a)

They were exempt from most church taxes.

b)

They saw the Catholic Church as a counterweight to the power of the Polish monarchy.

c)

They believed themselves specially selected by God to preserve the Catholic faith.

d)

They held strong anti-German feelings.

e)

They opposed the idea of the priesthood of all believers.




___ 32.

The Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to a

a)

mood of fatalism among Calvin's followers.

b)

withdrawal from the world of business and politics.

c)

mass exodus from the city of Geneva.

d)

fashion for astrology.

e)

confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation.




___ 33.

In Hungary, Lutheranism was

a)

embraced by the high nobility as attacking their clerical rivals.

b)

destroyed by Turks when they seized control of the realm.

c)

rejected by nearly all people as a heresy of the hated Germans.

d)

widely adopted as a symbols of anti-Habsburg sentiment.

e)

spread by Hungarian students who had studied at the University of Wittenberg.




___ 34.

The dissolution of the English monasteries

a)

resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth.

b)

resulted in a more equitable distribution of land.

c)

deeply disturbed the English upper classes.

d)

was the result of rebellious activities by the monks.

e)

was reversed by Elizabeth I.




___ 35.

How widespread was the influence of the Inquisition?

a)

The Inquisition was filled with internal rivalries and conflicts that prevented it from effectively working outside of a few famous cases.

b)

The Inquisition effectively destroyed heresy within the Papal States but had little influence elsewhere.

c)

The Inquisition had considerable success in all Catholic lands where political leaders supported it.

d)

The Inquisition became a powerful and effective force throughout Catholic lands.

e)

The Inquisition's success at rooting out heresy was so effective that many Protestant leaders invited it to work in Protestant lands.




___ 36.

The Reformation in England was primarily the result of

a)

the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.

b)

the missionary activity of the Lollards.

c)

the terrible conditions then existing in the English churches.

d)

efforts by Luther and his followers.

e)

Elizabeth I's conversion to Presbyterianism.




___ 37.

In addition to reforming the church, what was the other goal of the Council of Trent?

a)

To eliminate the Bohemian church

b)

To reinforce the power of monarchs

c)

To recognize bishops as completely independent of secular rulers

d)

To expand noble authority as counterweight to monarchs

e)

To secure reconciliation with the Protestants




___ 38.

The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to

a)

the continued strength of Catholicism in southern Europe.

b)

the popularity of John Calvin.

c)

popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII's reformation.

d)

popular support of Luther in his conflict with the pope.

e)

the piety of Teresa of Avila.




___ 39.

The Edict of Nantes

a)

permitted French Huguenots to worship wherever they wished as long as they continued to pay taxes to the Catholic church.

b)

ordered all French Huguenots to convert to Catholicism or leave France.

c)

required all Catholic priests in France to swear an oath of loyalty to the king.

d)

granted French Huguenots the right to worship in 150 towns.

e)

permitted each French nobleman to determine the religion for his territory.




___ 40.

In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that

a)

supported the efforts of the Puritans.

b)

emphasized personal and public religious conformity.

c)

was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes.

d)

favored Catholics over Protestants.

e)

imported Scottish Presbyterianism into England.




___ 41.

What were Lutheran and Calvinist attitudes toward secular rulers?

a)

Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular rulers must be obeyed and respected no matter what their religious beliefs.

b)

Lutherans taught respect for authority while Calvinists encouraged opposition to political authorities who were considered ungodly.

c)

Lutherans taught opposition to ungodly leaders while Calvinists taught obedience to all secular authorities.

d)

Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular leaders who violated the laws of nature must be opposed, while all others must be obeyed.

e)

Lutherans and Calvinists believed that all secular leaders who were ungodly must be opposed.




___ 42.

The inquisitorial legal procedure differed from the accusatorial legal procedure in all of the following ways except

a)

an accuser could be sued if charges were not proven.

b)

a suspect would not be told the charges against him.

c)

people were more willing to make accusations since the authorities would bring the cases publicly.

d)

intense questioning of the suspect occurred.

e)

the subject could be tortured.




___ 43.

What was the fate of most people brought before the Inquisition and accused of witchcraft?

a)

They were found guilty and executed.

b)

They were found innocent and exonerated of any wrongdoing.

c)

They were found guilty and their property seized.

d)

They were found guilty and sold into slavery.

e)

They were sent home with a warning and ordered to do penance.




___ 44.

France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to

a)

spread Protestantism.

b)

prevent English influence from increasing in Germany.

c)

contain Protestantism east of the Rhine.

d)

facilitate the Turkish attack on the Habsburgs.

e)

prevent Charles V from increasing his power.




___ 45.

The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was

a)

institutional reform.

b)

reconciliation with Protestantism.

c)

to combat heresy and Protestantism.

d)

to uplift the moral condition of both clergy and laity.

e)

conversion of Asians and Africans.




___ 46.

A new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the

a)

Ursuline Order.

b)

Society of Jesus.

c)

Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.

d)

Colloquy of Marburg.

e)

Evangelines.

Chapter 14 Test (Part II)



Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

Short Answer: Answer each question with three or four sentences.


47.

What was an indulgence, and how did Luther's theology of salvation reject indulgences?



48.

How did the Council of Trent reform the priesthood?



49.

Who were the politiques and what role did they play in France?

50.

How did Luther's position as a university professor affect the spread of the Reformation?


Essay: Answer each of the following questions in a few paragraphs. Include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



50.

Although the Protestant Reformation is usually interpreted as a religious movement, it had a profound impact on European civilization in general. Discuss the political, social, and economic consequences of the Reformation. How did the Reformation affect women?



Answer Key


1.

o

2.

m

3.

k

4.

f

5.

n

6.

l

7.

q

8.

a

9.

i

10.

e

11.

p

12.

c

13.

d

14.

d

15.

b

16.

b

17.

a

18.

c

19.

e

20.

a

21.

e

22.

b

23.

d

24.

a

25.

b

26.

a

27.

c

28.

e

29.

a

30.

b

31.

d

32.

e

33.

e

34.

a

35.

b

36.

a

37.

e

38.

c

39.

d

40.

c

41.

b

42.

a

43.

e

44.

e

45.

d

46.

a

47.

Church officials taught that Christ, the apostles, and the saints had built up a “treasury of merit” that could be granted out to shorten an individual's penance or time in purgatory. Luther taught that salvation came by faith alone through God's grace and that earthly authority could not affect salvation.

48.

Bishops were given greater authority to discipline priests, especially concerning sexual morality and celibacy. Every diocese had to establish a seminary to train and educate priests, and the seminary professors were to determine if candidates had genuine callings to the priesthood.

49.

The politiques were Catholic and Huguenot moderates who believed that the creation of a strong monarchy was necessary to bring to a conclusion to the religious violence and warfare in France. They favored accepting the Huguenots as an officially recognized group and promoted the accession of Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot who had converted to Catholicism and was himself a politique, as King Henry IV of France.

50.

A discussion of the Reformation's political impact should include the destruction of the concept of European unity; the idea of religious homogeneity within a state, decided by the prince; the declining influence of the church in political affairs; and churches' increasing identification with the state. Students should provide a brief narrative of the political history of the era, including military confrontations. In the discussion of social consequences, students should consider carefully the Peasants' War, with special attention to both the role of Luther and the results of that conflict. They could indicate not only the war's limited impact on the social status of peasants, but the close and supportive relationship between Lutheranism and the state. The Reformation's impact on urban society should certainly address the Protestant tenet that all vocations have merit in God's eyes, thus providing religious justification for the business classes. When writing about the impact on women, students should include Luther's exaltation of marriage and procreation as well as his denunciation of the monastic lifestyle; within this framework, the loss of career opportunities for upper-class women in Protestant states should be considered. Students should also discuss the shared responsibility of husband and wife in the family, being sure to indicate that the husband was the ruler of the household.



Page



Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page