Chapter 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries multiple choice



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Chapter 14

New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

MULTIPLE CHOICE


  1. Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of ________.

    1. spiritual harmonies

    2. the motion of atoms

    3. their relation to celestial vibrations

    4. mathematical relationships

Answer: D

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


1.The scientific fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by ________.

    1. Newton

    2. Galileo

    3. Brahe

    4. Kepler

Answer: D

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


2.During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the discoveries that most captured the public imagination were made in ________.

    1. medicine

    2. natural history

    3. chemistry

    4. astronomy

Answer: D

Page Ref: 418

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


3.Who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and rejected the notion of an earth-centered universe?

    1. Tycho Brahe

    2. Nicolaus Copernicus

    3. Galileo Galilei

    4. Johannes Kepler

Answer: B

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


4.Who addressed the issue of planetary motion and established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries?

    1. Nicolaus Copernicus

    2. Isaac Newton

    3. Johannes Kepler

    4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: B

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


5.Who is known as the father of empiricism?

    1. Isaac Newton

    2. Francis Bacon

    3. Johannes Kepler

    4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: B

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


6.Although he invented analytic geometry, whose most important contribution was to develop a scientific method that relied more on deduction?

    1. René Descartes

    2. Francis Bacon

    3. Isaac Newton

    4. Johannes Kepler

Answer: A

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


7.Descartes divided existing things into two categories: body and ________.

    1. modality

    2. God

    3. metaphor

    4. mind

Answer: D

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


8.Hobbes saw human beings as ________.

    1. naturally docile

    2. basically good

    3. basically just

    4. self-centered, power-hungry creatures

Answer: D

Page Ref: 426

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


9.Maria Winkelmann made her contributions in the field of ________.

    1. natural history

    2. medicine

    3. astronomy

    4. biology

Answer: C

Page Ref: 433

Skill: Factual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution


10.How many people were sentenced to death for witchcraft or harmful magic between 1400 and 1700?

    1. 1.5 to 2 million

    2. 2,000 to 3,000

    3. 500,000 to 600,000

    4. 70,000 to 100,000

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


11.What percentage of people accused of witchcraft in the early modern period were women?

    1. 80 percent

    2. 100 percent

    3. 50 percent

    4. 10 percent

Answer: A

Page Ref: 441

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


12.In the sixteenth century, midwifery was a trade often pursued by ________.

    1. noble women

    2. merchant’s wives

    3. elderly or widowed women

    4. male barbers

Answer: C

Page Ref: 443

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition
13.Baroque art first emerged in ________.


    1. Paris, France

    2. papal Rome

    3. Florence, Italy

    4. Buckingham Palace, London, England

Answer: B

Page Ref: 445

Skill: Factual

Topic: Baroque Art


14.Galileo named the moons of Jupiter after the Medicis because ________.

  1. he wanted to flatter his patrons

  2. looking for famous names, he could only think of the Medicis

  3. he was in love with a Medici noblewoman

  4. it was the custom to name heavenly bodies after living people

Answer: A

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution

15.Nicolaus Copernicus’s breakthrough was to show how ________.


  1. the earth moved around the sun

  2. the sun moved around the earth

  3. the sun was dotted with sun spots

  4. the earth was accompanied by other planets in our solar system

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


16.The experiences of the English Civil War led Thomas Hobbes to summarize his views about strong central government in his book ________.

  1. Second Treatise of Government

  2. Leviathan

  3. Discourse on Method

  4. Gulliver’s Travels

Answer: B

Page Ref: 426

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


17.Baroque art became associated with ________.

  1. the Renaissance

  2. English nobility

  3. Roman Catholicism

  4. popular Protestantism

Answer: C

Page Ref: 445

Skill: Factual

Topic: Baroque Art


18.Jonathan Swift’s satire of the new sciences was ________.

  1. Leviathan

  2. Gulliver’s Travels

  3. First Treatise of Government

  4. Letter Concerning Toleration

Answer: B

Page Ref: 437

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith


19.Brahe’s assistant was ________.

  1. Francis Bacon

  2. Rene Descartes

  3. Johannes Kepler

  4. John Locke

Answer: C

Page Ref: 420

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


20.The scientist most known for his work on the laws of gravitation was ________.

  1. Tycho Brahe

  2. Isaac Newton

  3. Francis Bacon

  4. John Locke

Answer: B

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


21.The most famous institution dedicated to the new sciences was the ________.

  1. Berlin Academy of Science

  2. Royal Society of London

  3. University of Paris

  4. French Academy of Science

Answer: B

Page Ref: 430

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


22.The woman who brought René Descartes to advise on the new science academy was ________.

  1. Queen Christina of Sweden

  2. Maria Cunitz

  3. Elisabetha Hevelius

  4. Maria Winkelmann

Answer: A

Page Ref: 432

Skill: Factual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution


23.The author of Pensées, published posthumously, was _________.

  1. Denis Diderot

  2. René de Chateaubriand

  3. René Descartes

  4. Blaise Pascal

Answer: D

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith


24.The clergy _________ the search for witches.

  1. condemned

  2. ignored

  3. endorsed

  4. pitied

Answer: C

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


25.Baroque art aligned with the ideas of the scientific revolution because it ________.

  1. paralleled the interest in human anatomy and the natural world

  2. departed from classic religious scenes

  3. depicted largely mathematical ideas

  4. was commissioned by the leaders of the new scientific world

Answer: A

Page Ref: 444

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art


26.In the early sixteenth century, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined the works of ________.

  1. Ptolemy and Aristotle

  2. Plato and Aristotle

  3. Aquinas and Bacon

  4. Socrates and Plato

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


27.Which of the following is Tycho Brahe’s major contribution to science?

  1. He created a vast body of astronomical data from which his successors could work.

  2. He did groundbreaking scientific research in which he suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun.

  3. He proved Copernicus’s research incorrect and published his own geocentric findings.

  4. He proved that the moon and other planets revolved around the earth.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 420

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


28.Newton was a strong supporter of ________.

  1. empiricism

  2. inspiration

  3. divine guidance

  4. rationalism

Answer: A

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution

29.Many proponents of mechanism believed________.


  1. machines should do the work of humans

  2. human beings were machines, slaves to religion

  3. humans are machines whose purpose is to produce knowledge

  4. the world can be explained in mechanical metaphors

Answer: D

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


30.Francis Bacon believed that________.

  1. the study of nature began with the articulation of general principles

  2. knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition

  3. knowledge of nature was primarily useful for what it told us about the divine

  4. the best era of human history lay in antiquity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


31.According to Hobbes, human beings escape the terrible state of nature by ________.

  1. becoming selfless and obeying others

  2. taking part in a tacit contract

  3. naturally being sociable

  4. embracing Christianity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 427

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

32.In Locke’s view, the relationship between rulers and the governed has its foundation in __________.


  1. military power

  2. divine will

  3. trust

  4. economic inequality

Answer: C

Page Ref: 428

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


33.According to Pascal’s famous wager, ________.

  1. it is best to believe God exists and stake everything to gain the lot; if God should prove not to exist, comparatively little will have been lost

  2. it is best to live life to the fullest, regardless of your religious beliefs, and if God does exist, seek forgiveness near the end of your life

  3. it is best to believe that God does not exist so that if he does exist, you will be joyful rather than disappointed

  4. only one person in a hundred would be saved

Answer: A

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith


34.Based upon your knowledge of the text, which of the following is the most plausible cause of the witch hunts?

  1. The droughts causing famine, especially in Ireland, led to the death of many, and because the witches claimed to control the weather, they were to blame.

  2. Witches were primarily women, and because women bore children that were causing an economic and scientific panic, they were to blame.

  3. The corrupt government needed a distraction from the bad publicity, and because the same women that were suspected of being witches were spreading the news of corruption, politicians saw witch hunts as an answer to both of their problems.

  4. Religious divisions and warfare threatened the security of society, and the witches were the scapegoats of a social panic.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


35.The witch hunts ended because, among other things, ________.

  1. they threatened the social order

  2. Protestants were more preoccupied with the devil

  3. the power of words seemed greater after Gutenberg

  4. no judges were left

Answer: A

Page Ref: 444

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Continuing Superstition
36.Charles I’s employment of Rubens illustrated to the people of England that ________.


  1. baroque art demonstrated religious truths

  2. Charles opposed a monarchial government

  3. Galileo was incorrect and should be condemned

  4. Charles I had Roman Catholic sympathies

Answer: D

Page Ref: 445–446

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art


37.The most elaborative baroque monument to political absolutism was ________.

  1. Pope Urban VIII’s tabernacle in Rome

  2. Charles I’s palace in London

  3. Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles

  4. Franz Joseph’s palace in Vienna

Answer: C

Page Ref: 446

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art


38.The heliocentric universe was introduced by ________.

  1. Nicolaus Copernicus

  2. Isaac Newton

  3. Johannes Kepler

  4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


39.As Brahe’s assistant, Kepler ________.

  1. stayed closely aligned to the theories of Brahe long after Brahe’s death

  2. grew jealous of Brahe’s fame and worked to discount the research they had completed together

  3. was considered inferior to Brahe as a scientist

  4. helped collect the scientific data and then interpreted it in his own way after Brahe’s death

Answer: A

Page Ref: 420–421

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution
40.Prior to 1600, the scientific world viewed Copernicus’s understanding of the universe with ________.


  1. full acceptance and approval

  2. complete rejection

  3. caution and interest

  4. religious outrage and condemnation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


41.How did the telescope change the understanding of the universe for scientists?

  1. It increased the accuracy of physical observations.

  2. It required a new level of mathematical accuracy.

  3. It improved navigation.

  4. It required increased attention to scientific subjects.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


42.In his Discourse on Method, Descartes attacked ________.

  1. Locke’s method

  2. the use of reason alone

  3. the church

  4. received truths

Answer: D

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

43.The idea that humans were, by nature, creatures of reason and basic goodwill is an idea embraced by ________.


  1. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Descartes

  2. Hobbes, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke

  3. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes

  4. Bacon, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke

Answer: C

Page Ref: 428

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science


44.How did scientists interact with universities during the scientific revolution?

  1. Universities were often criticized by scientists.

  2. Universities were generally praised by scientists.

  3. Scientists were eager to be hired by universities.

  4. Universities wanted to take credit for the discoveries of scientists.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 429

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


45.The learned societies that emerged in the 1600s are best described as ________.

  1. forums for intellectual exchange

  2. political clubs

  3. social gatherings

  4. closely linked to universities

Answer: A

Page Ref: 430

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


46.The Enlightenment was the ________.

  1. eighteenth-century movement that held that change and reform were both desirable through the application of reason and science

  2. twentieth-century movement that brought scientists and philosophers together to reconcile their differences on the state of the natural world

  3. eighteenth-century movement that attempted to interpret the events of scripture based on scientific observations of the natural world

  4. nineteenth-century movement that saw the growth of industry and the increase of manufacturing

Answer: A

Page Ref: 432

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


47.The Berlin Academy of Science denied Maria Winkelmann’s application to continue her husband’s study because ________.

  1. she was a woman

  2. her husband had died

  3. her work was considered inferior to the work of other scientists

  4. she had angered the upper level hierarchy of the Academy

Answer: A

Page Ref: 433

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution


48.The book on astronomy by Maria Cunitz was ________.

  1. initially rejected by the scientific world

  2. recognized as her own work only after her husband added a preface

  3. considered an important accomplishment for a woman of her day

  4. widely read and distributed in universities

Answer: B

Page Ref: 432–433

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

49.According to Francis Bacon, the Bible and nature ________.


  1. should be explained by scientists

  2. must be compatible since they shared the same author

  3. are directly opposed on countless points and must be reconciled

  4. are inadequately explained by the Roman Catholic Church

Answer: B

Page Ref: 439

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith


50.The scope of witchcraft persecutions showed that _________.

  1. the Catholic Church was losing its power

  2. the Protestant Reformation had run its course

  3. the wars of religion were over

  4. belief in witchcraft was common

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Analytical

Topic: Continuing Superstition


51.Which of the following is true of the scientific revolution?

  1. It was not rapid.

  2. It involved a large collective of people that numbered in the thousands.

  3. It was a unified movement.

  4. Everything associated with the revolution was new and groundbreaking.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 418

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


52.The greatest example of empiricism is shown by the work of ________.

  1. Blaise Pascal

  2. Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

  3. Thomas Hobbes

  4. Ptolemy

Answer: C

Page Ref: 419–421

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


53.Opposing ________, it was natural that the scientific revolution would also often find itself in opposition to _________.

  1. reason; the church

  2. received truths; political authority

  3. the deductive method; empiricism

  4. scholasticism; universities

Answer: D

Page Ref: 429

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


54.Pascal’s attitude toward reason was that it was ________.

  1. un-Christian

  2. of little use

  3. insufficient for grasping religious concepts

  4. superior to faith in understanding the world

Answer: C

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith



Chapter 16

The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

MULTIPLE CHOICE


  1. The heart of the eighteenth-century colonial rivalry in the Americas lay in ________.

    1. the middle West

    2. the Ohio River valley

    3. the West Indies

    4. the lower Saint Lawrence River valley

Answer: C

Page Ref: 484

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mercantile Empires




  1. A peninsulare was a person ________.

    1. born in the New World

    2. born in Spain

    3. who owns land in the New World

    4. who owns land in Spain

Answer: B

Page Ref: 486

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Spanish Colonial System




  1. As a result of a scarcity of labor, which of the following nations were the first to quickly turn to importing African slaves?

    1. Holland and France

    2. France and Spain

    3. Portugal and Holland

    4. Spain and Portugal

Answer: D

Page Ref: 489

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy




  1. The first slaves traded, dating to the early sixteenth century, in the transatlantic economy landed on ________.

    1. North America in Spanish Florida

    2. North America in the British Virginia

    3. the West Indies and South America

    4. the coast of Dutch Guiana

Answer: C

Page Ref: 488

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy




  1. Black slaves had the fewest legal protections in ________.

    1. British areas

    2. French areas

    3. Dutch areas

    4. Portuguese areas

Answer: D

Page Ref: 496

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy




  1. A vast increase in the number of Africans brought as slaves to the Americas occurred during the eighteenth century, with most arriving in ________.

    1. the Carolinas or Virginia

    2. the Caribbean or Brazil

    3. Mexico or Florida

    4. Granada or Peru

Answer: B

Page Ref: 490

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy




  1. Colonial trade in the transatlantic world roughly followed a geographic ________.

    1. line

    2. triangle

    3. square

    4. pentagon

Answer: B

Page Ref: 490

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy




  1. The War of Jenkins’s Ear was fought by England to block incursions on British trade by ________.

    1. Russia

    2. France

    3. Portugal

    4. Spain

Answer: D

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


  1. Maria Theresa’s great achievement was ________.

    1. the defeat of Frederick II

    2. the reconquest of Silesia

    3. her granting of additional privileges to the nobility

    4. the preservation of the Habsburg empire as a major political power

Answer: D

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars




  1. The French and Indian War formally erupted in the summer of ________.

    1. 1745

    2. 1765

    3. 1755

    4. 1775

Answer: C

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars




  1. The Seven Years’ War was fought mainly in ________.

    1. South America

    2. North America

    3. South Asia

    4. Southern Europe

Answer: B

Page Ref: 500

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


  1. Much credit for Britain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War should go to ________.

    1. Robert Walpole

    2. George III

    3. William Pitt the Elder

    4. Samuel Fox

Answer: C

Page Ref: 500

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars




  1. Europe’s balance of power was upset when Prussia’s King Frederick II seized the Austrian province of ________.

A. Silesia

B. Austria

C. Germany

D. the Netherlands

Answer: A

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


  1. The defensive alliance aimed at preventing the entry of foreign troops into German states was the ________.

A. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

B. Convention of Westminster

C. Treaty of Hubertusburg

D. Treaty of Paris of 1763

Answer: B

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars




  1. Benjamin Franklin gained assistance against Britain from ________.

    1. Germany

    2. Holland

    3. Spain

    4. France

Answer: D

Page Ref: 502

Skill: Factual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


16. The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was ________.

        1. a new idea of how alliances could be used

        2. a shift in alliances

        3. the alliance of most of Europe against Austria

        4. a division of Europe into east and west

Answer: B

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


17. The act that put a tax on legal documents and other items such as newspapers was the ________.

A. Stamp Act

B. Sugar Act

C. Intolerable Acts

D. Declaratory Act

Answer: A

Page Ref: 501

Skill: Factual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe
18. What crop, more than any other, increased the early demand for slave labor?


  1. sugar

  2. cotton

  3. tobacco

  4. potatoes

Answer: A

Page Ref: 489–490

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


19. Britain changed the outcome of the Seven Years’ War when it came to the aid of ________.

  1. France

  2. Austria

  3. Prussia

  4. Russia

Answer: C

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Factual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars


20. The war that gave the world a successful government without kings was the ________.

  1. Seven Years’ War

  2. War of Jenkins’s Ear

  3. American Revolution

  4. War of Austrian Succession

Answer: C

Page Ref: 506

Skill: Factual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


21. Although the primary trade pattern of the transatlantic economy was from Africa and Europe to the Americas, a secondary trade pattern existed between ________.

  1. New England and the West Indies

  2. New England and India

  3. the West Indies and South America

  4. the West Indies and India

Answer: A

Page Ref: 490

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


22. To what region was the greatest number of slaves sent?

  1. North America

  2. Europe

  3. the West Indies

  4. South America

Answer: C

Page Ref: 490

Skill: Factual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


23. The philosophy of John Locke contributed to the rhetoric surrounding which war?

  1. the American Revolution

  2. the War of Jenkins’s Ear

  3. the War of the Austrian Succession

  4. the Seven Years’ War

Answer: A

Page Ref: 504

Skill: Factual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


24. The intendants used by Charles III amounted to an expansion of _________.

  1. slavery

  2. royal power

  3. the power of the creoles

  4. sugar cultivation

Answer: B

Page Ref: 486

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Spanish Colonial System


25. The leader of the Yorkshire Association Movement was ________.

  1. Christopher Wyvil

  2. Lord North

  3. John Wilkes

  4. William Pitt the Younger

Answer: A

Page Ref: 505

Skill: Factual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


26. The commercial empires of the 1700s were a feature of the _________ stage of European imperialism.

A. first

B. second

C. third

D. fourth

Answer: B

Page Ref: 482

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Periods of European Overseas Empires
27. Which of the following factors allowed European nations to exert influence and dominance over much of the world?


  1. cultural superiority

  2. religious convictions and the spread of Christianity to new colonies

  3. technological superiority

  4. agricultural advances and population increases

Answer: C

Page Ref: 483

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Periods of European Overseas Empires


28. Mercantilist thinkers assumed that ________.

  1. a stable economy was one that maintained its wealth, not allowing it to grow or decline

  2. only modest levels of economic growth were possible

  3. rapid growth every fiscal year was possible and necessary

  4. a capitalist system was superior to any other economic system

Answer: B

Page Ref: 484

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mercantile Empires


29. Under mercantilism, colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for the industries of the home country, and in turn, the home country was to ________.

  1. protect and administer the colonies

  2. educate and Christianize the colonies

  3. generate free trade for the colonies to spur the local economy

  4. produce agricultural and manufactured goods to supply the colonies

Answer: A

Page Ref: 484

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mercantile Empires


30. According to the text, which of the following were closely related?

  1. warfare in West Africa and slavery in the Americas

  2. warfare in Latin America and the political development of the Ohio River valley

  3. warfare in Eastern Europe and the political development of the American colonies

  4. warfare in Western Europe and the economic development of Indian commerce

Answer: A

Page Ref: 489

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


31. What two areas were often the source of conflict and wars between the great powers in the mid-eighteenth century?

  1. China and the access to the Mediterranean Sea

  2. the African coast and access to the Mediterranean Sea

  3. overseas empires and central and eastern Europe

  4. overseas empires and western Europe

Answer: C

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


32. Frederick II’s invasion of Silesia offset the continental balance of power and ________.

  1. drew England into a war in North America

  2. shattered the provisions of the Pragmatic Sanction

  3. led to the defeat of the Spanish trade monopoly

  4. sparked the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War

Answer: B

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars
33. The war over the Austrian succession and the British-Spanish commercial conflict might have remained separate disputes; what united them was ________.


  1. the role of France

  2. the immediate British conquest of the French colonies

  3. the slow-moving Prussian threat to the Low Countries

  4. the lasting Prussian threat to France

Answer: A

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


34. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, new political alliances formed in Europe and included an alliance between ________.

  1. Prussia and Austria

  2. Great Britain and Austria

  3. France and Great Britain

  4. France and Austria

Answer: D

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


35. From the British victory in the French and Indian War, Great Britain became not only a European power, but also a world power until ________.

  1. the worldwide depression in the 1930s

  2. World War I

  3. World War II

  4. the beginning of the Cold War

Answer: C

Page Ref: 500

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars

36. What was the outcome of the 1783 Treaty of Paris?


  1. The treaty granted independence to the American colonies.

  2. The treaty granted control of all of Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi River valley to Britain.

  3. The treaty ended the Seven Years’ War.

  4. The treaty preserved the Habsburg dynasty.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 502

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


37. What was the reaction of the American colonists to the Quebec Act?

A. The Americans regarded the Quebec Act as an attempt to prevent their mode of self-government from spreading beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

B. The Americans felt that the Quebec Act would support their political plans.

C. The Americans were threatened by the Quebec Act because it allied France to the Native Americans.

D. The Americans embraced the Quebec Act as a precedent for resisting Britain.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 502

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe
38. At the conclusion of the French and Indian War, what two imperial problems did the British government face?


  1. the costs of maintaining its empire and the vast expanse of new territory in North America that it had to organize

  2. how to protect itself from the Spanish Empire in North America and the loss of its North American territories

  3. how to integrate the French-speaking territories peacefully into British holdings and the costs of maintaining its empire

  4. the vast expanse of new territory in North America that it had to organize and how to avoid a Spanish attack on its newly-conquered land

Answer: A

Page Ref: 501

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


39. After 1713, what did the following colonies have in common: Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, and Barbados?

  1. They were all founded by Christopher Columbus.

  2. They were all important sugar producers.

  3. They all relied on slave labor.

  4. They were all British colonies.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 483

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mercantile Empires


40. What was one of the most important causes that drove European nations to increase their taxes in the mid-eighteenth century?

  1. They wished to settle more colonies in the New World.

  2. They wished to import more slaves from Africa.

  3. They wished to increase their trade networks.

  4. They had to pay off their war debts from prolonged wars.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 501

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars


41. What did the world learn about the Atlantic Passage from memoirs and ship logs?

  1. Cargo was shipped in filthy conditions.

  2. Sailors were treated with respect and good pay.

  3. The work of sailors was unrelenting and brutally hard.

  4. The process of moving Africans to the Americas was horrific and inhumane.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 494–495

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


42. What conditions in Africa facilitated the capture and forced transport of African slave labor?

  1. stable political relations between African communities

  2. political unrest and intertribal warfare

  3. strong trade networks within Africa

  4. well-developed transportation and roads in Africa

Answer: B

Page Ref: 489

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

43. Religion among slave communities in the Americas is best described as ________.


  1. Christian

  2. a mixture of Christian and African traditions

  3. forbidden, but practiced in secret

  4. virtually nonexistent

Answer: B

Page Ref: 496–497

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


44. What advantage did the peninsulares receive in the Spanish Colonies?

  1. They received land.

  2. They received the revenue from silver mines.

  3. They received the best, most profitable jobs in the region.

  4. They were treated like second-class citizens.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 486

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Spanish Colonial System


45. The Yorkshire Association Movement was started in England to ________.

  1. reduce taxes

  2. decrease involvement in foreign wars

  3. abolish slavery

  4. reform the government

Answer: D

Page Ref: 505

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


46. What were the effects of the Yorkshire Association Movement?

  1. The movement collapsed without effect.

  2. Many people gained experience with political protest.

  3. Parliament implemented a permanent economical reform.

  4. George III made long-term bonds with the House of Commons.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 505–506

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


47. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763?

  1. Britain received all of Canada, the Ohio River valley, and the eastern half of the Mississippi River valley.

  2. The American colonies were granted independence from Britain.

  3. The continental conflict of the Seven Years’ War ended with no significant changes in prewar borders.

  4. Spain received all of South America as well as areas in North America, including Florida, Mexico, California, and the Southwest.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 501

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars


48. What prompted the emergence in Europe of eating dessert after a meal?

  1. the discovery of chocolate

  2. the introduction of New World customs

  3. the increased access to sugar

  4. the introduction of coffee

Answer: C

Page Ref: 491

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


49. What was the British motivation for passing the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act?

  1. Britain wanted to exert authority over the unruly colonists.

  2. Britain needed to raise money to pay its debts.

  3. Britain was losing money on sugar and legal papers.

  4. The British Parliament was feeling pressure from citizens to force more contributions from the colonists.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 501

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe


50. The technique used to assure discipline, prevent injury to the crew, and prevent suicide among Africans on the Atlantic Passage was to ________.

  1. tightly pack the Africans in the ship’s hold

  2. feed the Africans well and keep them entertained

  3. keep the Africans in iron shackles throughout the voyage

  4. kill any African who created unrest during the voyage

Answer: C

Page Ref: 495

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


51. The use of Coromantee illustrates ________.

  1. the harsh conditions imposed by slavery

  2. the common origins of most slaves in the Americas

  3. religious customs among black slaves

  4. the survival of African culture under slavery

Answer: D

Page Ref: 496

Skill: Analysis

Topic: Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy


52. The mid-eighteenth-century wars had what impact on the domestic politics of the nations that took part?

  1. Conscription meant that war affected all sectors of European society.

  2. The use of total warfare meant that every aspect of life was impacted directly.

  3. The impact was felt primarily through the demands for taxation caused by the wars.

  4. Fought primarily in France and Britain, the conflicts devastated these two nations directly.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 498

Skill: Analysis

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars


53. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, resulted in which of the following?

  1. Prussia retained Silesia

  2. Spain’s defeat in North America

  3. France renewed Britain’s privilege from the Treaty of Utrecht

  4. the end of British power in southeast Asia

Answer: A

Page Ref: 499

Skill: Analysis

Topic: Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars

54. The Intolerable Acts were prompted by ________.


  1. colonial protest of earlier tax measures

  2. the need to raise revenue

  3. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

  4. the end of the Seven Years’ War

Answer: A

Page Ref: 502

Skill: Analysis

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe



55. The American Revolution had what effect on British policy in the short term?

  1. The pace of reform increased.

  2. The Yorkshire Movement quickly achieved its aims.

  3. Some reforms were achieved.

  4. The country underwent a reactionary period.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 506

Skill: Analysis

Topic: The American Revolution and Europe

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