|Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy; 1790-1860
Industrialization began in the 1750’s in Britain with the textile machines and eventually found its way into the American Industries. This increased the movement of people into cities because machines took the place of people in agriculture and people were needed in cities to man the machines. Many moved to cities. This increased production and efficiency throughout the United States of America.
2. Know- Nothing Party-
American nativists who rallied for political action would form the Order of the Star- Spangled Banner in 1849. They would eventually be given the nickname the Know Nothing party due to their secretiveness. They fought for strict immigration and naturalization acts and the have a stronger policy on deportation and alien paupers.
Urbanization is the movement of people into cities and urban places. This movement was caused by the industrial revolution. Many people lost their agricultural jobs to the machines and were forced to move to the work the machines that made them lose their jobs. This is the main reason for the major increase in city populations and the increased amount of urban centers.
Nativism is the increased antiforeignism due to the increase in immigrants. The Roman Catholics proved to be a threat to the Protestants and riots and chaos erupted. The “natives” of America resented the Irish and it showed that the US was not equal.
5. Samuel Slater-
Samuel Slater escaped from Britain with the plans for the textile machinery memorized in his head. He allowed for the US to participate in the textile industry and not have to rely on Britain for its textiles. This also allowed the US to control the prices of textiles and not be forced into paying high prices for the textiles from foreign countries.
6. Eli Whitney-
He created the cotton gin which separated the seed from the cotton. This allowed for the South to keep their economy in farming and their slave culture because the farms were revitalized. He also created the interchangeable parts for the gun. This led to the creation of mass- production of gun parts and guns.
7. Samuel F. B. Morse-
He invented the telegraph which allowed for easier communication across oceans and throughout the US. This allowed for increased and faster communication throughout the world, not only in the United States.
8. Commonwealth vs. Hunt-
The Supreme Court ruled that labor unions were legal and that they were honorable and peaceful. This allowed for workers to create unions in order to fight back against employers and their unfair working laws. The workers rebelled against the terrible working conditions and the long hours.
9. “Domestic Feminism”-
Domestic Feminism is when women were more assertive in the household. They decided to have less children and signified the growing power and independence of women. Women travelled to cities in order to work in the city and the machines. The average fertility rate dropped and women were sucked into the mechanism of factory production. And the girls that spun cotton were displaced by the machines.
10. Cyrus McCormic-
Cyrus McCormick created the mechanical reaper. This allowed for quicker and more efficient farming and allowed for the South to maintain their economy as well as their slave culture. The mechanical reaper helped increase production of crops and harvesting.
11. Robert Fulton
1. Analyze the economic transformation of America including: westward expansion, population growth, industrialization, society, and the transportation revolution (canals, railroads, steam, etc.)
America transformed in many ways during the Industrial Revolution period. Many moved westward into the raw frontier because land was cheap and abundant. They could purchase huge tracts of land with abundant resources for very cheap. And immigrants, who moved because of the lack of land in their home countries, immediately wanted land of their own. And because the East was already populated, the Americans could only move westward. The pioneers often exhausted the land quickly and used up all the resources. And as the people moved west, they also multiplied quickly and America experienced a population boom. Cities were growing very quickly and many huge urban centers were created. And with industrialization and many people being displaced by machines for agriculture, people were forced to move to cities to man the machines. Agriculture was dominated by machines. Immigrants and babies caused America’s population to multiply rapidly. The increase in population created a huge working forced in the cities and allowed the employers to employ harsh working conditions because jobs were so competitive. And women were also gaining power and were allowed to start working the machines. The transportation revolution allowed for cheap and fast transportation of supplies. The companies could ship their products to any part of the work and even with in the US very easily. This allowed for the American economy to grow because more American products were becoming available.
2. "The westward movement also molded the physical environment." Explain.
The westward movement also molded the physical environment because pioneers would use up all the fertile soil on the land planting tobacco, in then they would move onto other land using that land up to. After they planted the tobacco, the land would be barren and unfertile. One good thing that came from this was the growth of Kentucky Blue Grass, which made good food for livestock to eat. The beaver trade would greatly diminish the beaver population, also Bison hides were greatly treasured which almost killed off the whole Bison population in the mid west.
3. What were the consequences of the “exploding” population growth in the United States during the 1800’s? Compare/contrast the lives of the Irish and the Germans settling in the US.
The exploding population growth created terrible living conditions in the urban centers. These urban centers bred germs and diseases. There were also lots of crime and improper sewage of garbage disposal. Diseases spread like wildfire and cities usually had a large taskforce to choose from. The employers could enforce harsh working conditions because jobs were so competitive. The Irish often moved to cities in the east because they were too poor to move west or to buy land. And as a result, the Irish were often discriminated against because of their religion. The Irish were Catholics and were resented by the Protestant nation. Many employers refused to hire any Irishmen and Irishmen tended to work in the lowly jobs. Germans on the other hand had more money than the Irish and tended to move westward. They created urban centers in the West and brought over their culture, such as the Christmas tree and beer and kindergarten. But these immigrants also sparked anitforeignism among the “natives”. They resisted the immigrants and often discriminated against them because the Americans felt that their culture was being threatened.
4. For a country that is supposed to be a “melting pot,” how can you explain the anti-foreignism
experienced in the 1840’s/50’s?
The anti- foreignism was sparked by the influx of immigrants. The Americans felt that they had already established a culture and when the immigrants moved to America, they felt that their established culture was being threatened. It is human nature to resist change and when the immigrants came and threatened to change the American culture, the Americans tried to resist. Also, with the increase in population, jobs were scarcer and the Americans felt that their job security was in danger. As a result, they were jealous and felt threatened once more by the immigrants, who were willing to work the low jobs in order to make money. These immigrants were hungry for work and to begin a new life in America. Additionally, religion had played a large in role in America’s foundation. So when the Catholics, who were always resented, came to the US and threatened to change the religions, the Americans wanted to protect their established religion by discriminating against the immigrants. The Americans feared that the immigrants would take over, similar to how the pilgrims had displaced the Indians. They feared the immigrants would outbreed and overwhelm the “native” Americans.
5. To what extent was social mobility possible in the United States in the years before the Civil War?
The extent was little to no social mobility possible in the United States in the years before the Civil war because there were strict beliefs that still existed from pre- Revolution days. For example, women were seen as weak and artistic, they were supposed to stay home and take care of the house and the children. They were not to leave the confines of the house. There was no social mobility, but as the Civil war was approaching Women’s rights advocates started to bring an uprising of women’s rights that would be unstoppable. Also, the African Americans had little rights but their rights were growing. The north argued for the abolishment of slaves while the South wanted slaves to work on their farms. Even if African Americans were free, they were seen as out liars in society. They were not given education, nor jobs and were still greatly discriminated. It was also hard for the average American to move up social classes. They would have to borrow money from banks which was a high risk high reward type of thing.
What are the most important themes in this chapter? Make specific reference to specific people, terms,
ideas, and concepts. Be creative, and think outside the box, but don’t make stuff up!
Typical AP essay questions:
1. Compare the experiences of TWO of the following groups of immigrants during the period 1830 to 1860.
2. ”Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing and agriculture, sparked American economic
growth in the first half of the nineteenth century.” Assess the validity of this statement.
3. Americans have been a highly mobile people. Describe and account for the dominant population
movements between 1820 and 1900.