2. Germanic invaders caused several changes which altered the economy, government and culture of the declining Roman Empire. Describe the impact of each of the following:
Disruption of trade: Caused businesses to collapse – money became scarce and trade destroyed some cities.
Downfall of cities: As cities were destroyed, they were abandoned.
Population shifts: Many left cities and fled to the countryside. The left cities with no ruler and began to grow their own food – Western Europe becomes rural.
Decline of learning: Germanic invaders couldn’t read/write mainly priests stayed literate. Romans forget Greek as a language and Latin begins to separate and create different dialects.
Loss of a common language: Latin changes as Germanic tribes influence – Latin is no longer spoken but mixed with other local/tribal languages to form new ones (French, Spanish, Italian, German, English)
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge (p. 354)
What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the concept of government? Germans lived in small communities with no written language, Romans had previously lived in a thriving urban center for learning and technology until the fall of Rome.
Who was Clovis and how did he use Christianity with his military? Clovis is leader of the Franks, and he brings Christianity to Gaul. He calls on Thee for help against enemies and the battle turns in his favor – all 3,000 of his army are baptized.
Germans Adopt Christianity
What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery? A religious community. People in monastaries give up possessions and devote their life to god.
How were monasteries tied to education? They became the best educated communities and Monks opened schools, wrote history books, and religious texts.
Describe the changes Gregory I made to the papacy (role of the pope).
He expanded power beyond the church and more involved in government. Used the church to repair roads, raise armies, and to help the poor. Peace with the Lombards.
Worldy - not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order.
An Empire Evolves
What is a “mayor of the palace?” An official who is the most powerful person in the Frankish empire (Major domo). He is more powerful than even the king.
Describe Charles Martel’s power (what did he do?). King of the Franks, he defeated Muslims raiders, the Moors. His victory at Tours made him a Christian hero.
What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power?
The family that rules the Franks from 751-987. Charles’ son, Pepin the Short, was appointed by the pope as king
How did Charlemagne build such a great empire? Charlemagne is Pepin’s son. He led armies against enemies surrounding the Empire, conquered new lands, and spread Christianity. He is remembered for reunited western Europe for the first time ever since the fall of the Roman Empire
Section 2: Feudalism in Europe (P. 358)
Where were the Vikings from? Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, Norway). They are Germanic people
Who were the Magyars and what did they do? A group of nomads from Hungary- they were great horsemen.
What was the goal of the Muslim attackers? To conquer and spread throughout Europe. They had wealth and wanted more land.
What was the result of the attacks by the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims? Widespread disorder, and suffering.
How did the saddle and stirrups help change the way warfare was conducted in Europe?
Invented in 200BC, enabled the rider to sit firmly and handle heavier weapons. Stirrups allowed for bracing
How did feudal lords raise private armies? What was the obligation of a knight to a lord?
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry
Define Chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight’s daily life (give examples)?
Chivalry is a code of behavior for a knight. Stresses courage, loyalty, and devotion. They fight for only 3 masters: Earthly feudal lord, heavenly lord, and for the lady. Knights start training at age 7 in a castle. They travel and fight in local wars, or tournaments.
What was life like for women in feudal society?
Noblewomen: Could inheret an estate from husband and could also send his iknights to war to protect the castle.
Peasant Women: No rights. They were not educated and spent most of their time farming and performing labor around the house and manor.
What was lay investiture? The appointment of religious officials by kings/nobles. Kings should not be appointing members of the clergy, the pope should be. Combining church and state is not a good idea.
What was the Showdown at Canossa and the Concordat of Worms? (p372)
Henry IV crossed the Alps to Italian city of Canossa. He waited for 3 days for Pope Gregory to end his excommunication. A compromise between the church and the emperor.
Concordat – means agreement. Worms – German city.
Chapter 14 Reading Guide
The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500
Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades (P. 379)
The Age of Faith
What three issues worried reformers about religion during this time period?