Chapter 13 Reading Guide: European Middle Ages 500-1200 Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353)

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Chapter 13 Reading Guide:

European Middle Ages 500-1200

Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (P. 353)

1. What were the Middle Ages? Medievel period. Spanned between 500-1500 AD in Europe. A gradual decline of the Roman Empire.

Invasions of Western Europe

2. Germanic invaders caused several changes which altered the economy, government and culture of the declining Roman Empire. Describe the impact of each of the following:

  1. Disruption of trade: Caused businesses to collapse – money became scarce and trade destroyed some cities.

  2. Downfall of cities: As cities were destroyed, they were abandoned.

  3. Population shifts: Many left cities and fled to the countryside. The left cities with no ruler and began to grow their own food – Western Europe becomes rural.

  4. Decline of learning: Germanic invaders couldn’t read/write mainly priests stayed literate. Romans forget Greek as a language and Latin begins to separate and create different dialects.

  5. Loss of a common language: Latin changes as Germanic tribes influence – Latin is no longer spoken but mixed with other local/tribal languages to form new ones (French, Spanish, Italian, German, English)

Germanic Kingdoms Emerge (p. 354)

  1. What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the concept of government? Germans lived in small communities with no written language, Romans had previously lived in a thriving urban center for learning and technology until the fall of Rome.

  1. Who was Clovis and how did he use Christianity with his military? Clovis is leader of the Franks, and he brings Christianity to Gaul. He calls on Thee for help against enemies and the battle turns in his favor – all 3,000 of his army are baptized.

Germans Adopt Christianity

  1. What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery? A religious community. People in monastaries give up possessions and devote their life to god.

  2. How were monasteries tied to education? They became the best educated communities and Monks opened schools, wrote history books, and religious texts.

  3. Describe the changes Gregory I made to the papacy (role of the pope).

He expanded power beyond the church and more involved in government. Used the church to repair roads, raise armies, and to help the poor. Peace with the Lombards.


Worldy - not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order.

An Empire Evolves

  1. What is a “mayor of the palace?” An official who is the most powerful person in the Frankish empire (Major domo). He is more powerful than even the king.

  1. Describe Charles Martel’s power (what did he do?). King of the Franks, he defeated Muslims raiders, the Moors. His victory at Tours made him a Christian hero.

  1. What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power?

The family that rules the Franks from 751-987. Charles’ son, Pepin the Short, was appointed by the pope as king

  1. How did Charlemagne build such a great empire? Charlemagne is Pepin’s son. He led armies against enemies surrounding the Empire, conquered new lands, and spread Christianity. He is remembered for reunited western Europe for the first time ever since the fall of the Roman Empire

Section 2: Feudalism in Europe (P. 358)

  1. Where were the Vikings from? Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, Norway). They are Germanic people

  1. Who were the Magyars and what did they do? A group of nomads from Hungary- they were great horsemen.

  1. What was the goal of the Muslim attackers? To conquer and spread throughout Europe. They had wealth and wanted more land.

  1. What was the result of the attacks by the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims? Widespread disorder, and suffering.

A New Social Order: Feudalism

16. What is feudalism? A political and economic system based on land ownership and personal loyalty.

Lord: A landowner, someone who owns land can grad fiefs to vassals.

Fief: A plot of land. An estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system in Europe.

Vassal: A person given land (fief) by a lord, in exchange for loyalty and services.

Knights: An armored warrior. Horsemen who protected their lords land in exchange for fiefs.

Serfs: Medieval peasant. People unable to leave the land they were born on, but they were not slaves. What serfs produced belonged to their lords.

Manor: A lord’s estate.

Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism

17. Peasants paid a high price to work on the Manor. List 5 details that prove this:

1. They owed their lord taxes for grains in the mill

2. Paid taxes on marriage

3. Owed village priests a tithe, or church tax. (1/10th of their income)

4. Marriage only allowed with the lord’s consent.

5. They lived in crowded and dirty environment

Section 3: The Age of Chivalry (P. 364)

Knights: Warriors on Horseback

  1. How did the saddle and stirrups help change the way warfare was conducted in Europe?

Invented in 200BC, enabled the rider to sit firmly and handle heavier weapons. Stirrups allowed for bracing

  1. How did feudal lords raise private armies? What was the obligation of a knight to a lord?

Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry

  1. Define Chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight’s daily life (give examples)?

Chivalry is a code of behavior for a knight. Stresses courage, loyalty, and devotion. They fight for only 3 masters: Earthly feudal lord, heavenly lord, and for the lady. Knights start training at age 7 in a castle. They travel and fight in local wars, or tournaments.

  1. What was life like for women in feudal society?

Noblewomen: Could inheret an estate from husband and could also send his iknights to war to protect the castle.

Peasant Women: No rights. They were not educated and spent most of their time farming and performing labor around the house and manor.

Section 4: The Power of the Church (P. 370) The Reaching Authority of the Church

  1. How did religion work as a unifying force? It was a stable force between people who were otherwise separated socially because people worshipped together. It also caused political turmoil.

  1. What was canon law? Church law. Body of laws governed by the church.

What were the two harshest punishments handed down from the church (describe them)?

- Excommunication – banishment from the church

- Interdict: Religious sacraments forbidden on king’s land

The Church and the Holy Roman Empire

  1. What was the Holy Roman Empire?

It was an empire established in Europe during the 10th century AD. United lands and kingdoms in Western Europe that are modern day Germany, France, Switzerland, and Italy

The Emperor Clashes with the Pope

  1. What was lay investiture? The appointment of religious officials by kings/nobles. Kings should not be appointing members of the clergy, the pope should be. Combining church and state is not a good idea.

  1. What was the Showdown at Canossa and the Concordat of Worms? (p372)

Henry IV crossed the Alps to Italian city of Canossa. He waited for 3 days for Pope Gregory to end his excommunication. A compromise between the church and the emperor.

Concordat – means agreement. Worms – German city.

Chapter 14 Reading Guide

The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500

Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades (P. 379)

The Age of Faith

  1. What three issues worried reformers about religion during this time period?

  1. Priests married and had families

  2. Simony – Bishops sold church positions

  3. Lay investiture – kings appoint bishop, when the head of church should be appointing the clergy.

  1. What was the Curia and what were its duties?

The pope’s court – it developed canon laws on marriage, divorce, and inheretance

  1. What were tithes used for?

Perform social service – Run hospitals and help the sick/poor

The Crusades

  1. Who and what initiated the Crusades or “holy war?”

Pope Urban II

  1. List four goals of the Crusades?

  • Economic

  • Social

  • Political

  • Religious Motives

  1. What problems did the Crusaders face on the first Crusade?

No strategy – no knowledge of geography or climate

  1. What was the outcome of the First Crusade?

July 15, 1099 the crusaders captured Jerusalem.

  1. What happened in the Second Crusade? 1187 – Jerusalem fell to the Kurdish warrior, Saladin. Turks were re

  2. What agreement was reached at the conclusion of the Third Crusade?

The Crusading Spirit Dwindles

  1. Describe the outcome of the Children’s Crusade:

  1. What was the inquisition? Who was targeted?

-What happened to those suspected of heresy?

Effects of the Crusades

38. List four effects of the Crusades:

Section 2: Changes in Medieval Society (P. 387)

A Growing Food Supply

  1. What was a major factor in the increased production of food between 800-1200?

  1. Why did farmers switch from oxen to the horse?

  1. Explain how the three field system worked:

The Guilds

  1. What were guilds and why were they beneficial?

Commercial Revolution

  1. What was the Commercial Revolution?

  1. What advancement did the “Muslim Connection” bring to Western Europe?

Section 3: England and France Develop (P. 393)

England Absorbs Waves of Invaders

  1. What was going on in England in the 800s?

  1. Who claimed the crown after Edward died?

England’s Evolving Government

  1. What were the goals of English Kings during this time period?

  1. What were the duties of the royal courts of justice?

  2. What is Common Law- Then and Now?

  1. What was the Magna Carta? Why was it drawn up?

Capetian Dynasty Rules France

  1. Who was Hugh Capet?

  1. Why did the Capetians do so well?

  1. Who was the most powerful of this line of kings? How old was he when he took the throne?

  1. Who did this young king have great success over?

  1. What honor was given to Henry’s grandson Louis IX?

  1. What government body did he create?

  1. What was the Estate’s General? What were the different estates?

Section 4: The Hundred Years War (P. 398)

A Church Divided

  1. What happened to papal authority? Explain how this happened?

  1. What huge change was made under Clement V?

  1. What was the Great Schism?

The Bubonic Plague Strikes

61. How was the plague spread?

The Hundred Years’ War

63. What was the Hundred Years War?

62. List four effects of the plague:

64. What was Joan of Arc’s goal?

65. List three outcomes of the Hundred Years’ War:

-What happened to her?

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