Chapter 13 Georgia from the Confederation to the Constitution



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Chapter 13

Georgia from the Confederation to the Constitution

GA Under the Confederation Government

  • For several years, GA and the other 12 states lived under their first experiment in self-government, a confederation.

  • They had problems with money, trade and relationships with other countries and with the Native Americans whose nations were within the states’ own borders.

  • During this confederation period, GA began rebuilding after the destructions caused by the Revolution and the exodus of Loyalists, British officials, and slaves.

  • Part of the rebuilding was trying to solve the state’s problems of finances, land and Native Americans.

The Articles of Confederation

  • For much of the American Revolution, the government of the US had been the Second Continental Congress.

  • In 1781, after years of negotiations concerning overlapping claims to the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, the states had formed a confederation.

  • In the confederation, the power to govern remained mainly in the states; the central government was limited to certain actions needed by the whole group.

The Articles of Confederation

  • The way the government operated was outlined in the document that established it, the Articles of Confederation.

  • The main functions of the Confederation government was to defend the country, pay its debts, settle arguments between the states, maintain relationships with other countries, and set up a postal service for mail going between the states.

The Articles of Confederation

  • The Confederation had no executive branch of government because the ex-colonies remembered the executive power of the king and royal governors.

  • There was no court system, the judicial functions were handled within each state.

  • The government was a unicameral (one-house) legislature that worked by forming committees to deal with specific tasks.

  • Even the powers of legislature were limited. It could not tax and could not regulate trade between the states or with foreign nations.

  • To change anything in the Articles, every state had to agree; that made change very difficult.

Georgia’s Government

  • At the end of the war, GA’s government was based on the Constitution of 1777.

  • The state government did have an executive branch. However the powers were shared by a governor and a council. The legislature had most power.

  • Georgia did have a court system. The superior court in each county was the major institution of county government, overseeing elections, controlling roads, and providing aid for the poor.

Land

  • When the soldiers returned home from the Revolutionary War, some found their cattle gone and their buildings in ruin.

  • Many slaves had left with the British or run away.

  • The personal wealth of most Georgians was in land, not cash.

  • With land a farmer could cut his own wood for fuel, grow food for his family and his animals, and make a little cash to pay for any goods he could not produce himself.

  • One question was what to do with land that had belonged to loyalists?

Land

  • The state confiscated the Loyalists land and hoped to make money by selling it.

  • Soldiers in state militia and the Continental Army, including those from other states who had fought for the independence in GA, could receive land for their service. This was called a bounty grant.

  • The amount of land received depended on the rank of the soldier.

  • With the threat of the loyalists removed, hundreds of settlers moved onto land in the backcountry.

Land

  • The growing importance of the areas away from the coast resulted in the assembly’s decision to move the capital further into the interior. In 1786, the assembly voted to find a new site for the capital. A new town—to be called Louisville—was ordered to be built on the Ogeechee River near an old trading post. Until it was completed, Augusta served as the capital for ten years.

Indian Relations

  • The Confederation as a whole now owned the Northwest Territory. It eventually became 5 states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan.

  • Land west of the Ogeechee River was still claimed by the Creek; the Cherokee claimed the northern area of the state.

  • Georgia came under increased pressure to acquire more land from the Indians.

  • Although GA wanted more land it wanted to acquire it without causing major conflict with the Native Americans.

Indian Relations

  • The first meeting was the with Cherokee, they agreed to give up land west of the Savannah River and south and west of the Tugalo river.

  • The upper Creek were totally against giving up more land.

Finances

  • Another major problem for the young state was money. During the war the government had many expenses but little income.

  • By the end of the war, GA was in debt.

Questions for Your Chapter 13 Graded Question Sheet

  • Write on loose-leaf paper to be turned in (see syllabus for due date)

  • For several years, GA and the other 12 states lived under their first experiment in self-government, a _______________.

  • Part of the rebuilding was trying to solve the state’s problems of finances, land and _______________.

3) In 1781, after years of negotiations concerning overlapping claims to the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, the states had formed a ____________.

4) The way the government operated was outlined in the document that established it, the ________________.

  • There was no court system, the judicial functions were handled within each ______.

6) The government was a __________(one-house) legislature that worked by forming committees to deal with specific tasks.

7) At the end of the war, GA’s government was based on the Constitution of ________.

8) The first meeting was the with Cherokee, they agreed to give up land west of the Savannah River and south and west of the _________river.

Georgia’s Economic, Educational and Religious Development

  • A new emphasis on education emerged in the states as citizens faced the prospect of governing themselves.

  • Georgia made the effort to have schools in towns and led the nation in chartering a college.

  • The main cash crop became tobacco.

Education in GA

  • After the war, GA became concerned about education. If ordinary citizens would be voting, they needed to be able to read and write and make informed decisions.

  • The Academy of Richmond County was the first in the state and held its first classes in Augusta in 1785.

  • In 1785, the state of GA chartered what became the University of Georgia.

Religion in GA

  • Over the next few years , old churches were rebuilt and new churches built.

  • The Constitution of 1777 stated that the Anglican Church was no longer the government sponsored religion.

  • After the war the Anglicans separated from the Church of England and founded the Episcopal church.

Religion in GA

  • Both Methodist and Baptist churches grew quickly in the rural, frontier areas of the state. The Baptist belief that each congregation should operate separately and that lay people had great authority in the church made it possible for backcountry settlers to form their own churches.

  • Slaves in town sometimes worshiped in the same churches as their owners.

  • Andrew Bryan, a slave, was baptized and began preaching to the African American community of Savannah. He was officially ordained as a Baptist minister and purchased his freedom.

Questions for Your Chapter 13 Graded Question Sheet

  • Write on loose-leaf paper to be turned in (see syllabus for due date)

  • A new emphasis on education emerged in the states as citizens faced the prospect of __________themselves.

  • Georgia made the effort to have schools in towns and led the nation in chartering a ________.

3) The main cash crop became ______.

4) After the war, GA became concerned about ____________.

  • The Academy of Richmond County was the first in the state and held its first classes in Augusta in _______.

6) In 1785, the state of GA chartered what became the _____________.

7) The Constitution of ________ stated that the Anglican Church was no longer the government sponsored religion.

8) ___________, a slave, was baptized and began preaching to the African American community of Savannah. He was officially ordained as a Baptist minister and purchased his freedom.

Creating a New Constitution

  • The problems that developed in the 1780s under the Articles all related to the weakness of its central government.

  • The government needed increased powers to tax so it could pay its debts and keep the respect of other countries and of its own citizens.

  • The young and weak US needed the power of a stronger central government to be able to negotiate effectively with Great Britain, France and Spain.

Problems Under the Articles of Confederation

  • In September 1786, a group met at Annapolis, Maryland to discuss trade problems between the states.

  • Only 5 states sent representatives. The group decided to call for a meeting in May in Philadelphia, inviting all the states to send delegates.

  • In February, the Confederation Congress approved the idea of this convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.

Constitutional Convention

  • GA sent four delegates: William Few, Abraham Baldwin, William Pierce and William Houstoun.

  • Delegates from 12 states attended the convention to discuss changes or amendments to the Articles of Confederation.

  • The states had chosen some of their leading citizens—Benjamin Franklin, George Washington and James Madison.

  • They proceeded to make a new government.

Constitutional Convention

  • James Madison proposed that a government with a strong national government that could collect taxes, make laws, and enforce laws in its own courts.

  • The new government would have three branches: executive, judicial, legislative.

  • There would be two houses: Senate and House of Representatives. Each state would have a number of representatives based on population. Each state would have two Senators.

  • The establishment of Congress and guidelines for its powers became Article I of the document that became the United States Constitution.

US Constitution

  • Article II established a new executive branch, which was to be headed by a president and vice president.

  • They put the choice of president and vice president in the hands of the Electoral College.

  • Eligible voters would vote for electors in their states; those electors would then vote for president and vice president.

US Constitution

  • The executive powers of the president included the important one of serving as commander-in-chief of any military forces the country might establish or call up in time of war.

  • Article III established a separate judicial branch and called for a supreme court and for lower courts as needed.

  • The constitution itself became the supreme law of the land.

  • When it was completed 39 of the original delegates signed it on September 17, 1787.

US Constitution

  • Those who supported the constitution were Federalists, those against were Antifederalists.

  • The first 10 amendments to the constitution were called the Bill of Rights.

Questions for Your Chapter 13 Graded Question Sheet

  • Write on loose-leaf paper to be turned in (see syllabus for due date)

  • The problems that developed in the _______ under the Articles all related to the weakness of its central government.

  • The young and weak US needed the power of a stronger central government to be able to negotiate effectively with _________________.

3) GA sent four delegates: _________, Abraham Baldwin, William Pierce and William Houstoun.

4) Delegates from ______states attended the convention to discuss changes or amendments to the Articles of Confederation

  • _________proposed that a government with a strong national government that could collect taxes, make laws, and enforce laws in its own courts.

6) The new government would have three branches: executive, judicial, ________.

7) Article _____ established a new executive branch, which was to be headed by a president and vice president

8) Those who supported the constitution were Federalists, those against were _____________.



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