Chapter 13. 2- feudalism in Europe New Invasions Trouble Western Europe



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Chapter 13.2- Feudalism in Europe

  1. New Invasions Trouble Western Europe

  • Between 800 and 1000CE- invasions completely destroyed the Carolingian Empire

  • Muslim invaders from south seized Sicily and raided Italy…sacked Rome in 846

  • Magyar invaders struck from the east…terrorized Germany and Italy

  • Vikings sailed from the north

  1. Vikings: Raiders, Traders, and Explorers

  • Vikings were from Scandinavia

  • Vikings= Germanic people…called Northmen or Norsemen (or Normans)

  • Worshipped warlike gods

    • Intimidating names: Eric Bloodaxe, Thorfinn Skullsplitter

  • Vikings carried out raids very swiftly

    • Armed with swords and heavy wooden shields

    • Quickly beached ships, attacked, and escaped in ships

    • “Pay through the nose.”…”Bloody Eagle”

  • Largest Viking long ship held 300 warriors

    • 72 oars

    • Could weigh 20 tons, but sail in 3 feet of water

    • Rowed up shallow creeks to attack inland villages and monasteries

  • Vikings were warriors, traders, farmers, and outstanding explorers

  • Journey to Russia, Constantinople, and across the North Atlantic to Greenland and Canada

  • Leif Ericson- reached North America around 1000CE

  • Around 1000CE- Viking terror in Europe began fading away

  • Vikings gradually accepted Christianity

  • Warming trend in Europe’s climate made farming easier in Scandinavia

    • Agricultural settlements in Iceland and Greenland prospered…less of a need to go “a-viking”

  1. Magyars and Muslims

  • Magyars: group of nomadic people, who attacked from the east…superb horseback riders

  • Magyars swept across the plains of the Danube River and invaded western Europe in the late 800’s

    • Magyars did not settle conquered land

    • Gathered POW’s to sell as slaves

    • Attacked isolated villages and monasteries

    • Magyars overran northern Italy and reached as far west as the Rhineland and Burgundy

  • Muslim attacks from the south…controlled the Mediterranean Sea and disrupted trade

  • Muslims were excellent sailors…attacked settlements on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts and as far inland as Switzerland

  • Invasions of Vikings, Magyars and Muslims caused widespread disorder and suffering…most western Europeans were living under constant danger

  • Central authority was powerless…many turned to local rulers with their own armies for protection

  1. Feudalism Structures Society

  • 911- Rollo the Viking received a large portion of land from the king of France, Charles the Simple

    • (Danegeld)- Northmen’s land/ Normandy

    • In return, Rollo took an oath of fealty to Charles

  1. A New Social Order

  • Worst years of invaders’ attacks spanned from 850 to 950CE- gave rise to feudalism

  • Similar feudal system in China under the Zhou Dynasty (11th century BCE to 256CE)

  • Feudalism in Japan began in AD 1192 and ended in the 19th century (samurai/monetary payments)

  • Feudal system was based on mutual obligations

  • Lord (landowner) granted land, called a fief, in exchange for military protection, or other services

  • Person receiving fief was called a vassal

  1. The Feudal Pyramid

  • Pyramid with King at the peak

  • Next: most powerful vassals- wealthy landowners such as nobles and bishops

  • Next: Knights- mounted warriors who pledge to defend their lords’ lands in exchange for fiefs

  • Base of pyramid: landless peasants who toiled in fields

  • Subinfeudation: same noble might be a vassal to several different lords

  1. Social Classes Are Well Defined

  • In feudal system, status determined a person’s prestige and power

  • People classified in 3 groups:

    • 1. People who fought (nobles and knights)

    • 2. Those who prayed (men and women of the Church)

    • 3. Those who worked (the peasants)

  • Social class was usually inherited

  • Europe during the Middle Ages, vast majority of people were peasants

  • Most peasants were SERFS- people that were bound to the land (but not slaves)

  • Wealth of feudal lords came from the labor of the peasants

  1. Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism

  • Manor: lord’s estate

  • During the Middle Ages- manor system was the basic ECONOMIC arrangement

  • Manor system rested on set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs

  • Lord provided serfs with housing, strips of farmland, and protection from bandits…in return, serfs tended the lord’s lands, cared for his animals, and maintained the estate

    • Peasant women shared in the farmwork with their husbands

  • All peasants owed the lord certain duties

  1. A Self-Contained World

  • Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from their own manor…manor usually only covered a few square miles of land

  • Typically consisted of lord’s manor house, a church, and workshops

  • Generally, 15 to 30 families lived in the village on a manor

  1. The Harshness of Manor Life

  • Peasants had to pay a tax on all grain ground in the lord’s mill

    • Trying to dodge taxes by baking bread elsewhere treated as a crime

  • Peasants also paid a tax on marriage

    • Weddings could only take place with the lord’s consent

  • Peasant families also owed the village priest a TITHE/ Church tax (1/10 of income)

  • Serfs lived in crowded cottages with only one or two rooms…brought pigs inside for warmth…families huddled for warmth on straw (often insect infested)

  • Peasants’ simple diet: vegetables, course brown bread, grain, cheese, and soup

  • Serfs accepted their lot in life as part of the Church’s teachings…believed that God determined a person’s place in society.

Name: __________________________

Date: _____________ Period: _______

Chapter 13.2 Reading Quiz



  1. Draw a diagram for Feudalism

Monarch

Lords


Knights

Serfs


Lord/Vassal- Oath of Fealty-Fief-Subinfeudation

  1. What is the difference between manoralism and feudalism?

Manoralism= the ECONOMIC arrangement of the manor and the lands surrounding it…what each person contributes economically

Feudalism= the political and social bonds that were forged with Oaths of Fealty



  1. What was the impact of the Vikings on Western Europe?

With the lack of a strong centralized government, people became serfs in order to gain protection provided by lords and their knights…terrorized Western Europe…Vikings also gained land as “danegeld”…ex: Normandy in France


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