Chapter 126. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Technology Applications Subchapter A. Elementary


§126.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Technology Applications, High School



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§126.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Technology Applications, High School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall supersede §75.123 of this title (relating to Computer Science) beginning September 1, 1998.

 

Source: The provisions of this §126.21 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5203.

§126.22. Computer Science I (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. The prerequisite for this course is proficiency in the knowledge and skills described in §126.12(c) of this title (relating to Technology Applications (Computer Literacy), Grades 6-8). In addition, it is recommended that students have proficiency in the knowledge and skills for Algebra I identified in §111.32(b) of this title (relating to Algebra I (One Credit)) or the equivalent knowledge and skills. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. School districts may use the knowledge and skills described in subsection (c) of this section, the computer science course descriptions for the College Board Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate programs, or a combination thereof.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The technology applications curriculum has four strands: foundations, information acquisition, work in solving problems, and communication.

(2) Through the study of technology applications foundations, including technology-related terms, concepts, and data input strategies, students learn to make informed decisions about technologies and their applications. The efficient acquisition of information includes the identification of task requirements; the plan for using search strategies; and the use of technology to access, analyze, and evaluate the acquired information. By using technology as a tool that supports the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create a solution, and evaluate the results. Students communicate information in different formats and to diverse audiences. A variety of technologies will be used. Students will analyze and evaluate the results.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Foundations. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of hardware components, software programs, and their connections. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge and appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and communication and networking components;

(B) compare, contrast, and appropriately use the various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices;

(C) make decisions regarding the selection, acquisition, and use of software taking under consideration its quality, appropriateness, effectiveness, and efficiency;

(D) delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues including, but not limited to, digital file formats and cross platform connectivity;

(E) differentiate current programming languages, discuss the use of the languages in other fields of study, and demonstrate knowledge of specific programming terminology and concepts;

(F) differentiate among the levels of programming languages including machine, assembly, high-level compiled and interpreted languages; and

(G) demonstrate coding proficiency in a contemporary programming language.

(2) Foundations. The student uses data input skills appropriate to the task. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate proficiency in the use of a variety of input devices such as keyboard, scanner, voice/sound recorder, mouse, touch screen, or digital video by appropriately incorporating such components into the product; and

(B) use digital keyboarding standards for the input of data.

(3) Foundations. The student complies with the laws and examines the issues regarding the use of technology in society. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss copyright laws/issues and model ethical acquisition and use of digital information, citing sources using established methods;

(B) demonstrate proper etiquette and knowledge of acceptable use policies when using networks, especially resources on the Internet and intranet;

(C) investigate measures, such as passwords or virus detection/prevention, to protect computer systems and databases from unauthorized use and tampering; and

(D) discuss the impact of computer programming on the World Wide Web (WWW) community.

(4) Information acquisition. The student uses a variety of strategies to acquire information from electronic resources, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) use local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs), including the Internet and intranet, in research and resource sharing; and

(B) construct appropriate electronic search strategies in the acquisition of information including keyword and Boolean search strategies.

(5) Information acquisition. The student acquires electronic information in a variety of formats, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) acquire information in and knowledge about electronic formats including text, audio, video, and graphics;

(B) use a variety of resources, including foundation and enrichment curricula, together with various productivity tools to gather authentic data as a basis for individual and group programming projects; and

(C) design and document sequential search algorithms for digital information storage and retrieval.

(6) Information acquisition. The student evaluates the acquired electronic information. The student is expected to:

(A) determine and employ methods to evaluate the design and functionality of the process using effective coding, design, and test data; and

(B) implement methods for the evaluation of the information using defined rubrics.

(7) Solving problems. The student uses appropriate computer-based productivity tools to create and modify solutions to problems. The student is expected to:

(A) apply problem-solving strategies such as design specifications, modular top-down design, step-wise refinement, or algorithm development;

(B) use visual organizers to design solutions such as flowcharts or schematic drawings;

(C) develop sequential and iterative algorithms and codes programs in prevailing computer languages to solve practical problems modeled from school and community;

(D) code using various data types;

(E) demonstrate effective use of predefined input and output procedures for lists of computer instructions including procedures to protect from invalid input;

(F) develop coding with correct and efficient use of expressions and assignment statements including the use of standard/user-defined functions, data structures, operators/proper operator precedence, and sequential/conditional/repetitive control structures;

(G) create and use libraries of generic modular code to be used for efficient programming;

(H) identify actual and formal parameters and use value and reference parameters;

(I) use control structures such as conditional statements and iterated, pretest, and posttest loops;

(J) use sequential, conditional, selection, and repetition execution control structures such as menu-driven programs that branch and allow user input; and

(K) identify and use structured data types of one-dimensional arrays, records, and text files.

(8) Solving problems. The student uses research skills and electronic communication, with appropriate supervision, to create new knowledge. The student is expected to:

(A) participate with electronic communities as a learner, initiator, contributor, and teacher/mentor;

(B) demonstrate proficiency in, appropriate use of, and navigation of LANs and WANs for research and for sharing of resources;

(C) extend the learning environment beyond the school walls with digital products created to increase teaching and learning in the foundation and enrichment curricula; and

(D) participate in relevant, meaningful activities in the larger community and society to create electronic projects.

(9) Solving problems. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of work, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) design and implement procedures to track trends, set timelines, and review/evaluate progress for continual improvement in process and product;

(B) use correct programming style to enhance the readability and functionality of the code such as spacing, descriptive identifiers, comments, or documentation;

(C) seek and respond to advice from peers and professionals in delineating technological tasks;

(D) resolve information conflicts and validate information through accessing, researching, and comparing data; and

(E) create technology specifications for tasks/evaluation rubrics and demonstrate that products/product quality can be evaluated against established criteria.

(10) Communication. The student formats digital information for appropriate and effective communication. The student is expected to:

(A) annotate coding properly with comments, indentation, and formatting; and

(B) create interactive documents using modeling, simulation, and hypertext.

(11) Communication. The student delivers the product electronically in a variety of media, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) publish information in a variety of ways including, but not limited to, printed copy and monitor displays; and

(B) publish information in a variety of ways including, but not limited to, software, Internet documents, and video.

(12) Communication. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of communication, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) write technology specifications for planning/evaluation rubrics documenting variables, prompts, and programming code internally and externally;

(B) seek and respond to advice from peers and professionals in evaluating the product; and

(C) debug and solve problems using reference materials and effective strategies.

 

Source: The provisions of this §126.22 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5203.

§126.23. Computer Science II (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. The prerequisite for this course is proficiency in the knowledge and skills for Computer Science I as identified in §126.22(c) of this title (relating to Computer Science I (One Credit)). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. School districts may use the knowledge and skills described in subsection (c) of this section, the computer science course descriptions for the College Board Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate programs, or a combination thereof.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The technology applications curriculum has four strands: foundations, information acquisition, work in solving problems, and communication.

(2) Through the study of technology applications foundations, including technology-related terms, concepts, and data input strategies, students learn to make informed decisions about technologies and their applications. The efficient acquisition of information includes the identification of task requirements; the plan for using search strategies; and the use of technology to access, analyze, and evaluate the acquired information. By using technology as a tool that supports the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create a solution, and evaluate the results. Students communicate information in different formats and to diverse audiences. A variety of technologies will be used. Students will analyze and evaluate the results.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Foundations. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of hardware components, software programs, and their connections. The student is expected to:

(A) identify object-oriented data types and delineate the advantages/disadvantages of object data;

(B) demonstrate coding proficiency in contemporary programming languages including an object-oriented language; and

(C) survey the issues accompanying the development of large software systems such as design/implementation teams, software validation/testing, and risk assessment.

(2) Foundations. The student uses data input skills appropriate to the task. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate proficiency in the use of a variety of input devices such as keyboard, scanner, voice/sound recorder, mouse, touch screen, or digital video by appropriately incorporating such components into the product; and

(B) use digital keyboarding standards for the input of data.

(3) Foundations. The student complies with the laws and examines the issues regarding the use of technology in society. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss copyright laws/issues and model ethical acquisition and use of digital information, citing sources using established methods;

(B) demonstrate proper etiquette and knowledge of acceptable use policies when using networks, especially resources on the Internet and intranet;

(C) investigate measures, such as passwords or virus detection/prevention, to protect computer systems and databases from unauthorized use and tampering; and

(D) code modules for the World Wide Web (WWW) community.

(4) Information acquisition. The student uses a variety of strategies to acquire information from electronic resources, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) construct search algorithms including linear and binary searches; and

(B) compare and contrast search and sort algorithms including linear and binary searches for different purposes and search time.

(5) Information acquisition. The student acquires electronic information in a variety of formats, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) acquire information in and knowledge about electronic formats including text, audio, video, and graphics; and

(B) use a variety of resources, including foundation and enrichment curricula, together with various productivity tools to gather authentic data as a basis for individual and group programming projects.

(6) Information acquisition. The student evaluates the acquired electronic information. The student is expected to:

(A) determine and employ methods to evaluate the design and functionality of the process using effective coding, design, and test data; and

(B) implement methods for the evaluation of the information using defined rubrics.

(7) Solving problems. The student uses appropriate computer-based productivity tools to create and modify solutions to problems. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriately and trace recursion in program design comparing invariant, iterative, and recursive algorithms;

(B) manipulate data structures using string processing;

(C) use notation for language definition such as syntax diagrams or Backus-Naur forms;

(D) identify, describe, and use sequential/non-sequential files; multidimensional arrays and arrays of records; and quadratic sort algorithms such as selection, bubble, or insertion, and more efficient algorithms including merge, shell, and quick sorts;

(E) create robust programs with increased emphasis on design, style, clarity of expression and documentation for ease of maintenance, program expansion, reliability, and validity;

(F) apply methods for computing iterative approximations and statistical algorithms;

(G) define and develop code using the concepts of abstract data types including stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, graphs, and information hiding;

(H) identify and describe the correctness and complexity of algorithms such as divide and conquer, backtracking, or greedy algorithms;

(I) develop software to solve a school or community problem such as customer relations, design, modular programming, documentation, validation, marketing, or support; and

(J) research advanced computer science concepts such as applied artificial intelligence, expert systems, robotics, depth-first/breadth-first and heuristic search strategies, multitasking operating systems, or computer architecture, such as reduced instruction set computer (RISC) and complex instruction set computer (CISC).

(8) Solving problems. The student uses research skills and electronic communication, with appropriate supervision, to create new knowledge. The student is expected to:

(A) participate with electronic communities as a learner, initiator, contributor, and teacher/mentor;

(B) demonstrate proficiency in, appropriate use of, and navigation of local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) for research and for sharing of resources;

(C) extend the learning environment beyond the school walls with digital products created to increase teaching and learning in the foundation and enrichment curricula; and

(D) participate in relevant, meaningful activities in the larger community and society to create electronic projects.

(9) Solving problems. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of work, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the ability to read and modify large programs including the design description and process development;

(B) analyze algorithms using "big-O" notation, best, average, and worst case space techniques;

(C) compare and contrast design methodologies including top-down and bottom-up;

(D) analyze models used in development of software including software life cycle models, design objectives, documentation, and support; and

(E) seek and respond to advice from peers and professionals in delineating technological tasks.

(10) Communication. The student formats digital information for appropriate and effective communication. The student is expected to:

(A) annotate coding properly with comments, indentation, and formatting; and

(B) create interactive documents using modeling, simulation, and hypertext.

(11) Communication. The student delivers the product electronically in a variety of media, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) publish information in a variety of ways including, but not limited to, printed copy and monitor displays; and

(B) publish information in a variety of ways including, but not limited to, software, Internet documents, and video.

(12) Communication. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of communication, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) write technology specifications for planning and evaluation rubrics documenting variables, prompts, and program internally and externally;

(B) seek and respond to advice from peers and professionals in evaluating the product; and

(C) debug and solve problems using reference materials and effective strategies.

 

Source: The provisions of this §126.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5203.

§126.24. Desktop Publishing (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. The prerequisite for this course is proficiency in the knowledge and skills described in §126.12(c) of this title (relating to Technology Applications (Computer Literacy), Grades 6-8). This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The technology applications curriculum has four strands: foundations, information acquisition, work in solving problems, and communication.

(2) Through the study of technology applications foundations, including technology-related terms, concepts, and data input strategies, students learn to make informed decisions about technologies and their applications. The efficient acquisition of information includes the identification of task requirements; the plan for using search strategies; and the use of technology to access, analyze, and evaluate the acquired information. By using technology as a tool that supports the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create a solution, and evaluate the results. Students communicate information in different formats and to diverse audiences. A variety of technologies will be used. Students will analyze and evaluate the results.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Foundations. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of hardware components, software programs, and their connections. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge and appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and communication and networking components;

(B) compare, contrast, and appropriately use the various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices;

(C) make decisions regarding the selection, acquisition, and use of software taking under consideration its quality, appropriateness, effectiveness, and efficiency;

(D) delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues including, but not limited to, digital file formats and cross platform connectivity; and

(E) demonstrate knowledge of technology terminology and concepts relating them to desktop publishing.

(2) Foundations. The student uses data input skills appropriate to the task. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate proficiency in the use of a variety of input devices such as mouse, keyboard, disk/disc, modem, scanner, voice/sound recorder, or digital camera by appropriately incorporating such components into the product; and

(B) use digital keyboarding standards in word processing such as one space after punctuation, the use of em/en dashes, and smart quotation marks.

(3) Foundations. The student complies with the laws and examines the issues regarding the use of technology in society. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss copyright laws/issues and model ethical acquisition and use of digital information, citing sources using established methods;

(B) demonstrate proper etiquette and knowledge of acceptable use policies when using networks, especially resources on the Internet and intranet; and

(C) analyze the impact of desktop publishing on society including concepts related to persuasiveness, marketing, and point of view.

(4) Information acquisition. The student uses a variety of strategies to acquire information from electronic resources, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) use strategies to obtain print and digital information from a variety of electronic resources including, but not limited to, reference software, databases, and libraries of images, citing the source; and

(B) use strategies to navigate on and access information from local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), the Internet, and intranet.

(5) Information acquisition. The student acquires electronic information in a variety of formats, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) acquire information in electronic formats including text, audio, video, and graphics, citing the source; and

(B) demonstrate the ability to import and export elements from one program to another.

(6) Information acquisition. The student evaluates the acquired electronic information. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and employ a method to evaluate the information; and

(B) demonstrate skill in testing the accuracy and validity of the information.

(7) Solving problems. The student uses appropriate computer-based productivity tools to create and modify solutions to problems. The student is expected to:

(A) use desktop publishing methods in foundation and enrichment curricula;

(B) identify the tasks in a project and use the tools needed for completion such as word processing, pagination, utility, indexing, graphics, or drawing programs;

(C) use electronic productivity tools such as the word processor to edit text including move, copy, cut and paste, and spell check;

(D) select and use the categories of type, font, size, style, and alignment appropriate for the task;

(E) apply the basic elements of page design including text, graphics, headlines, and white space;

(F) distinguish design requirements as they relate to purposes and audiences including one-surface objects, multiple or bound pages, stationery, book jackets/magazine covers, pamphlets, magazines, brochures, and labels; and

(G) read and use technical documentation.

(8) Solving problems. The student uses research skills and electronic communication, with appropriate supervision, to create new knowledge. The student is expected to:

(A) develop technical documentation related to desktop publishing;

(B) demonstrate the use of technology to participate in self-directed and practical activities;

(C) extend the learning environment beyond the classroom through the creation and sharing of electronically formatted and published documents via electronic networks;

(D) synthesize new information from data gathered from interviews, print, and electronic resources; and

(E) demonstrate that tasks can be accomplished through technological collaboration and participate with electronic communities as a learner, initiator, contributor, and teacher/mentor.

(9) Solving problems. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of work, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) create technology specifications for tasks and evaluation rubrics to evaluate process and product against established criteria;

(B) design and implement procedures to track trends, set timelines, and review/evaluate progress for continual improvement in process and product;

(C) resolve information conflicts and validate information through accessing, researching, and comparing data; and

(D) seek and respond to advice from peers in delineating technological tasks.

(10) Communication. The student formats digital information for appropriate and effective communication. The student is expected to:

(A) define the purpose of the product and identify the specified audience;

(B) use terms related to typography appropriately including categories of type and type contrasts;

(C) use the principles of page design to create a product including, but not limited to, leading/kerning, automatic text flow into linked columns, widows/orphans, and text wrap;

(D) create a master template to include page specifications and other repetitive tasks;

(E) apply the basics of type measurement for inches and picas;

(F) use type techniques as graphic elements such as drop cap, decorative letters, or embedded-text frames;

(G) apply color principles to communicate the mood of the product for the specific audience;

(H) incorporate the principles of basic design including, but not limited to, balance, contrast, dominant element, use of white space, consistency, repetition, alignment, and proximity;

(I) identify the parts and kinds of pages including inside margin, outside margin, gutter, title, and inside pages; and

(J) use a variety of strategies to create effective designs, such as varying line widths and patterns, and use manipulation tools to stretch, bend, screen, rotate, follow a path, or mirror type.

(11) Communication. The student delivers the product electronically in a variety of media, with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate media for creating a knowledge base with a broad perspective and communicating to the worldwide community;

(B) use printing options such as tiling, color separations, collation, and previewing;

(C) distinguish design and printing requirements as they relate to purposes, audiences, and final output; and

(D) use styles (style sheets) including a variety of type specifications such as typeface, style, size, alignment, indents, and tabs.

(12) Communication. The student uses technology applications to facilitate evaluation of communication, both process and product. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and employ a method to evaluate the project for design, content delivery, purpose, and audience;

(B) use electronic project management tools to set milestones for completing projects and reviewing progress;

(C) seek and respond to advice from peers in evaluating the product;

(D) create technology specifications for tasks and evaluation rubrics; and

(E) demonstrate that products and product quality can be evaluated against established criteria.

 

Source: The provisions of this §126.24 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 5203.




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