Chapter 12 – 13 review



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CHAPTER 12 – 13 REVIEW


  1. In the fifteenth century, what did the Igbo people in West Africa have in common with the Iroquois League in North America? Institutions for resolving conflict in the absence of a state




  1. What was the largest pastoral society in West Africa in the fifteenth century? The Fulbe




  1. Why did the maritime expeditions of the Indian Ocean basin sponsored by the Ming emperor suddenly stop in 1433? They viewed expansion as a waste of resources




  1. In its effort to recover from the disruption of Mongol rule, where did the Ming dynasty look for inspiration? The culture of past Chinese dynasties




  1. What reflected the fragmented and competitive political environment in Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? The Hundred Years’ War between England and France




  1. In which empire was a Shia version of Islam made the official religion in the sixteenth century? Safavid




  1. Which empire established unified control over most of the Indian peninsula? Mughal Empire




  1. What feature did the Mughal Empire and Songhay Empire share? The rulers were Muslim, but the majority of the population was not




  1. The wars carried out by the Aztec Empire were linked to what acts? The practice of human sacrifice




  1. What did the Inca Empire do that the Aztec Empire did not do? Build an elaborate bureaucracy to integrate and control its subjects




  1. What could women do in both the Aztec and Inca empires? Exercise political authority




  1. Which two societies shared a common religion? The Songhay and Ottoman Empires




  1. The Inca and Aztec empires practiced similar gender-based systems in which women and men operated in two separate but equivalent spheres, a system that scholars call gender parallelism




  1. In the fifteenth century, the gathering and hunting way of life associated with the Paleolithic era persisted in Australia




  1. What was a principle underlying the Great Law of Peace of the Iroquois League? Limited Government




  1. After the fifteenth century, how did the Chinese state resolve the problem created by a growing population and land scarcity? More intensive use of available land




  1. Which empire ended the Byzantine Empire and came the closest to conquering Europe? Ottoman




  1. The ruler of the Songhay Empire made the pilgrimage to Mecca and asked to be given which title? Caliph of the Land of the Blacks




  1. How was Islam introduced into Southeast Asia and West Africa? By traveling merchants

  2. In what way were the Aztec and Inca empires similar? Both started out as marginalized peoples who conquered and absorbed older cultures




  1. What did the Aztec Empire require conquered people to do? Pay tribute




  1. In the fifteenth century, long-distance trade shifted to East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean



  1. What factor was a web of connection that linked many of the peoples in the world of the fifteenth century? Empires




  1. In which century did European peoples begin to take on a more prominent role on the global stage? Fifteenth


Visual and Document Source Questions


  1. Which of the following was a way that the laws attributed to Moctezuma I maintained and enforced social distinctions in Aztec society? Regulations on clothing and accessories for each class




  1. According to the excerpts from Diego Duran, what is a way that a person could fall into slavery in Aztec society? Failing to pay debts




  1. What was one purpose of the storehouses in the provinces of the Inca Empire? Provide relief for poor




  1. What does the painting of Aristotle and Averroes suggest about Renaissance views on Greek learning and Islam? Aristotle’s writings had been faithfully preserved by Muslim scholars




  1. Which of the views of Muhammad mostly likely influenced the fifteenth-century Italian artist Giovanni da Modena? Muhammad as a religious heretic




  1. What distinguished the empires of Western Europe from other empires? They were initiated by maritime expansion




  1. Why did some Native Americans aid the Spanish in their initial invasion of the New World? To gain an advantage against their own enemies




  1. The colonial economy of the Spanish Empire in former Aztec and Inca lands was based on commercial agriculture and mining




  1. Large-scale importation of new slaves continued into the nineteenth century. This describes slavery in Latin America




  1. In contrast to the Portuguese and Spanish colonists in Latin America, British colonists in North America sought to escape rather that re-create European traditions in the Americas




  1. Describe a main feature of Qing China’s policy toward its possessions in central Asia? Respect for the different cultures of the region




  1. The Mughal ruler Akbar favored policies that promoted a cosmopolitan and hybrid Indian-Persian-Turkick culture




  1. What was a result of the Ottoman Empire’s policy toward the Christian population in southeastern Europe? Christian communities enjoyed considerable autonomy over their own affairs




  1. The introduction of corn and potatoes into the Afro-Eurasian diet is an example of the Columbian Exchange




  1. Small-scale independent farmers working their own land dominated the agricultural economy in British North America




  1. Assimilation describes what happened to the native populations of the steppes and Siberia as a consequence of Russian imperial expansion




  1. The process of expansion occurred at the same time that a distinctive state was taking shape in the Russian Empire




  1. Reinstatement of the jizya contributed to the growth of Hindu opposition to Mughal rule by the late seventeenth century.




  1. In the conflict between the Islamic and Christian worlds, which event in the fifteenth century signaled that the Islamic world held the upper hand? The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople




  1. What resulted from Russia’s westward expansion in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? The westernization of Russia




  1. Map 13.1 in the textbook shows the Americas in which century? Eighteenth


Visual and Document Source Questions



  1. “. . . honors, high posts, and judgeships are the rewards of great ability and good service.” This is a description of the Ottoman Empire found in a letter written by the diplomat for the Austrian Empire, Busbecq?




  1. “. . . I would doubtless be capable of governing other empires, just as the sun was capable of lighting up other worlds if they were exposed to its rays.” This reflects how Louis VIV saw his role as king as expressed in his memoirs?




  1. Which ruler emphasized the use of “spectacle” and public display to convey the impression of the exalted role of the monarch? Louis XIV




  1. In Visual Source 13.1, the “flame or tongue of fire” in the sky was viewed by the Aztecs as a sign of death




  1. What is notably absent in the depictions of the encounters between the Aztecs and the Spanish in the visual sources? firearms


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