|Name _________________________________ Class Period ____________
Stuff I Need to Know
Section 1: The Republic of Texas (Pages 238-242)
Cabinet council to advise president
Revenue income of a government; taxes
Promissory Note promise to repay a loan
Problems in the New Republic (page 238)
Texas was now a new nation
Written a Declaration of Independence and a Constitution
President: Sam Houston
Vice President Mirabeau Lamar
What were the problems the Republic of Texas faced? (page 238)
Mexico refused to recognize Texas’ independence
Houston had to persuade other nations to recognize TX as independent nation
Financial problems; Texas was in debt
What 2 Things Did Sam Houston try to do to help with the problems?
Tried to prevent war with Mexico and Native Texans
Limited government spending
What did Sam Houston think was the best solution to Texas’ problems?
Annexation to US
Who were the members of Sam Houston’s cabinet? (page 239)
Stephen F. Austin—secretary of state
Henry Smith—secretary of treasury
Thomas J Rusk—secretary of war
How did the past experiences of these men help Sam Houston?
Helped provide stability for new government
Death of Stephen F. Austin (page 239)
How old was he when he died? 43
What did President Sam Houston do after Stephen F. Austin died?
30 day period of mourning
A New Capital (page 240)
Why did some Texas want to move the capital of Texas to a new location?
Columbia, TX was too small and too isolated
Who were the 2 brothers who wanted to build town near the Harrisburg?
John and Augustus Allen
For whom did they want to name the town? Sam Houston
What problems did the town have? Buildings were made of logs; streets were muddy; heat; humidity; disease
The First Attempt at Annexation (page 240-241)
Why did a majority of people want to immediately be annexed by the US?
Many of settlers in Texas came from US…TX language, customs, ideas, and ideas of government were already same as US…very natural fit
Also, more financial and military security
What was the reason why Texas wasn’t annexed by the US for 10 years?
Financial Woes (page 241)
What was one of the biggest problems in the new Republic of Texas?
Lack of money
To raise revenue for Texas, what did the government do?
Collect customs duties and property taxes
Did doing these things solve the problem of debt? no
What is a promissory note? Promise to repay a loan
Why did they issue $600,000 worth of promissory notes?
To help pay government expenses
Why were they called “Star Money”? had a star on front
Trouble in the Army (page 241)
Did the Mexican government want to accept that Texas was now independent from Mexico even after the Treaties of Velasco? No
What did some of the US citizens who came to Texas after the Texas Revolution want to do? Restless and wanted to fight
Who is Felix Huston? Commander of Texas Army
Did he want to fight Mexico? Yes…still angry about Mexican control of Texas
Sam Houston wanted to get rid of Huston and replace him with Albert Sidney Johnston
What did Huston and Albert Sidney Johnston do? duel
Who was wounded? Albert Sidney Johnston
Who remained in command of the Texas Army? Felix Huston
Still Section 1 (Page 241) Continuing with Trouble in the Army
What did Sam Houston then do? Send all but 600 soldiers home on leave
Why did he send soldiers home and never call them back to duty? Save money by not having to pay their salaries and expenses
Houston’s Native Texan Policy (page 242)
Why did the Indians resent settlers? Settlers moved into their land
Why were the Indians mad when they didn’t get the land promised to them if they kept peace during the Texas Revolution? Cherokees kept their part of bargain; Texans didn’t. Peace treaty with Sam Houston not ratified
What did the Indians then do? Raided and killed settlers
What did Sam Houston organize to help patrol the frontier? Texas Rangers
Did other Texans like the fact that Sam Houston felt bad for the way the Indians had been treated? yes
The Election of 1838 (page 242)
Based on the Texas Constitution, how many years could Sam Houston be president of the Republic of Texas when he was first elected? 2
Could he be elected 2 times in a row? no
Who was elected president of the Republic of Texas in 1838? (2nd president of republic of Texas) Lamar
Section 2 A Different Vision for Texas
1. Lamar's Plan for the Republic (page 244)
a. How are Lamar's and Sam Houston's Personalities and What they like Different?
Houston: flashy clothes; very bold with decisions about frontier
Lamar: quiet, loved reading and poetry
Both: strong leaders with very different ways of governing Republic
b. As presidents, how were Houston's and Lamar different?
Houston: wanted to keep peace with Indians and Mexico; wanted to get Texas debt under control; promoted annexation
Lamar: wanted to fight Mexico; wanted Indians out of way (killed or reservations)
Spent money on military….didn’t worry about debt; wanted Texas to stay an independent nation
Who was the more aggressive president who was very willing to spend too much money? Lamar
2. Clashes with the Native Texans (page 245)
a. What did Lamar want to do with the Indians? Kill them or force them out of TX
b. What happened with the Cherokees in East Texas--list the events that happened to them:
1. Cherokee Chief Bowles ordered to leave Texas
2. Bowles refused to leave
3. Lamar ordered General Douglas to drive Cherokees out of TX….attacked Cherokees near Neches River
4. Bowles was killed
5. Cherokees forced into Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
c. What is the Council House Fight? What events occurred with the
Lamar opposed Comanches
TX military leaders met with Comanche leaders to discuss peace at Council House
Comanches supposed to bring any white hostages…only brought one girl
TX leaders wanted all hostages released; wouldn’t let Comanche leaders leave until hostages brought in
Comanches tried to leave anyway and fight broke out
7 Texans died but many Cherokee leaders died
d. What is the Battle of Plum Creek on August 11, 1840? What happened
during the battle?
Comanches were furious that their leaders had been killed
Killed remaining white hostages
Attacked towns of Linnville and Victoria…killed settlers
TX sent military force led by Felix Huston, Edward Burleson, and Ben McCulloch to stop raids
Comanches and Texas fought at Plum Creek
100 Comanches killed
Created very bad relationship between Texas and Comanches
3. Relations with Mexico (pages 245-246)
a. What was the result of Commodore Edwin Moore helping Yucatecan rebels fight against Mexico? Increased tensions between Texas and Mexico
b. How did issues with the boundary of Texas cause problems with New Mexico?
1. Lamar assumed that boundary of Rio Grande extended all the way up to Colorado…going through Santa Fe, NM
2. He thought this land and the people there would be part of Texas
3. People in Santa Fe did not want to be Texans
c. What did General Hugh McLeod try to do when Lamar sent 270 men to New Mexico? (Known as the Santa Fe Expedition)
To convince people in Santa Fe to become Texans
d. Was New Mexico willing to become part of Texas? no
e. Why did the Texans have to surrender to the Mexicans? Low on supplies; hostile territory
f. What happened to the men after they surrendered? Taken to prison
g. What was the result of the Santa Fe Expedition?
Wasted money Texas didn’t have; increased tensions with Mexico, and resulted in loss of life
4. A New Capital (pages 246-247)
a. Why did Lamar want to change the location of the capital of Texas?
Wanted capital to be more centrally located
b. Where was the new capital located? Along Colorado River near town of Waterloo
c. What is the name of the new capital of Texas? Austin
5. Education (pages 247-248)
a. What was President Lamar best known for? Contributions to public education
b. Why did Lamar believe in education? It would make Texas a great nation
c. What did the Texas Congress do? Set aside land for schools
1. How much land was set aside for public schools? 18,000
2. How much land was set aside for 2 universities? 220, 000
d. What is Lamar's nickname? Father of Education
6. Financial Difficulties (page 248)
a. Did Texas' financial situation get better or worse during Lamar's
b. What were redbacks? Money with red on them…used red ink
c. Did the value of the redbacks go up or down? down
d. What did Lamar spend money on when he was president?
Battles with Indians and Santa Fe Expedition
e. Did he have the money to spend? no
Public Debt: money a government owes
How much debt did Texas have at the end of his term? 7 million
7. Land Policy (page 248)
a. Why did Texas think giving land to people could help the state? Bring more people to Texas
b. How could giving land to people help pay off debt? More people=more tax money
c. How much land did the Texas government give away? 37 million acres
d. The population of Texas increased from 34,500 to
100,000 by the time Texas was annexed by the US.
e. Texas began using the empresarial system again during Lamar's presidency. Name 2 groups of people or men who settled in Texas and name where they settled.
1. WS Peters and Associates—Anglo settlement along Red River
2. Henri Castro—European settlement in South Texas
f. What was the purpose of the General Land Office? Record land titles and put land policy into effect
Section 3 Houston's Return Leads to Annexation
1. Sam Houston as President Again (page 250)
a. In 1841, why could Lamar not run for president again? Couldn’t serve 2 consecutive terms
b. Who was elected president for the 2nd time? (3rd president of Republic of Texas) Sam Houston
c. Who was elected vice president? Edward Burleson
d. How were politics in Texas starting to be divided? Supporters of Houston and supporters of Lamar
2. A Return to Houston's Policy (page 251)
a. What was the first thing that Houston did when he became president
again? Reduce government spending
b. How did Houston reduce the debt? Reduce army and eliminate navy
c. Did Houston want to restore peace with Mexico? yes
d. What did he order the Texas Navy commander, Edwin Moore, to do?
Return to Texas
List the things that Moore did and the results of his actions
Refused Houston’s orders and went to New Orleans to repair ships, etc
Houston deemed that Moore was a pirate and encouraged other nations to sink his ships
Moore finally came home and demanded a court martial
f. What did Houston do with the Navy? (court-martial=trial by military court)
Disbanded Navy; granted Moore a court martial
3. The Mier Expedition (page 251-252) Know Events of Mier Expedition
a. What did Mexican general Rafael Vasquez do on March 5, 1842? Took 700 Mexican soldiers and invaded San Antonio
b. On September 11, 1842, Mexican general Adrian Woll led 1400 Mexican soldiers into Texas He captured San Antonio and took 67 hostages.
c. What did Sam Houston do then to retaliate? Sent militia of 300 led by General Sumervell to persue Woll
d. Why did General Somervell stop at the Rio Grande? Didn’t think he had orders to cross into Mexico
e. Why were Somervell’s men upset? Wanted to fight; refused to leave without a fight
f. Who did they elect to lead them into Mexico? William S. Fisher
g. What did the Texans do once they got into Mexico? Went to town of Mier and demanded supplies
h. What is Mier? Small town in Mexico
i. While the Texans waited, what happened? Texans were captured and marched toward Mexico City
j. Even though some of the Texans escaped at Salado, what happened to the 176 Texans who were recaptured? Santa Anna ordered one out every 10 to be put to death and the others put into prison
k. What did Santa Anna order? See letter j
l. Explain how it was decided who would be killed? Drew beans…people who drew black bean shot by firing squad
m. What happened to the Texans? Those who weren’t killed were put into prison
Some died in prison; others were finally released in 1844
4. The Archives War (pages 252-253)
a. Why did Sam Houston NOT want to make Austin the capital of Texas?
Austin was too approachable and an easy target for Mexican raids and Indian attacks
b. Where did Sam Houston set up the headquarters of the government? Washington-on-the-Brazos
c. Where were the state archives still located? In Austin
Archives: public records, papers, documents
e. Why did the citizens of Austin refuse to let the archives be moved? Wanted Austin to remain the capital
f. What did Sam Houston do anyway? Sent some men to take the archives anyway
g. Who set off a cannon to alert the citizens of Austin that the archives were leaving Austin? Anglina Eberly
h. What happened then? Austin citizens chased the wagons and returned the archives to Austin
i. What happened to the archives? Stayed in Austin
5. Regulator-Moderator War (page 253)
a. What was going on in Harrison and Shelby Counties? Fueds between Texans
b. What had been happening in these counties since the days of the Neutral Ground Agreement? Still criminals and criminal activity…lawlessness
c. This feud became known as the Regulator-Moderator War.
d. Settlers who wanted to end the lawlessness were called Regulators.
e. What was wrong with their “regulating”? sometimes as violent as criminals
f. People who wanted to stop the excessive force used by the Regulators were called Moderators
g. What happened between the 2 groups? Feud developed
h. In August 1844, what did Sam Houston do? Sent 600 troops in to stop excessive use of violence
i. What was the result of Sam Houston’s actions? Fighting stopped but tension remained
6. Houston’s Efforts to Gain Annexation (page 254)
a. Sam Houston still wanted Texas to be annexed by the US
b. The 2 representatives to Washington DC were Isaac Van Zandt and
J Pickney Henderson
c. Who was now the president of the US? John Tyler
d. Who was John Tyler’s Secretary of State? John C. Calhoun
e. John Calhoun agreed to a treaty that would have
accepted TX as a territory of the US.
Did the Senate of the US approve the treaty? no
Were the Texans happy or upset about the outcome of the Senate vote?
Upset and disappointed
7. The Elections of 1844 (pages 254-255)
a. Who was elected President of the Republic of Texas in 1844? (4th president of Republic of Texas) Anson Jones
b. Was the annexation of Texas becoming an issue in presidential elections
in the US? yes
c. Did most US citizens want Texas to be a part of the US? yes
8. Texas Becomes a State (page 255)
Joint Resolution: formal ruling passed by both houses of legislature and intended to become a law
b. US Congress approved Texas becoming the 28th state of the US on what date?
Dec 29, 1845
c. Texas was under pressure, though. Mexico finally agreed to accept Texas as an independent nation only if Texas Congress rejected the annexation invitation and Texas stayed a Republic.
d. But, did members of the Texas Congress vote for annexation? yes
e. When was the new state constitution of Texas ratified (approved)? October 1845
f. President Jones announced that Texas was the 28th state of the US on February 19, 1846.