Chapter 11, Section 2 Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam (pp. 380-386)



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Chapter 11, Section 2 Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam (pp.380-386)



  1. After the death of Muhammad, who chose the next leader of the Muslim community?

  • A group of powerful leaders of the Muslim community

  1. What was the title of this leader? What did this title mean?

  • Caliph, which meant successor to the messenger of God.

  1. Who were the first four caliphs?

  1. What was the capital city under the first four caliphs?

  • Madinah.

  1. By 661 CE (when the 4th caliph died) how far had the Arab empire expanded?

  • The empire had spread to Persia, the rest of southwest Asia (the Fertile Crescent), and Egypt.

  1. What dynasty ruled the Arab empire after the first four caliphs?

  1. What was the capital of the Arab empire during the rule of this dynasty?

  • Damascus.

  1. How far did the Muslim Empire Expand under the Umayyads?

  1. Give three reasons why the Arabs were so successful in conquering other lands.

  • The Arabs were good on horseback and good with a sword so they were good warriors,

  • As Muslims, they were inspired by their religion (believed anyone who died in battle for Islam would go to paradise)

  • They let conquered people practice their own religion, and they had their own Arabic language.

  • (Added by Mrs. Ward) the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire were weak from fighting each other in a war for the previous 50 years.

  1. How did the Muslims regard Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians?

  • They called them “people of the book” and allowed them to practice their own religions.

  1. In what way were Muslims treated better than the non-Muslims?

  • Non- Muslims had to pay a special tax

  1. Who were the Sufis?

  • They were a group of people that spent their time praying and teaching Islam.

  1. How did Islam spread to Southeast Asia?

-Muslim merchants set up trade posts throughout southeast Asia, which helped spread Islam.

  1. What Southeast Asian country today has more Muslims than any nation in the world?

-Indonesia

  1. How did Islam spread to West African kingdoms?

  • Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara to trade there.

  1. What west African city become a leading center of Islam?

-Timbuktu

Struggles within Islam

  1. What issue split Muslims into two groups (a division that has lasted into present day)?

  • The issue of who should be the next caliph after Muhammad died.

  1. How did the Shiites and Sunnis differ? Be sure to include their beliefs about Ali, about all future caliphs, about the Umayyads, and about religious practices and customs.

  • The Shiites believed that Ali who was the son-in-law of Muhammad should succeed him and that all future caliphs should be his descendents. They did not agree that the Umayyads should be ruling in Damascus. The Sunnis accepted the Umayyad rule. Over time, the Shiites and Sunnis also developed different religious practices, traditions and customs.

  1. Why did the Umayyads lose power c. 750 CE?

  • The Umayyads angered the Persian Muslims because the Arab Muslims were getting special treatment.

  1. What dynasty followed the Ummayyads?

  • The Abbasids

  1. What was the capital of the empire under this dynasty? Where was the capital located?

  • Baghdad, near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

  1. Who were the Seljuk Turks and where did they come from?

  • They were nomads and great warriors that came from central Asia.

  1. When the Seljuk Turks first moved into the Arab empire, did the Abbasids employ them?

  • When they first arrived the Abbasids hired them as warriors.

  1. Explain how the Seljuk Turks took control of the Abbasid Empire. (Be sure to include the term “sultan” in your answer).

  • The Seljuks realized how weak the Abbasids were and decided to take power themselves. First, they took over much of what is now Iran and Turkey, and then they took over Baghdad. The Seljuks were satisfied to rule only the government and the army as the sultan, while the caliph remained as the religious ruler.

  1. Who conquered the Seljuk Turks in 1258 CE?

The Mongols

  1. Looking ahead to the “Later Muslim Empires,” without reading the whole section, what Muslim group finally conquered the city of Constantinople in 1493?


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