Chapter 11, Section 1 Guided Notes Industries and Cities Grow

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Chapter 11, Section 1 Guided Notes

  1. Industries and Cities Grow

    1. Development of industries in the South in a variety of fields, including TEXTILE, cigar, lumber and coal-, iron-, and steel-processing plants.

    2. Cotton is no longer the sole crop of the South—diversified to include GRAIN, tobacco and fruit crops.

      1. Smaller farms replaced the LARGE PLANTATIONS that were present before the Civil War.

    3. The growth of cities in the South was linked to development of RAILROADS. Cities such as Atlanta, Dallas and Nashville grew to rival older Southern cities.

    4. The South had to repair the damages of war while the North was able to grow its industries.

      1. Could not meet the necessary demands of the ‘three-legged stool’—natural resources, labor and investment.

        1. While natural resources were plentiful, LABOR AND CAPITAL WERE NOT.

      2. Lack of training available for workers—lower education standards.

      3. Lower wages pushed skilled workers to the North.

      4. Banks had suffered after the war, and could not meet financial demands of consumers. Most of the wealth in the South was concentrated in THE HANDS OF A FEW.

  2. Southern Farmers Face Hard Times

    1. The South’s reliance on cotton was because it was a CASH CROP. It was needed around the nation and world and could easily be sold for cash.

      1. During the war, though, EUROPE had found other suppliers of cotton. This lowered the price of cotton, and with the extra supply, pushed it even lower.

      2. The small insect the BOLL WEEVIL also threatened the cotton crop.

      3. By 1900, the problems associated with cotton dominated the South again.

    2. Farmers in the South soon joined together to create a FARMER’S ALLIANCE, advocating for lower prices of supplies.

  3. Black Southerners Gain and Lose

    1. Rights granted to African Americans by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments had been stripped down due to SUPREME COURT RULINGS.

    2. Some African Americans gained access into politics, and the Farmer’s Alliance demonstrated how the races could get along to accomplish similar goals.

      1. Biggest gain after the Civil War was ACCESS TO PUBLIC EDUCATION.

    3. Even though Congress passed the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875, guaranteeing access to public facilities (including trains) to African Americans, the Supreme Court once again stripped down this law by making it a local, not federal, decision.

Chapter 11, Section 2 Guided Notes

  1. Cultures Under Pressure

    1. 250,000 Native Americans lived just west of the MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Though Americans viewed them all as ‘Indians’, they represented many diverse cultures.

      1. However, all shared an idea of unity with nature. It was over this issue that Native Americans and whites often clashed over.

    2. In the 1850s, the discovery of gold and silver created a desire to develop RAILROADS that stretched across Indian Territory.

      1. By the 1860s, the American government had restricted habitation to separate RESERVATIONS-- specific areas set aside for Native American use.

    3. White settlers further decimated Native American populations by introducing diseases and killing the BUFFALO HERDS that Native Americans relied heavily upon.

  2. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash

    1. In Minnesota, Sioux Indians clashed with white settlers and the federal government responded with force, pushing them back into the Dakotas.

      1. One incident in 1864 involved a Colorado militia attacking CHEYENNE and Arapaho Indians who were under U.S. Army protection. The SAND CREEK MASSACRE caused retaliation by Plains Indians.

    2. When the federal government wanted to build a railroad in Montana, Native Americans retaliated led by warrior Red Cloud.

      1. Public outcry led the government to form the INDIAN PEACE COMMITTEE, but it was a misnomer—they believed peace would only happen when Native Americans settled on farms and ADJUSTED TO WHITE CULTURE.

  3. The End of the Indian Wars

    1. Red River War

      1. Government violated Treaty of Medicine Lodge—whites hunted buffalo, FED. GOV DID NOT PROVIDE FOOD AND SUPPLIES and there was no punishment for whites.

      2. Ended June 1875 when the last Comanche ended their holdout.

    2. Battle of Little Big Horn

      1. GOLD drew white settlers into the northern Plains. The Sioux, led by Crazy Horse and SITTING BULL confronted American troops in June, 1876.

        1. The first portion of troops they encountered were led by George Custer; the BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN ensued, leaving Custer and his men dead.

    3. The Nez Perces had established themselves as horse and cattle breeders and were being moved off their land for white settlers. Their leader was CHIEF JOSEPH.

      1. Chief Joseph was a spoken leader of his tribe in Washington, D.C.

    4. The American government sought to stop the religious revival of the Native American Ghost Dance by arresting SITTING BULL. A confrontation ensued and he died, leading to more hostility.

      1. In South Dakota, the BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE left 100 men, women and children dead.

  4. The Government Promotes Assimilation

    1. Reservation policy of the United States was a failure. Push for ASSIMMILATION rested on the extinction of the buffalo—with this limited food source gone, some believed the Native Americans would begin to accept white culture.

    2. Congress had already stated in 1871 that they would not “recognize any Indian nation or tribe as an independent nation”.

      1. However, in response to the efforts of REFORMERS, Congress passed the DAWES ACT in 1887.

      2. Stipulated that each Native American family would be given 160 ACRES. The Act protected the land by stating that it could not change hands for 25 YEARS.

    3. Missionaries and reformers established BOARDING SCHOOLS to speed assimilation of Native Americans, especially children.

      1. This allowed the younger generation to learn to live the rules and culture of white America.

    4. Tens of thousands of Native Americans died fighting over LAND RIGHTS, leaving few to carry on the traditions of the tribes.

Concept Questions:

  1. What factors limited southern economic recovery? LACK OF LABORERS AND INVESTMENT CAPITAL.

  2. Why did southern farmers face hard times? COTTON PRICES DROP; BOLL WEEVIL DECIMATES CROPS



  5. Why did tensions exist between settlers and Indians? DIFFERENCES IN CULTURE

  6. What rebellions ended major Native American resistance? LITTLE BIG HORN, RED RIVER BATTLE, BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE.

  7. How did the Dawes Act change the way that Native Americans were treated? GAVE THEM ACCESS TO LAND THAT COULD NOT BE TAKEN; ENCOURAGED FARMING BY YOUNG NATIVE AMERICANS.

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