Development of industries in the South in a variety of fields, including TEXTILE, cigar, lumber and coal-, iron-, and steel-processing plants.
Cotton is no longer the sole crop of the South—diversified to include GRAIN, tobacco and fruit crops.
Smaller farms replaced the LARGE PLANTATIONS that were present before the Civil War.
The growth of cities in the South was linked to development of RAILROADS. Cities such as Atlanta, Dallas and Nashville grew to rival older Southern cities.
The South had to repair the damages of war while the North was able to grow its industries.
Could not meet the necessary demands of the ‘three-legged stool’—natural resources, labor and investment.
While natural resources were plentiful, LABOR AND CAPITAL WERE NOT.
Lack of training available for workers—lower education standards.
Lower wages pushed skilled workers to the North.
Banks had suffered after the war, and could not meet financial demands of consumers. Most of the wealth in the South was concentrated in THE HANDS OF A FEW.
Southern Farmers Face Hard Times
The South’s reliance on cotton was because it was a CASH CROP. It was needed around the nation and world and could easily be sold for cash.
During the war, though, EUROPE had found other suppliers of cotton. This lowered the price of cotton, and with the extra supply, pushed it even lower.
The small insect the BOLL WEEVIL also threatened the cotton crop.
By 1900, the problems associated with cotton dominated the South again.
Farmers in the South soon joined together to create a FARMER’S ALLIANCE, advocating for lower prices of supplies.
Black Southerners Gain and Lose
Rights granted to African Americans by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments had been stripped down due to SUPREME COURT RULINGS.
Some African Americans gained access into politics, and the Farmer’s Alliance demonstrated how the races could get along to accomplish similar goals.
Biggest gain after the Civil War was ACCESS TO PUBLIC EDUCATION.
Even though Congress passed the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875, guaranteeing access to public facilities (including trains) to African Americans, the Supreme Court once again stripped down this law by making it a local, not federal, decision.
Chapter 11, Section 2 Guided Notes
Cultures Under Pressure
250,000 Native Americans lived just west of the MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Though Americans viewed them all as ‘Indians’, they represented many diverse cultures.
However, all shared an idea of unity with nature. It was over this issue that Native Americans and whites often clashed over.
In the 1850s, the discovery of gold and silver created a desire to develop RAILROADS that stretched across Indian Territory.
By the 1860s, the American government had restricted habitation to separate RESERVATIONS-- specific areas set aside for Native American use.
White settlers further decimated Native American populations by introducing diseases and killing the BUFFALO HERDS that Native Americans relied heavily upon.
Government violated Treaty of Medicine Lodge—whites hunted buffalo, FED. GOV DID NOT PROVIDE FOOD AND SUPPLIES and there was no punishment for whites.
Ended June 1875 when the last Comanche ended their holdout.
Battle of Little Big Horn
GOLD drew white settlers into the northern Plains. The Sioux, led by Crazy Horse and SITTING BULL confronted American troops in June, 1876.
The first portion of troops they encountered were led by George Custer; the BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN ensued, leaving Custer and his men dead.
The Nez Perces had established themselves as horse and cattle breeders and were being moved off their land for white settlers. Their leader was CHIEF JOSEPH.
Chief Joseph was a spoken leader of his tribe in Washington, D.C.
The American government sought to stop the religious revival of the Native American Ghost Dance by arresting SITTING BULL. A confrontation ensued and he died, leading to more hostility.
In South Dakota, the BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE left 100 men, women and children dead.
The Government Promotes Assimilation
Reservation policy of the United States was a failure. Push for ASSIMMILATION rested on the extinction of the buffalo—with this limited food source gone, some believed the Native Americans would begin to accept white culture.
Congress had already stated in 1871 that they would not “recognize any Indian nation or tribe as an independent nation”.